76 Works

Data from: Increased temperature disrupts the biodiversity-ecosystem functioning relationship

Elodie C. Parain, Rudolf P. Rohr, Sarah M. Gray & Louis-Félix Bersier
Gaining knowledge of how ecosystems provide essential services to humans is of primary importance, especially with the current threat of climate change. Yet, little is known about how increased temperature will impact the biodiversity-ecosystem functioning (BEF) relationship. We tackled this subject theoretically and experimentally. We developed a BEF theory based on mechanistic population dynamic models, which allows the inclusion of the effect of temperature. Using experimentally established relationships between attack rate and temperature, the model...

Ancient mitogenomics clarifies radiation of extinct Mascarene giant tortoises (Cylindraspis spp.)

Christian Kehlmaier, Eva Graciá, Patrick D. Campbell, Margaretha D. Hofmeyr, Silke Schweiger, Albert Martínez-Silvestre, Walter Joyce & Uwe Fritz
The five extinct giant tortoises of the genus Cylindraspis belong to the most iconic species of the enigmatic fauna of the Mascarene Islands that went largely extinct after the discovery of the islands. To resolve the phylogeny and biogeography of Cylindraspis, we analysed a data set of 45 mitogenomes that includes all lineages of extant tortoises and eight near-complete sequences of all Mascarene species extracted from historic and subfossil material. Cylindraspis is an ancient lineage...

Data from: Cyclin dependent kinase 5 (CDK5) regulates the circadian clock

Andrea Brenna, Iwona Olejniczak, Rohit Chavan, Jürgen Ripperger, Sonja Langmesser, Elisabetta Cameroni, Zehan Hu, Claudio De Virgilio, Jörn Dengjel & Urs Albrecht
Circadian oscillations emerge from transcriptional and post-translational feedback loops. An important step in generating rhythmicity is the translocation of clock components into the nucleus, which is regulated in many cases by kinases. In mammals, the kinase promoting the nuclear import of the key clock component Period 2 (PER2) is unknown. We observed that the cyclin-dependent kinase 5 (CDK5) regulates the mammalian clock involving phosphorylation of PER2. Knock-down of Cdk5 in the suprachiasmatic nuclei (SCN), the...

Avant-propos Français parlés et français 'tout court'

Julie Rothenbühler, Maguelone Sauzet, Marie-Jose Beguelin & Gilles Corminboeuf

Data from: Comparative analysis of the shape and size of the middle ear cavity of turtles reveals no correlation with habitat ecology

Christian Foth, Serjoscha W. Evers, Walter G. Joyce, Virginie S. Volpato & Roger B. J. Benson
The middle ear of turtles differs from other reptiles in being separated into two distinct compartments. Several ideas have been proposed as to why the middle ear is compartmentalized in turtles, most suggesting a relationship with underwater hearing. Extant turtle species span fully marine to strictly terrestrial habitats, and ecomorphological hypotheses of turtle hearing predict that this should correlate with variation in the structure of the middle ear due to differences in the fluid properties...

Data from: Structural complexity and large-sized trees explain shifting species richness and carbon relationship across vegetation types

Sylvanus Mensah, Valere Salako & Thomas Seifert
1. It is prominently claimed that enhancing forest diversity would play a dual role of nature conservation and climate regulation. While the idea is intuitively appealing, studies show that species richness effects on aboveground carbon (AGC) are not always positive, but instead unpredictable especially across scales and complex terrestrial systems having large-diameter and tall-stature trees. Previous studies have further considered structural complexity and larger trees as determinants of AGC. Yet it remains unclear what drives...

Data from: Comparative transcriptomic analysis of the mechanisms underpinning ageing and fecundity in social insects

Judith Korb, Karen Meusemann, Denise Aumer, Abel Bernadou, Daniel Elsner, Barbara Feldmeyer, Susanne Foitzik, Jürgen Heinze, Romain Libbrecht, Silu Lin, Megha Majoe, José Manuel Monroy Kuhn, Volker Nehring, Matteo A. Negroni, Robert J. Paxton, Alice C. Séguret, Marah Stoldt & Thomas Flatt
Exceptional longevity of social insect queens despite their lifelong high fecundity remains poorly understood in ageing biology. To gain insights into the mechanisms that might underlie ageing in social insects, we compared gene expression patterns between young and old castes (both queens and workers) across different lineages of social insects (two termite, two bee and two ant species). After global analyses, we paid particular attention to genes of the insulin/insulin-like growth factor 1 signalling (IIS)/target...

Taxinomie des constructions en si dans un corpus de français oral L'exemple d'OFROM

Gilles Corminboeuf & Timon Jahn

Fossil-informed models reveal a Boreotropical origin and divergent evolutionary trajectories in the walnut family (Juglandaceae)

Qiuyue Zhang, Richard Ree, Nicolas Salamin, Yaowu Xing & Daniele Silvestro
Temperate woody plants in the Northern Hemisphere have long been known to exhibit high species richness in East Asia and North America and significantly lower diversity in Europe, but the causes of this pattern remain debated. Here, we quantify the roles of dispersal, niche evolution, and extinction in shaping the geographic diversity of the temperate woody plant family Juglandaceae (walnuts and their relatives). Integrating evidence from molecular, morphological, fossil, and (paleo)environmental data, we find strong...

