166 Works

Data from: Infectious adaptation: potential host range of a defensive endosymbiont in Drosophila

Tamara S. Haselkorn, Sarah N. Cockburn, Phineas T. Hamilton, Steve. J Perlman & John Jaenike
Maternally transmitted symbionts persist over macroevolutionary time scales by undergoing occasional lateral transfer to new host species. To invade a new species, a symbiont must survive and reproduce in the new host, undergo maternal transmission, and confer a selective benefit sufficient to overcome losses due to imperfect maternal transmission. Drosophila neotestacea is naturally infected with a strain of Spiroplasma that restores fertility to nematode-parasitized females, which are otherwise sterilized by parasitism. We experimentally transferred Spiroplasma...

Data from: Diversification rates have declined in the Malagasy herpetofauna

Daniel P. Scantlebury
The evolutionary origins of Madagascar's biodiversity remain mysterious despite the fact that relative to land area, there is no other place with consistently high levels of species richness and endemism across a range of taxonomic levels. Most efforts to explain diversification on the island have focused on geographical models of speciation, but recent studies have begun to address the island's accumulation of species through time, although with conflicting results. Prevailing hypotheses for diversification on the...

Data from: Genetic perturbation of key central metabolic genes extends life span in Drosophila and affects response to dietary restriction

Matthew E. Talbert, Brittany Barnett, Robert Hoff, Maria Amella, Caitlin Kuczynski, Erik Lavington, Spencer Koury, Evgeny Brud & Walter F. Eanes
There is a connection between nutrient inputs, energy-sensing pathways, lifespan variation and aging. Despite the role of metabolic enzymes in energy homeostasis and their metabolites as nutrient signals, little is known about how their gene expression impacts lifespan. In this report, we use P-element mutagenesis in Drosophila to study the effect on lifespan of reductions in expression of seven central metabolic enzymes, and contrast the effects on normal diet and dietary restriction. The major observation...

Data from: A case for a joint strategy of diversified bet hedging and plasticity in the pea aphid wing polyphenism

Mary E. Grantham, Chris J. Antonio, Brian R. O'Neil, Yi Xiang Zhan & Jennifer A. Brisson
Phenotypic plasticity and diversified bet hedging are strategies for coping with variable environments. Plasticity is favoured when an organism can predict future conditions using environmental cues, while bet hedging is favoured when predictive cues are not available. Theoretical analyses suggest that many organisms should use a mixture of both strategies, because environments often present both scenarios. Here, we examine if the pea aphid wing polyphenism, a well-known case of plasticity, is potentially a mixture of...

Data from: Genomic changes following the reversal of a Y chromosome to an autosome in Drosophila pseudoobscura

Ching-Ho Chang & Amanda M. Larracuente
Robertsonian translocations resulting in fusions between sex chromosomes and autosomes shape karyotype evolution by creating new sex chromosomes from autosomes. These translocations can also reverse sex chromosomes back into autosomes, which is especially intriguing given the dramatic differences between autosomes and sex chromosomes. To study the genomic events following a Y chromosome reversal, we investigated an autosome-Y translocation in Drosophila pseudoobscura. The ancestral Y chromosome fused to a small autosome (the dot chromosome) approximately 10–15...

Data from: A metacognitive illusion in monkeys

Stephen Ferrigno, Nate Kornell & Jessica F. Cantlon
Like humans, monkeys can make accurate judgements about their own memory by reporting their confidence during cognitive tasks. Some have suggested that animals use associative learning to make accurate confidence judgements, while others have suggested animals directly access and estimate the strength of their memories. Here we test a third, non-exclusive possibility: perhaps monkeys, like humans, base metacognitive inferences on heuristic cues. Humans are known to use cues like perceptual fluency (e.g. how easy something...

Data from: Heterochromatin-enriched assemblies reveal the sequence and organization of the Drosophila melanogaster Y chromosome

Ching-Ho Chang & Amanda M. Larracuente
Heterochromatic regions of the genome are repeat-rich and poor in protein coding genes, and are therefore underrepresented in even the best genome assemblies. One of the most difficult regions of the genome to assemble are sex-limited chromosomes. The Drosophila melanogaster Y chromosome is entirely heterochromatic, yet has wide-ranging effects on male fertility, fitness, and genome-wide gene expression. The genetic basis of this phenotypic variation is difficult to study, in part because we do not know...

Data from: Plasma metabolomic biomarkers accurately classify acute mild traumatic brain injury from controls

Massimo S. Fiandaca, Mark Mapstone, Amin Mahmoodi, Thomas Gross, Fabio Macciardi, Amrita K. Cheema, Kian Merchant-Borna, Jeffrey Bazarian & Howard J. Federoff
Past and recent attempts at devising objective biomarkers for traumatic brain injury (TBI) in both blood and cerebrospinal fluid have focused on abundance measures of time-dependent proteins. Similar independent determinants would be most welcome in diagnosing the most common form of TBI, mild TBI (mTBI), which remains difficult to define and confirm based solely on clinical criteria. There are currently no consensus diagnostic measures that objectively define individuals as having sustained an acute mTBI. Plasma...

