72 Works

Fragmentology 2 (2019): Index of Manuscripts

William Duba
Index manuscriptorum for Fragmentology 2 (2019).

Data from: Ecological and genetic factors influencing the transition between host-use strategies in sympatric Heliconius butterflies

Richard M. Merrill, Russell E. Naisbit, James Mallet & Chris D. Jiggins
Shifts in host-plant use by phytophagous insects have played a central role in their diversification. Evolving host-use strategies will reflect a trade-off between selection pressures. The ecological niche of herbivorous insects is partitioned along several dimensions, and if populations remain in contact, recombination will break down associations between relevant loci. As such, genetic architecture can profoundly affect the coordinated divergence of traits and subsequently the ability to exploit novel habitats. The closely related species Heliconius...

Data from: Hybridization as a threat in climate relict Nuphar pumila (Nymphaeaceae)

Nils Arrigo, Sébastien Bétrisey, Larissa Graff, Julia Bilat, Emmanuel Gerber & Gregor Kozlowski
Field studies and conceptual work on hybridization-mediated extinction risk in climate relicts are extremely rare. Nuphar pumila (Nymphaeaceae) is one of the most emblematic climate relicts in Europe with few isolated populations in the Alpine arc. The extent of introgression with related lowland and generalist species Nuphar lutea has never been studied using molecular methods. All biogeographical regions where N. pumila naturally occurs in the neighbourhood of the Alpine arc were sampled and studied using...

Data from: Nested species interactions promote feasibility over stability during the assembly of a pollinator community

Serguei Saavedra, Rudolf P. Rohr, Jens M. Olesen & Jordi Bascompte
The foundational concepts behind the persistence of ecological communities have been based on two ecological properties: dynamical stability and feasibility. The former is typically regarded as the capacity of a community to return to an original equilibrium state after a perturbation in species abundances and is usually linked to the strength of interspecific interactions. The latter is the capacity to sustain positive abundances on all its constituent species and is linked to both interspecific interactions...

Distinct genomic signals of lifespan and life history evolution in response to postponed reproduction and larval diet in Drosophila

Katja Hoedjes, Joost Van Den Heuvel, Martin Kapun, Laurent Keller, Thomas Flatt & Bas Zwaan
Reproduction and diet are two major factors controlling the physiology of aging and life history, but how they interact to affect the evolution of longevity is unknown. Moreover, while studies of large-effect mutants suggest an important role of nutrient sensing pathways in regulating aging, the genetic basis of evolutionary changes in lifespan remains poorly understood. To address these questions, we analyzed the genomes of experimentally evolved Drosophila melanogaster populations subjected to a factorial combination of...

Data from: A small podocnemidoid (Pleurodira, Pelomedusoides) from the Late Cretaceous of Brazil, and the innervation and carotid circulation of side-necked turtles

Guilheme Hermanson, Fabiano V. Iori, Serjoscha W. Evers, Max C. Langer & Gabriel S. Ferreira
Pleurodires are less specious than cryptodires, together forming the two major lineages of crown-turtles. Their fossil record, however, is rich. A particularly large number of fossil pleurodires, many belonging to Podocnemidoidae, has been recovered from the Late Cretaceous Bauru Group outcrops in south-central Brazil. Here we describe an additional pleurodire from this region, Amabilis uchoensis gen. et sp. nov., based on a partially preserved skull. A. uchoensis is recognized as a Podocnemidoidae by its small...

The effects of temperature and dispersal on species diversity in natural microbial metacommunities

Elodie C. Parain, Sarah M. Gray & Louis-Félix Bersier
Dispersal is key for maintaining biodiversity at local- and regional scales in metacommunities. However, little is known about the combined effects of dispersal and climate change on biodiversity. Theory predicts that alpha-diversity is maximized at intermediate dispersal rates, resulting in a hump-shaped diversity-dispersal relationship. This relationship is predicted to flatten when competition increases. We anticipate that this same flattening will occur with increased temperature because, in the rising part of the temperature performance curve, interspecific...

Data from: Calibration uncertainty in molecular dating analyses: there is no substitute for the prior evaluation of time priors

Rachel C. M. Warnock, James F. Parham, Walter G. Joyce, Tyler R. Lyson & Philip C. J. Donoghue
Calibration is the rate-determining step in every molecular clock analysis and, hence, considerable effort has been expended in the development of approaches to distinguish good from bad calibrations. These can be categorized into a priori evaluation of the intrinsic fossil evidence, and a posteriori evaluation of congruence through cross-validation. We contrasted these competing approaches and explored the impact of different interpretations of the fossil evidence upon Bayesian divergence time estimation. The results demonstrate that a...