Data from: Demographic history of a recent invasion of house mice on the isolated Island of Gough

Melissa M. Gray, Daniel Wegmann, Ryan J. Haasl, Michael A. White, Sofia I. Gabriel, Jeremy B. Searle, Richard J. Cuthbert, Peter G. Ryan & Bret A. Payseur
Island populations provide natural laboratories for studying key contributors to evolutionary change, including natural selection, population size, and the colonization of new environments. The demographic histories of island populations can be reconstructed from patterns of genetic diversity. House mice (Mus musculus) inhabit islands throughout the globe, making them an attractive system for studying island colonization from a genetic perspective. Gough Island, in the central South Atlantic Ocean, is one of the remotest islands in the...

Data from: Admixture mapping of quantitative traits in Populus hybrid zones: power and limitations

Dorothea Lindtke, Santiago C. González-Martínez, David Macaya-Sanz & Christian Lexer
Uncovering the genetic architecture of species differences is of central importance for understanding the origin and maintenance of biological diversity. Admixture mapping can be used to identify the number and effect sizes of genes that contribute to the divergence of ecologically important traits, even in taxa that are not amenable to laboratory crosses due to their long generation time or other limitations. Here, we apply admixture mapping to naturally occurring hybrids between two ecologically divergent...

Data from: Ecological and genetic factors influencing the transition between host-use strategies in sympatric Heliconius butterflies

Richard M. Merrill, Russell E. Naisbit, James Mallet & Chris D. Jiggins
Shifts in host-plant use by phytophagous insects have played a central role in their diversification. Evolving host-use strategies will reflect a trade-off between selection pressures. The ecological niche of herbivorous insects is partitioned along several dimensions, and if populations remain in contact, recombination will break down associations between relevant loci. As such, genetic architecture can profoundly affect the coordinated divergence of traits and subsequently the ability to exploit novel habitats. The closely related species Heliconius...

Data from: Nested species interactions promote feasibility over stability during the assembly of a pollinator community

Serguei Saavedra, Rudolf P. Rohr, Jens M. Olesen & Jordi Bascompte
The foundational concepts behind the persistence of ecological communities have been based on two ecological properties: dynamical stability and feasibility. The former is typically regarded as the capacity of a community to return to an original equilibrium state after a perturbation in species abundances and is usually linked to the strength of interspecific interactions. The latter is the capacity to sustain positive abundances on all its constituent species and is linked to both interspecific interactions...

Data from: Calibration uncertainty in molecular dating analyses: there is no substitute for the prior evaluation of time priors

Rachel C. M. Warnock, James F. Parham, Walter G. Joyce, Tyler R. Lyson & Philip C. J. Donoghue
Calibration is the rate-determining step in every molecular clock analysis and, hence, considerable effort has been expended in the development of approaches to distinguish good from bad calibrations. These can be categorized into a priori evaluation of the intrinsic fossil evidence, and a posteriori evaluation of congruence through cross-validation. We contrasted these competing approaches and explored the impact of different interpretations of the fossil evidence upon Bayesian divergence time estimation. The results demonstrate that a...

Data from: Local adaptation of sex-induction in a facultative sexual crustacean: insights from QTL mapping and natural population of Daphnia magna

Anne C. Roulin, Jarko Routtu, Matthew D. Hall, Tim Janicke, Isabelle Colson, Christoph R. Haag, Dieter Ebert & Jarkko Routtu
Dormancy is a common adaptation in invertebrates to survive harsh conditions. Triggered by environmental cues, populations produce resting eggs that allow them to survive temporally unsuitable conditions. Daphnia magna is a crustacean that reproduces by cyclical parthenogenesis, alternating between the production of asexual offspring and the sexual reproduction of diapausing eggs (ephippia). Prior to ephippia production, males (necessary to ensure ephippia fertilization) are produced parthenogenetically. Both the production of ephippia and the parthenogenetic production of...

Data from: An inversion supergene in Drosophila underpins latitudinal clines in survival traits

Esra Durmaz, Clare Benson, Martin Kapun, Paul Schmidt & Thomas Flatt
Chromosomal inversions often contribute to local adaptation across latitudinal clines, but the underlying selective mechanisms remain poorly understood. We and others have previously shown that a clinal inversion polymorphism in Drosophila melanogaster, In(3R)Payne, underpins body size clines along the North American and Australian east coasts. Here we ask whether this polymorphism also contributes to clinal variation in other fitness-related traits, namely survival traits (lifespan, survival upon starvation, and survival upon cold shock). We generated homokaryon...

Data from: A dedicated target capture approach reveals variable genetic markers across micro- and macro-evolutionary time scales in palms

Marylaure De La Harpe, Jaqueline Hess, Oriane Loiseau, Nicolas Salamin, Christian Lexer & Margot Paris
Understanding the genetics of biological diversification across micro- and macro-evolutionary time scales is a vibrant field of research for molecular ecologists as rapid advances in sequencing technologies promise to overcome former limitations. In palms, an emblematic, economically and ecologically important plant family with high diversity in the tropics, studies of diversification at the population and species levels are still hampered by a lack of genomic markers suitable for the genotyping of large numbers of recently...