Slave Movement -- Slave Trade to Jamaica, 1782-1788, 1805-1808

Herbert S. Klein & Stanley L. Engerman

Data from: Genomic regions underlying metabolic and neuronal signaling pathways are temporally consistent outliers in a moving avian hybrid zone

Dominique Wagner, Robert Curry, Nancy Chen, Irby Lovette & Scott Taylor
The study of hybrid zones can provide insight into the genetic basis of species differences that are relevant for the maintenance of reproductive isolation. Hybrid zones can also provide insight into climate change, species distributions, and evolution. The hybrid zone between black-capped chickadees (Poecile atricapillus) and Carolina chickadees (P. carolinensis) is shifting northward in response to increasing winter temperatures but is not increasing in width. This pattern indicates strong selection against chickadees with admixed genomes....

Conflicting signal in transcriptomic markers leads to a poorly resolved backbone phylogeny of Chalcidoid wasps

Junxia Zhang, Amelia R.I. Lindsey, Ralph S. Peters, John M. Heraty, Keith R. Hopper, John H. Werren, Ellen O. Martinson, James B. Woolley, Matt J. Yoder & Lars Krogmann
Chalcidoidea (Hymenoptera) are a megadiverse superfamily of wasps with astounding variation in both morphology and biology. Most species are parasitoids and important natural enemies of insects in terrestrial ecosystems. In this study, we explored a transcriptome-based phylogeny of Chalcidoidea and found that poorly resolved relationships could only be marginally improved by adding more genes (a total of 5,591) and taxa (a total of 65), proof-checking for errors of homology and contamination, and decreasing missing data....

Extreme developmental instability is associated with the pea aphid wing plasticity

Rachel Hammelman, Carrie Heusinkveld, Emily Hung, Alydia Meinecke, Benjamin Parker & Jennifer Brisson
A key focus of evolutionary developmental biology is on how phenotypic diversity is generated. In particular, both plasticity and developmental instability can contribute to phenotypic variation among genetically identical individuals, but the interactions between the two phenomena and their general fitness impacts are unclear. We discovered a striking example of asymmetry in pea aphids: the presence of wings on one side and the complete or partial absence of wings on the opposite side. We used...

Wing plasticity and associated gene expression varies across the pea aphid biotype complex

Benjamin J. Parker, Rose M. H. Driscoll, Mary E. Grantham, Jan Hrcek & Jennifer A. Brisson
Developmental phenotypic plasticity is a widespread phenomenon that allows organisms to produce different adult phenotypes in response to different environments. Investigating the molecular mechanisms underlying plasticity has the potential to reveal the precise changes that lead to the evolution of plasticity as a phenotype. Here, we study wing plasticity in multiple host-plant adapted populations of pea aphids as a model for understanding adaptation to different environments within a single species. We describe the wing plasticity...

Fraternity and Sorority New Members’ Self-Regulation of Alcohol Use

Andrew Wall, Janet Reis & Dan Bureau

Additional file 2 of Longitudinal trends in produce purchasing behavior: a descriptive study of transaction level data from loyalty card households

Isabel Diana Fernandez, Brent A. Johnson, Nellie Wixom, Amber Kautz, Joanne Janciuras, Steve Prevost, Jiebo Luo & Rajeev S. Ramchandran
Additional file 2: Supplemental Table 1. Baseline1 and Rate of Change2 in Percent Produce Purchased by Age and Income Groups.

Longitudinal trends in produce purchasing behavior: a descriptive study of transaction level data from loyalty card households

Isabel Diana Fernandez, Brent A. Johnson, Nellie Wixom, Amber Kautz, Joanne Janciuras, Steve Prevost, Jiebo Luo & Rajeev S. Ramchandran
Abstract Background Household food purchases (HFP) are in the pathway between the community food environment and the foods available in households for consumption. As such, HFP data have emerged as alternatives to monitor population dietary trends over-time. In this paper, we investigate the use of loyalty card datasets as unexplored sources of continuously collected HFP data to describe temporal trends in household produce purchases. Methods We partnered with a grocery store chain to obtain a...

Epistatic selection on a selfish Segregation Distorter supergene: drive, recombination, and genetic load

Beatriz Navarro-Dominguez, Ching-Ho Chang, Cara Brand, Christina Muirhead, Daven Presgraves & Amanda Larracuente
Meiotic drive supergenes are complexes of alleles at linked loci that together subvert Mendelian segregation resulting in preferential transmission. In males, the most common mechanism of drive involves the disruption of sperm bearing one of a pair of alternative alleles. While at least two loci are important for male drive- the driver and the target- linked modifiers can enhance drive, creating selection pressure to suppress recombination. In this work, we investigate the evolution and genomic...