Data from: Local adaptation of sex-induction in a facultative sexual crustacean: insights from QTL mapping and natural population of Daphnia magna

Anne C. Roulin, Jarko Routtu, Matthew D. Hall, Tim Janicke, Isabelle Colson, Christoph R. Haag, Dieter Ebert & Jarkko Routtu
Dormancy is a common adaptation in invertebrates to survive harsh conditions. Triggered by environmental cues, populations produce resting eggs that allow them to survive temporally unsuitable conditions. Daphnia magna is a crustacean that reproduces by cyclical parthenogenesis, alternating between the production of asexual offspring and the sexual reproduction of diapausing eggs (ephippia). Prior to ephippia production, males (necessary to ensure ephippia fertilization) are produced parthenogenetically. Both the production of ephippia and the parthenogenetic production of...

Data from: An inversion supergene in Drosophila underpins latitudinal clines in survival traits

Esra Durmaz, Clare Benson, Martin Kapun, Paul Schmidt & Thomas Flatt
Chromosomal inversions often contribute to local adaptation across latitudinal clines, but the underlying selective mechanisms remain poorly understood. We and others have previously shown that a clinal inversion polymorphism in Drosophila melanogaster, In(3R)Payne, underpins body size clines along the North American and Australian east coasts. Here we ask whether this polymorphism also contributes to clinal variation in other fitness-related traits, namely survival traits (lifespan, survival upon starvation, and survival upon cold shock). We generated homokaryon...

Data from: A dedicated target capture approach reveals variable genetic markers across micro- and macro-evolutionary time scales in palms

Marylaure De La Harpe, Jaqueline Hess, Oriane Loiseau, Nicolas Salamin, Christian Lexer & Margot Paris
Understanding the genetics of biological diversification across micro- and macro-evolutionary time scales is a vibrant field of research for molecular ecologists as rapid advances in sequencing technologies promise to overcome former limitations. In palms, an emblematic, economically and ecologically important plant family with high diversity in the tropics, studies of diversification at the population and species levels are still hampered by a lack of genomic markers suitable for the genotyping of large numbers of recently...

Data from: Admixture mapping of quantitative traits in Populus hybrid zones: power and limitations

Dorothea Lindtke, Santiago C. González-Martínez, David Macaya-Sanz & Christian Lexer
Uncovering the genetic architecture of species differences is of central importance for understanding the origin and maintenance of biological diversity. Admixture mapping can be used to identify the number and effect sizes of genes that contribute to the divergence of ecologically important traits, even in taxa that are not amenable to laboratory crosses due to their long generation time or other limitations. Here, we apply admixture mapping to naturally occurring hybrids between two ecologically divergent...

Data from: Demographic history of a recent invasion of house mice on the isolated Island of Gough

Melissa M. Gray, Daniel Wegmann, Ryan J. Haasl, Michael A. White, Sofia I. Gabriel, Jeremy B. Searle, Richard J. Cuthbert, Peter G. Ryan & Bret A. Payseur
Island populations provide natural laboratories for studying key contributors to evolutionary change, including natural selection, population size, and the colonization of new environments. The demographic histories of island populations can be reconstructed from patterns of genetic diversity. House mice (Mus musculus) inhabit islands throughout the globe, making them an attractive system for studying island colonization from a genetic perspective. Gough Island, in the central South Atlantic Ocean, is one of the remotest islands in the...

Data from: Why are some plant-pollinator networks more nested than others?

Chuliang Song, Rudolf P. Rohr & Serguei Saavedra
1. Empirical studies have found that the mutualistic interactions forming the structure of plant-pollinator networks are typically more nested than expected by chance alone. Additionally, theoretical studies have shown a positive association between the nested structure of mutualistic networks and community persistence. Yet, it has been shown that some plant-pollinator networks may be more nested than others, raising the interesting question of which factors are responsible for such enhanced nested structure. 2. It has been...

Data from: A new species of trionychid turtle from the Upper Cretaceous (Campanian) Fruitland Formation of New Mexico, U.S.A.

Walter G Joyce, Tyler R. Lyson & Joseph J.W. Sertich
New shell material of a trionychid turtle from the Upper Cretaceous (upper Campanian) Fossil Forest Member of the Fruitland Formation of northwestern New Mexico represents a new species, Gilmoremys gettyspherensis. The material consists of right costals I–III, V, VI, and VIII, left costals V, VII, and VIII, the left half of the entoplastron, the right hypo- and xiphiplastron, and the left hyo-, hypo-, and xiphiplastron. The specimen shows great similarities with the Late Cretaceous (Maastrichtian)...

Effects of cold or warm ischemia and ex-vivo lung perfusion on the release of damage associated molecular patterns and inflammatory cytokines in experimental lung transplantation

Roumen Parapanov, Arpad Hasenauer, Benoit Bedat, Jérôme Lugrin, Anne Debonneville, Etienne Abdelnour, Michel Gonzalez, Jean Perentes, Lise Piquilloud, Csaba Szabo, Thorsten Krueger & Lucas Liaudet
Lung transplantation (LTx) is associated with sterile inflammation, possibly related to the release of damage associated molecular patterns (DAMPs) by injured allograft cells. We have measured cellular damage and the release of DAMPs and cytokines in an experimental model of LTx after cold or warm ischemia and examined the effect of pretreatment with ex-vivo lung perfusion (EVLP).