Data from: Hybridization as a threat in climate relict Nuphar pumila (Nymphaeaceae)

Nils Arrigo, Sébastien Bétrisey, Larissa Graff, Julia Bilat, Emmanuel Gerber & Gregor Kozlowski
Field studies and conceptual work on hybridization-mediated extinction risk in climate relicts are extremely rare. Nuphar pumila (Nymphaeaceae) is one of the most emblematic climate relicts in Europe with few isolated populations in the Alpine arc. The extent of introgression with related lowland and generalist species Nuphar lutea has never been studied using molecular methods. All biogeographical regions where N. pumila naturally occurs in the neighbourhood of the Alpine arc were sampled and studied using...

Data from: Why are some plant-pollinator networks more nested than others?

Chuliang Song, Rudolf P. Rohr & Serguei Saavedra
1. Empirical studies have found that the mutualistic interactions forming the structure of plant-pollinator networks are typically more nested than expected by chance alone. Additionally, theoretical studies have shown a positive association between the nested structure of mutualistic networks and community persistence. Yet, it has been shown that some plant-pollinator networks may be more nested than others, raising the interesting question of which factors are responsible for such enhanced nested structure. 2. It has been...

Data from: A new species of trionychid turtle from the Upper Cretaceous (Campanian) Fruitland Formation of New Mexico, U.S.A.

Walter G Joyce, Tyler R. Lyson & Joseph J.W. Sertich
New shell material of a trionychid turtle from the Upper Cretaceous (upper Campanian) Fossil Forest Member of the Fruitland Formation of northwestern New Mexico represents a new species, Gilmoremys gettyspherensis. The material consists of right costals I–III, V, VI, and VIII, left costals V, VII, and VIII, the left half of the entoplastron, the right hypo- and xiphiplastron, and the left hyo-, hypo-, and xiphiplastron. The specimen shows great similarities with the Late Cretaceous (Maastrichtian)...

Data from: A small podocnemidoid (Pleurodira, Pelomedusoides) from the Late Cretaceous of Brazil, and the innervation and carotid circulation of side-necked turtles

Guilheme Hermanson, Fabiano V. Iori, Serjoscha W. Evers, Max C. Langer & Gabriel S. Ferreira
Pleurodires are less specious than cryptodires, together forming the two major lineages of crown-turtles. Their fossil record, however, is rich. A particularly large number of fossil pleurodires, many belonging to Podocnemidoidae, has been recovered from the Late Cretaceous Bauru Group outcrops in south-central Brazil. Here we describe an additional pleurodire from this region, Amabilis uchoensis gen. et sp. nov., based on a partially preserved skull. A. uchoensis is recognized as a Podocnemidoidae by its small...

Distinct genomic signals of lifespan and life history evolution in response to postponed reproduction and larval diet in Drosophila

Katja Hoedjes, Joost Van Den Heuvel, Martin Kapun, Laurent Keller, Thomas Flatt & Bas Zwaan
Reproduction and diet are two major factors controlling the physiology of aging and life history, but how they interact to affect the evolution of longevity is unknown. Moreover, while studies of large-effect mutants suggest an important role of nutrient sensing pathways in regulating aging, the genetic basis of evolutionary changes in lifespan remains poorly understood. To address these questions, we analyzed the genomes of experimentally evolved Drosophila melanogaster populations subjected to a factorial combination of...

The effects of temperature and dispersal on species diversity in natural microbial metacommunities

Elodie C. Parain, Sarah M. Gray & Louis-Félix Bersier
Dispersal is key for maintaining biodiversity at local- and regional scales in metacommunities. However, little is known about the combined effects of dispersal and climate change on biodiversity. Theory predicts that alpha-diversity is maximized at intermediate dispersal rates, resulting in a hump-shaped diversity-dispersal relationship. This relationship is predicted to flatten when competition increases. We anticipate that this same flattening will occur with increased temperature because, in the rising part of the temperature performance curve, interspecific...

Fragmentology 2 (2019): Index of Manuscripts

William Duba
Index manuscriptorum for Fragmentology 2 (2019).

Effects of cold or warm ischemia and ex-vivo lung perfusion on the release of damage associated molecular patterns and inflammatory cytokines in experimental lung transplantation

Roumen Parapanov, Arpad Hasenauer, Benoit Bedat, Jérôme Lugrin, Anne Debonneville, Etienne Abdelnour, Michel Gonzalez, Jean Perentes, Lise Piquilloud, Csaba Szabo, Thorsten Krueger & Lucas Liaudet
Lung transplantation (LTx) is associated with sterile inflammation, possibly related to the release of damage associated molecular patterns (DAMPs) by injured allograft cells. We have measured cellular damage and the release of DAMPs and cytokines in an experimental model of LTx after cold or warm ischemia and examined the effect of pretreatment with ex-vivo lung perfusion (EVLP).

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