23 Works

Recent science and engineering graduates, 1976

Data from: Combined genetic and telemetry data reveal high rates of gene flow, migration, and long-distance dispersal potential in Arctic ringed seals (Pusa hispida)

Micaela E. Martinez-Bakker, Stephanie K. Sell, Bradley J. Swanson, Brendan P. Kelly & David A. Tallmon
Ringed seals (Pusa hispida) are broadly distributed in seasonally ice covered seas, and their survival and reproductive success is intricately linked to sea ice and snow. Climatic warming is diminishing Arctic snow and sea ice and threatens to endanger ringed seals in the foreseeable future. We investigated the population structure and connectedness within and among three subspecies: Arctic (P. hispida hispida), Baltic (P. hispida botnica), and Lake Saimaa (P. hispida saimensis) ringed seals to assess...

The Survey of Recent Science and Engineering Graduates, 1979

Abundance Analysis of Tabby’s Star (KIC 8462852)

Stacey Thomas, Cintia Fernanda Martinez, Katia Cunha & Verne V. Smith

Data from: Allopolyploidy, diversification, and the Miocene grassland expansion

Matt C. Estep, Michael R. McKain, Dilys Vela Diaz, Jinshun Zhong, John G. Hodge, Trevor R. Hodkinson, Daniel J. Layton, Simon T. Malcomber, Rémy Pasquet & Elizabeth A. Kellogg
The role of polyploidy, particularly allopolyploidy, in plant diversification is a subject of debate. Whole-genome duplications precede the origins of many major clades (e.g., angiosperms, Brassicaceae, Poaceae), suggesting that polyploidy drives diversification. However, theoretical arguments and empirical studies suggest that polyploid lineages may actually have lower speciation rates and higher extinction rates than diploid lineages. We focus here on the grass tribe Andropogoneae, an economically and ecologically important group of C4 species with a high...

Data from: Experimental evidence does not support the Habitat Amount Hypothesis

Nick M. Haddad, Andrew Gonzalez, Lars A. Brudvig, Melissa A. Burt, Douglas J. Levey & Ellen I. Damschen
For a half century, habitat configuration – the arrangement of habitat patches within a landscape – has been central to theories of landscape ecology, population dynamics, and community assembly, in addition to conservation strategies. A recent hypothesis advanced by Fahrig (2013) would, if supported, greatly diminish the relevance of habitat configuration as a predictor of diversity. The Habitat Amount Hypothesis posits that the sample area effect overrides patch size and patch isolation effects of habitat...

Data from: When condition trumps location: seed consumption by fruit-eating birds removes pathogens and predator attractants

Evan C. Fricke, Melissa J. Simon, Karen M. Reagan, Douglas J. Levey, Jeffrey A. Riffell, Tomás A. Carlo & Joshua J. Tewksbury
Seed ingestion by frugivorous vertebrates commonly benefits plants by moving seeds to locations with fewer predators and pathogens than under the parent. For plants with high local population densities, however, movement from the parent plant is unlikely to result in ‘escape’ from predators and pathogens. Changes to seed condition caused by gut passage may also provide benefits, yet are rarely evaluated as an alternative. Here, we use a common bird-dispersed chilli pepper (Capsicum chacoense) to...

Causal Evidence for Lateral Prefrontal Cortex Dynamics Supporting Cognitive Control

Derek Nee & Mark D'Esposito
The lateral prefrontal cortex (LPFC) is essential for higher-level cognition, but how its interactions support cognitive control remains elusive. Previously (Nee and D'Esposito, 2016), dynamic causal modeling (DCM) indicated that mid LPFC integrates abstract, rostral and concrete, caudal influences to inform context-appropriate action. Here, we use continuous theta-burst transcranial magnetic stimulation (cTBS) to causally test this model. cTBS was applied to three LPFC sites and a control site in counterbalanced sessions. Behavioral modulations resulting from...

