10 Works

Data from: DNA metabarcoding reveals changes in the contents of carnivorous plants along an elevation gradient

Joanne E. Littlefair, Axel Zander, Clara De Sena Costa & Elizabeth L. Clare
Resource variation along abiotic gradients influences subsequent trophic interactions and these effects can be transmitted through entire food webs. Interactions along abiotic gradients can provide clues as to how organisms will face changing environmental conditions, such as future range shifts. However, it is challenging to find replicated systems to study these effects. Phytotelmata, such as those found in carnivorous plants, are isolated aquatic communities and thus form a good model for the study of replicated...

Data from: Evolution of longevity improves immunity in Drosophila

Daniel K. Fabian, Kathrin Garschall, Peter Klepsatel, Gonçalo Santos-Matos, Élio Sucena, Martin Kapun, Bruno Lemaitre, Robert Arking, Christian Schloetterer & Thomas Flatt
Much has been learned about the genetics of aging from studies in model organisms, but still little is known about naturally occurring alleles that contribute to variation in longevity. For example, analysis of mutants and transgenes has identified insulin signaling as a major regulator of longevity, yet whether standing variation in this pathway underlies microevolutionary changes in lifespan and correlated fitness traits remains largely unclear. Here we have analyzed the genomes of a set of...

Data from: An inversion supergene in Drosophila underpins latitudinal clines in survival traits

Esra Durmaz, Clare Benson, Martin Kapun, Paul Schmidt & Thomas Flatt
Chromosomal inversions often contribute to local adaptation across latitudinal clines, but the underlying selective mechanisms remain poorly understood. We and others have previously shown that a clinal inversion polymorphism in Drosophila melanogaster, In(3R)Payne, underpins body size clines along the North American and Australian east coasts. Here we ask whether this polymorphism also contributes to clinal variation in other fitness-related traits, namely survival traits (lifespan, survival upon starvation, and survival upon cold shock). We generated homokaryon...

Data from: A dedicated target capture approach reveals variable genetic markers across micro- and macro-evolutionary time scales in palms

Marylaure De La Harpe, Jaqueline Hess, Oriane Loiseau, Nicolas Salamin, Christian Lexer & Margot Paris
Understanding the genetics of biological diversification across micro- and macro-evolutionary time scales is a vibrant field of research for molecular ecologists as rapid advances in sequencing technologies promise to overcome former limitations. In palms, an emblematic, economically and ecologically important plant family with high diversity in the tropics, studies of diversification at the population and species levels are still hampered by a lack of genomic markers suitable for the genotyping of large numbers of recently...

Data from: A new species of trionychid turtle from the Upper Cretaceous (Campanian) Fruitland Formation of New Mexico, U.S.A.

Walter G Joyce, Tyler R. Lyson & Joseph J.W. Sertich
New shell material of a trionychid turtle from the Upper Cretaceous (upper Campanian) Fossil Forest Member of the Fruitland Formation of northwestern New Mexico represents a new species, Gilmoremys gettyspherensis. The material consists of right costals I–III, V, VI, and VIII, left costals V, VII, and VIII, the left half of the entoplastron, the right hypo- and xiphiplastron, and the left hyo-, hypo-, and xiphiplastron. The specimen shows great similarities with the Late Cretaceous (Maastrichtian)...

Data from: Thin-film structural coloration from simple fused scales in moths

Cédric Kilchoer, Ullrich Steiner & Bodo D. Wilts
The metallic coloration of insects often originates from diverse nanostructures ranging from simple thin films to complex three-dimensional photonic crystals. In Lepidoptera, structural coloration is widely present and seems to be abundant in extant species. However, even some basal moths exhibit metallic coloration. Here, we have investigated the origin of the vivid metallic colours of the wing scales of the basal moth Micropterix aureatella by spectrophotometry and scanning electron microscopy. The metallic gold-, bronze- and...

Data from: The diversity of population responses to environmental change

Fernando Colchero, Owen R. Jones, Dalia A. Conde, Dave Hodgson, Felix Zajitschek, Benedikt R. Schmidt, Aurelio F. Malo, Susan C. Alberts, Peter H. Becker, Sandra Bouwhuis, Anne M. Bronikowski, Kristel M. De Vleeschouwer, Richard J. Delahay, Stefan Dummermuth, Eduardo Fernández-Duque, John Frisenvænge, Martin Hesselsøe, Sam Larson, Jean-Francois Lemaitre, Jennifer McDonald, David A.W. Miller, Colin O'Donnell, Craig Packer, Becky E. Raboy, Christopher J. Reading … & Chris J. Reading
The current extinction and climate change crises pressure us to predict population dynamics with ever-greater accuracy. Although predictions rest on the well-advanced theory of age-structured populations, two key issues remain poorly-explored. Specifically, how the age-dependency in demographic rates and the year-to-year interactions between survival and fecundity affect stochastic population growth rates. We use inference, simulations, and mathematical derivations to explore how environmental perturbations determine population growth rates for populations with different age-specific demographic rates and...

Data from: The adaptive significance of chromosomal inversion polymorphisms in Drosophila melanogaster

Martin Kapun & Thomas Flatt
Chromosomal inversions, structural mutations that reverse a segment of a chromosome, cause suppression of recombination in the heterozygous state. Several studies have shown that inversion polymorphisms can form clines or fluctuate predictably in frequency over seasonal time spans. These observations prompted the hypothesis that chromosomal rearrangements might be subject to spatially and/or temporally varying selection. Here we review what has been learned about the adaptive significance of inversion polymorphisms in the vinegar fly Drosophila melanogaster,...

Data from: Increased temperature disrupts the biodiversity-ecosystem functioning relationship

Elodie C. Parain, Rudolf P. Rohr, Sarah M. Gray & Louis-Félix Bersier
Gaining knowledge of how ecosystems provide essential services to humans is of primary importance, especially with the current threat of climate change. Yet, little is known about how increased temperature will impact the biodiversity-ecosystem functioning (BEF) relationship. We tackled this subject theoretically and experimentally. We developed a BEF theory based on mechanistic population dynamic models, which allows the inclusion of the effect of temperature. Using experimentally established relationships between attack rate and temperature, the model...

Data from: Progressively excluding mammals of different body size affects community and trait structure of ground beetles

Xiaowei Wang, Magdalena Steiner, Martin Schütz, Martijn L. Vandegehuchte & Anita C. Risch
Mammalian grazing induces changes in vegetation properties in grasslands, which can affect a wide variety of other animals including many arthropods. However, the impacts may depend on the type and body size of these mammals. Furthermore, how mammals influence functional trait syndromes of arthropod communities is not well known. We progressively excluded large (e.g. red deer, chamois), medium (e.g. alpine marmot, mountain hare), and small (e.g. mice) mammals using size-selective fences in two vegetation types...

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