Sand impingements on cathodic protection of marine carbon steel in natural sea water

Shan Gao, Xiaohui Zou, Yubin Zhao, Hao Chen, Qiliang Zhang, Yi Huang & Yunze Xu
In this work, the influence of sand impingements on cathodic protection (CP) of marine carbon steel in natural sea water was studied in comparison with the CP performances in static and flowing sea water without sand particles. Results show that the propagation of local active anodic dissolution at the steel inclusions could be totally inhibited by providing sufficient cathodic current in the sea water free of sand particles. However, the local ‘CP shielding’, potential fluctuation...

Rapid and sensitive single-cell RNA sequencing with SHERRY2

Lin Di, Bo Liu, Yuzhu Lyu, Shihui Zhao, Yuhong Pang, Chen Zhang, Jianbin Wang, Hai Qi, Jie Shen & Yanyi Huang
Abstract Background Prevalent single-cell transcriptomic profiling (scRNA-seq) methods are mainly based on the synthesis and enrichment of full-length double-stranded complementary DNA. These approaches are challenging to generate accurate quantification of transcripts when their abundance is low or their full-length amplifications are difficult. Results Based on our previous finding that Tn5 transposase can directly cut-and-tag DNA/RNA hetero-duplexes, we present SHERRY2, a specifically optimized protocol for scRNA-seq without second-strand cDNA synthesis. SHERRY2 is free of pre-amplification and...

The nanoCUT&RUN technique visualizes telomeric chromatin in Drosophila

Tao Chen, Xiaolu Wei, Cecile Courret, Min Cui, Lin Cheng, Jing Wu, Kami Ahmad, Amanda Larracuente & Yikang S. Rong
Advances in genomic technology lead to a more focused pattern for the distribution of chromosomal proteins and a better understanding of their functions. The recent development of the CUT&RUN technique marks one of the important such advances. Here we develop a modified CUT&RUN technique that we termed nanoCUT&RUN, in which a high affinity nanobody to GFP is used to bring micrococcal nuclease to the binding sites of GFP-tagged chromatin proteins. Subsequent activation of the nuclease...

Additional file 4 of Prevalence of hypertension and associated risks in hospitalized patients with COVID-19: a meta-analysis of meta-analyses with 1468 studies and 1,281,510 patients

Yousof Khairy, Deniz Naghibi, Ahmad Moosavi, Mehran Sardareh & Saber Azami-Aghdash
Additional file 4. AMSTAR (Assessment of Multiple Systematic Reviews) checklist.

Additional file 1 of Prevalence of hypertension and associated risks in hospitalized patients with COVID-19: a meta-analysis of meta-analyses with 1468 studies and 1,281,510 patients

Yousof Khairy, Deniz Naghibi, Ahmad Moosavi, Mehran Sardareh & Saber Azami-Aghdash
Additional file 1. Search strategy.

Additional file 3 of Prevalence of hypertension and associated risks in hospitalized patients with COVID-19: a meta-analysis of meta-analyses with 1468 studies and 1,281,510 patients

Yousof Khairy, Deniz Naghibi, Ahmad Moosavi, Mehran Sardareh & Saber Azami-Aghdash
Additional file 3. Extraction form for the data of the included studies.

sj-doc-1-jht-10.1177_10963480221137777 – Supplemental material for When Service Customization in Tourism Backfires: Exploring the Value Restoration Mechanism to Prevent Value Codestruction

Lishan Xie, Xin Liu, Dongmei Li & Xinhua Guan
Supplemental material, sj-doc-1-jht-10.1177_10963480221137777 for When Service Customization in Tourism Backfires: Exploring the Value Restoration Mechanism to Prevent Value Codestruction by Lishan Xie, Xin Liu, Dongmei Li and Xinhua Guan in Journal of Hospitality & Tourism Research

Elucidating the role of circNFIB in myocardial fibrosis alleviation by endogenous sulfur dioxide

Jia Liu, Ranran Zhang, Dahai Wang, Yi Lin, Cui Bai, Nana Nie, Shan Gao, Qiuye Zhang, Hong Chang & Chongmin Ren
Abstract Background To investigate the role of circNFIB in the alleviation of myocardial fibrosis by endogenous sulfur dioxide (SO2). Methods We stimulated cultured neonatal rat cardiac fibroblasts with transforming growth factor-β1 (TGF-β1) and developed an in vitro myocardial fibrosis model. Lentivirus vectors containing aspartate aminotransferase 1 (AAT1) cDNA were used to overexpress AAT1, and siRNA was used to silence circNFIB. The SO2, collagen, circNFIB, Wnt/β-catenin, and p38 MAPK pathways were examined in each group. Results...

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