Digitizing Grey Literature from the Antarctic Bibliography Collection

Tina Gheen & Sue Olmsted
In 1962 the National Science Foundation (NSF) created a clearinghouse for Antarctic information intended to foster the global, free exchange of data and publications between scientists and researchers. With funding from NSF, the Library of Congress began assembling the Antarctic Bibliography in 1963, and full-text of the items listed in the bibliography was later captured on microfiche for preservation. The Antarctic Bibliography primarily consists of journal articles, monographs, technical reports and conference proceedings collected by...

Data from: Phylogenetic diversity is a better measure of biodiversity than taxon counting

Joseph T. Miller, Garry Jolley-Rogers, Brent D. Mishler & Andrew H. Thornhill
Biodiversity is most commonly measured in taxonomic richness. For example, it is common to describe how diverse a genus or a geographic area is by counting the number of species within them. Phylogenetic diversity (PD), a measurement of the branch lengths in a phylogenetic tree, is a better measure of biodiversity that provides a comparable, evolutionary measure of biodiversity not possible with species counts. Despite its advantages, PD is rarely used as the primary measure...

Insect herbivory for Catula gettyi, a late Cretaceous laurel from Utah, USA

S. Augusta Maccracken
The Upper Cretaceous (Campanian Stage) Kaiparowits Formation of southern Utah, USA, preserves abundant plant, invertebrate, and vertebrate fossil taxa. Taken together, these fossils indicate that the ecosystems preserved in the Kaiparowits Formation were characterized by high biodiversity. Hundreds of vertebrate and invertebrate species and over 80 plant morphotypes are recognized from the formation, but insects and their associations with plants are largely undocumented. Here, we describe a new fossil leaf taxon, Catula gettyi gen et....

Buzzards Bay Water Quality Data from the Buzzards Bay Coalition’s Baywatchers Program Overview

Rachel W. Jakuba, Tony Williams, Christopher Neill, Joseph Costa, Richard McHorney, Lindsay Scott, Brian L. Howes, Hugh Ducklow, Matthew Erickson & Mark Rasmussen

The Survey of Recent Science and Engineering Graduates, 1980

Survey of Natural and Social Scientists and Engineers, 1972-1978

Data from: Landscape heterogeneity is key to forecasting outcomes of plant reintroduction

T. Trevor Caughlin, Ellen I. Damschen, Nick M. Haddad, Douglas J. Levey, Christopher Warneke & Lars A. Brudvig
Conservation and restoration projects often involve starting new populations by introducing individuals into portions of their native or projected range. Such efforts can help meet many related goals, including habitat creation, ecosystem service provisioning, assisted migration, and the reintroduction of imperiled species following local extirpation. The outcomes of reintroduction efforts, however, are highly variable, with results ranging from local extinction to dramatic population growth; reasons for this variation remain unclear. Here, we ask whether population...

Data from: The genetics of phenotypic plasticity. XII. Temporal and spatial heterogeneity

Samuel M. Scheiner
In order to understand empirical patterns of phenotypic plasticity, we need to explore the complexities of environmental heterogeneity and how it interacts with cue reliability. I consider both temporal and spatial variation separately and in combination, the timing of temporal variation relative to development , the timing of movement relative to selection, and two different patterns of movement: stepping-stone and island. Among-generation temporal heterogeneity favors plasticity, while within-generation heterogeneity can result in cue unreliability. In...

Morphological and molecular evidence support elevating Erythroxylum macrophyllum var. savannarum (Erythroxylaceae) to specific status

Dawson White
Erythroxylum macrophyllum is a morphologically variable and widely distributed species complex in Central and South America with several sub-specific taxa and numerous species included in its synonymy. A single variety grows in the Colombo-Venezuelan savanna region which can be distinguished from the rest of the E. macrophyllum complex by the size of leaves, cataphyll and stipule characteristics, and shape of calyx lobes. A molecular phylogeny reconstructed from 519 nuclear genes also reveals that the savanna...