Data from: The effect of top-predator presence and phenotype on aquatic microbial communities

Karen E. Sullam, Blake Matthews, Thierry Aebischer, Ole Seehausen & Helmut Bürgmann
The presence of predators can impact a variety of organisms within the ecosystem, including microorganisms. Because the effects of fish predators and their phenotypic differences on microbial communities have not received much attention, we tested how the presence/absence, genotype, and plasticity of the predatory three-spine stickleback (Gasterosteus aculeatus) influence aquatic microbes in outdoor mesocosms. We reared lake and stream stickleback genotypes on contrasting food resources to adulthood, and then added them to aquatic mesocosm ecosystems...

Data from: The relative contribution of species richness and species composition to ecosystem functioning

Nadine Sandau, Yvonne Fabian, Odile T. Bruggisse, Rudolf P. Rohr, Russell E. Naisbit, Patrik Kehrli, Alexandre Aebi, Louis-Félix Bersier & Odile T. Bruggisser
The influence of species diversity on ecosystem functioning has been the subject of many experiments and remains a key question for ecology and conservation biology. However, the fact that diversity cannot be manipulated without affecting species composition makes this quest methodologically challenging. We used partial Mantel tests to evaluate the relative importance of diversity and of composition on biomass production. Here, we applied partial Mantel tests (controlling for the other variable) on two datasets, the...

Data from: Genetic estimates of population age in the water flea, Daphnia magna

John D. Robinson, Christoph R. Haag, David W. Hall, V. Pajunen & John P. Wares
Genetic datasets can be used to date evolutionary events, even on recent time scales if sufficient data are available. We used statistics calculated from multilocus microsatellite datasets to estimate population ages in data generated through coalescent simulations and in samples from populations of known age in a metapopulation of Daphnia magna in Finland. Our simulation results show that age estimates improve with additional loci and define a time frame over which these statistics are most...

Data from: The response of the alpine dwarf shrub Salix herbacea to altered snowmelt timing: lessons from a multi-site transplant experiment

Janosch Sedlacek, Julia A. Wheeler, Andrés J. Cortés, Oliver Bossdorf, Guenter Hoch, Christian Lexer, Sonja Wipf, Sophie Karrenberg, Mark Van Kleunen & Christian Rixen
Climate change is altering spring snowmelt patterns in alpine and arctic ecosystems, and these changes may alter plant phenology, growth and reproduction. To predict how alpine plants respond to shifts in snowmelt timing, we need to understand trait plasticity, its effects on growth and reproduction, and the degree to which plants experience a home-site advantage. We tested how the common, long-lived dwarf shrub Salix herbacea responded to changing spring snowmelt time by reciprocally transplanting turfs...

Data from: Reduced lifespan and increased ageing driven by genetic drift in small populations

Jennifer N. Lohr, Patrice David & Christoph R. Haag
Explaining the strong variation in lifespan among organisms remains a major challenge in evolutionary biology. Whereas previous work has concentrated mainly on differences in selection regimes and selection pressures, we hypothesize that differences in genetic drift may explain some of this variation. We develop a model to formalize this idea and show that the strong positive relationship between lifespan and genetic diversity predicted by this model indeed exists among populations of Daphnia magna, and that...

Data from: Causes and consequences of large clonal assemblies in a poplar hybrid zone

David Macaya-Sanz, Myriam Heuertz, Dorothea Lindtke, Giovanni G. Vendramin, Christian Lexer & Santiago C. Gonzalez-Martinez
Asexual reproduction is a common and fundamental mode of reproduction in plants. Although persistence in adverse conditions underlies most known cases of clonal dominance, proximal genetic drivers remain unclear, in particular for populations dominated by a few large clones. In this study, we studied a clonal population of the riparian tree Populus alba in the Douro river basin (northwestern Iberian Peninsula) where it hybridizes with Populus tremula, a species that grows in highly contrasted ecological...

Data from: The importance of landscape and spatial structure for hymenopteran-based food webs in an agro-ecosystem

Yvonne Fabian, Nadine Sandau, Odile T. Bruggisser, Alexandre Aebi, Patrik Kehrli, Rudolf P. Rohr, Russell E. Naisbit, Louis-Félix Bersier & Alex Aebi
1. Understanding the environmental factors that structure biodiversity and food webs among communities is central to assess and mitigate the impact of landscape changes. 2. Wildflower strips are ecological compensation areas established in farmland to increase pollination services and biological control of crop pests, and to conserve insect diversity. They are arranged in networks in order to favour high species richness and abundance of the fauna. 3. We describe results from experimental wildflower strips in...

Data from: Matching-centrality decomposition and the forecasting of new links in networks

Rudolf P. Rohr, Russell E. Naisbit, Christian Mazza & Louis-Felix Bersier
Networks play a prominent role in the study of complex systems of interacting entities in biology, sociology, and economics. Despite this diversity, we demonstrate here that a statistical model decomposing networks into matching and centrality components provides a comprehensive and unifying quantification of their architecture. The matching term quantifies the assortative structure in which node makes links with which other node, while the centrality term quantifies the number of links that nodes make. We show,...

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