Survey of Recent Science and Engineering Graduates, 1978

Southern Sierra Critical Zone Observatory (SSCZO), Providence Creek meteorological data, soil moisture and temperature, snow depth and air temperature

Roger Bales, Matt Meadows, Erin Stacy, Martha Conklin, Xiande Meng & SSCZO Southern Sierra Critical Zone Observatory
Snow depth, soil moisture and soil temperature are measured at lower Providence South facing (LowMetS) and North facing (LowMetN), Upper Providence South facing (UpMetS), North facing (UpMetN) and Flat aspect (UpMetF), and Subcatchment basin P301 (P301) with a wireless sensor network, using a Campbell Scientific logger to control peripheral devices. Snow depth is measured in the open, at the drip edge and under canopies. Soil moisture and temperature are measured at 10, 30, 60 and...

Data from: History matters more when explaining genetic diversity within the context of the core-periphery hypothesis

Sarah I. Duncan, Erica J. Crespi, Nichole M. Mattheus & Leslie J. Rissler
The core–periphery hypothesis (CPH) predicts that populations located at the periphery of a species' range should have lower levels of genetic variation than those at the centre of the range. However, most of the research on the CPH focuses on geographic distance and not on ecological distance, or uses categorical definitions of core and periphery to explain the distribution of genetic diversity. We use current climate data and historical climate data from the last glacial...

Data from: A new subfamily classification of the Leguminosae based on a taxonomically comprehensive phylogeny

, Anne Bruneau, Nasim Azani, Marielle Babineau, Edeline Gagnon, Carole Sinou, Royce Steeves, Erin Zimmerman, C. Donovan Bailey, Lynsey Kovar, Madhugiri Nageswara-Rao, Hannah Banks, RuthP. Clark, Manuel De La Estrella, Peter Gasson, GeoffreyC. Kite, BenteB. Klitgaard, GwilymP. Lewis, Danilo Neves, Gerhard Prenner, María De Lourdes Rico-Arce, ArianeR. Barbosa, Maria Cristina López-Roberts, Luciano Paganucci De Queiroz, PétalaG. Ribeiro … & Tingshuang Yi
The classification of the legume family proposed here addresses the long-known non-monophyly of the traditionally recognised subfamily Caesalpinioideae, by recognising six robustly supported monophyletic subfamilies. This new classification uses as its framework the most comprehensive phylogenetic analyses of legumes to date, based on plastid matK gene sequences, and including near-complete sampling of genera (698 of the currently recognised 765 genera) and ca. 20% (3696) of known species. The matK gene region has been the most...

Data from: Evolutionary history shapes patterns of mutualistic benefit in Acacia-rhizobial interactions

Luke Barrett, Peter Zee, James D. Bever, Joseph T. Miller, Peter Thrall, Luke G. Barrett & Peter H. Thrall
The ecological and evolutionary factors that drive the emergence and maintenance of variation in mutualistic benefit (i.e. the benefits provided by one partner to another) in mutualistic symbioses are not well understood. In this study we evaluated the role that host and symbiont phylogeny might play in determining patterns of mutualistic benefit (host response) for interactions among nine species of Acacia and 31 strains of nitrogen-fixing rhizobial bacteria. Using phylogenetic comparative methods we compared patterns...

Data from: Developmental instability is genetically correlated with phenotypic plasticity, constraining heritability, and fitness

Stephen J. Tonsor, Tarek W. Elnaccash & Samuel M. Scheiner
Although adaptive plasticity would seem always to be favored by selection, it occurs less often than expected. This lack of ubiquity suggests that there must be trade-offs, costs, or limitations associated with plasticity. Yet, few costs have been found. We explore one type of limitation, a correlation between plasticity and developmental instability, and use quantitative genetic theory to show why one should expect a genetic correlation. We test that hypothesis using the Landsberg erecta ×...

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