73 Works

Developing, Implementing, and Evaluating Innovative Sorority Substance Abuse Prevention in the Evidence-Based Era

Andrew Wall & Logan Hazen

Data from: Non-invasive monitoring of temporal and spatial blood flow during bone graft healing using diffuse correlation spectroscopy

Songfeng Han, Michael D. Hoffman, Ashley R. Proctor, Emmanuel A. Mannoh, Nathaniel E. Barber, Hyun Jin Kim, Ki Won Jung, Danielle S. W. Benoit, Regine Choe & Joseph B. Vella
Vascular infiltration and associated alterations in microvascular blood flow are critical for complete bone graft healing. Therefore, real-time, longitudinal measurement of blood flow has the potential to successfully predict graft healing outcomes. Herein, we non-invasively measure longitudinal blood flow changes in bone autografts and allografts using diffuse correlation spectroscopy in a murine femoral segmental defect model. Blood flow was measured at several positions proximal and distal to the graft site before implantation and every week...

Data from: Crop domestication facilitated rapid geographical expansion of a specialist pollinator, the squash bee Peponapis pruinosa

Margarita M. López-Uribe, James H. Cane, Robert L. Minckley & Bryan N. Danforth
Squash was first domesticated in Mexico and is now found throughout North America (NA) along with Peponapis pruinosa, a pollen specialist bee species of the squash genus Cucurbita. The origin and spread of squash cultivation is well-studied archaeologically and phylogenetically; however, no study has documented how cultivation of this or any other crop has influenced species in mutualistic interactions. We used molecular markers to reconstruct the demographic range expansion and colonization routes of P. pruinosa...

Data from: Impact of point-of-care ultrasound on clinical decision-making at an urban emergency department in Tanzania

Teri Reynolds, Stas S. Amato, Irene Kulola, Jeffrey C. Chuan-Jay, Juma Mfinanga, Hendry Sawe, Teri Ann Reynolds & Hendry Robert Sawe
Background: Point of care ultrasound (PoCUS) is an efficient, inexpensive, safe, and portable imaging modality that can be particularly useful in resource-limited settings. However, its impact on clinical decision making in such settings has not been well studied. The objective of this study is to describe the utilization and impact of PoCUS on clinical decision making at an urban emergency department in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania. Methods: This was a prospective descriptive cross-sectional study of...

Data from: Allele-specific transcriptome and methylome analysis reveals stable inheritance and cis-regulation of DNA methylation in Nasonia

Xu Wang, John H. Werren & Andrew G. Clark
Gene expression divergence between closely related species could be attributed to both cis- and trans- DNA sequence changes during evolution, but it is unclear how the evolutionary dynamics of epigenetic marks are regulated. In eutherian mammals, biparental DNA methylation marks are erased and reset during gametogenesis, resulting in paternal or maternal imprints which lead to genomic imprinting. Whether DNA methylation reprogramming exists in insects is not known. Wasps of the genus Nasonia are non-social parasitoids...

Data from: Repetitive DNA profiles reveal evidence of rapid genome evolution and reflect species boundaries in ground beetles

John Sproul, Lindsey Barton & David Maddison
Genome architecture is a complex, multidimensional property of an organism defined by the content and spatial organization of the genome’s component parts. Comparative study of entire genome architecture in model organisms is shedding light on mechanisms underlying genome regulation, evolution, and diversification; but such studies require costly analytical approaches which make extensive comparative study impractical for most groups. However, lower-cost methods that measure a single architectural component (e.g., distribution of one class of repeats) have...

Directed Evolution of AAV for Efficient Gene Delivery to Canine and Primate Retina - Raw counts of variants from deep sequencing

Leah Byrne, Timothy Day, Meike Visel, Deniz Dalkara, Valerie Dufour, Felipe Pompeo Marinho, William Merigan, Gustavo Aguirre, William Beltran, David Schaffer & John Flannery
Efficient AAV-mediated gene delivery remains a significant obstacle to effective retinal gene therapies. Here, we apply the process of directed evolution – guided by deep sequencing and followed by direct in vivo secondary selection of high-performing vectors with a GFP-barcoded library – to create AAV viral capsids with new capabilities to deliver genes to the outer retina in large animals. The resulting vectors resulted in efficient targeting of photoreceptors, bipolar cells, and RPE cells in...

Data from: Islands of retroelements are major components of Drosophila centromeres

Ching-Ho Chang, Ankita Chanvan, Jason Palladino, Xiaolu Wei, Nuno M. C. Martins, Bryce Santinello, Chin-Chi Chen, Jelena Erceg, Brian J. Beliveau, Chao-Ting Wu, Amanda M. Larracuente & Barbara G Mellone
Centromeres are essential chromosomal regions that mediate kinetochore assembly and spindle attachments during cell division. Despite their functional conservation, centromeres are amongst the most rapidly evolving genomic regions and can shape karyotype evolution and speciation across taxa. Although significant progress has been made in identifying centromere-associated proteins, the highly repetitive centromeres of metazoans have been refractory to DNA sequencing and assembly, leaving large gaps in our understanding of their functional organization and evolution. Here, we...

Data from: Mapping of craniofacial traits in outbred mice identifies major developmental genes involved in shape determination

Luisa F. Pallares, Peter Carbonetto, Shyam Gopalakrishnan, Clarissa C. Parker, Cheryl L. Ackert-Bicknell, Abraham A. Palmer & Diethard Tautz
The vertebrate cranium is a prime example of the high evolvability of complex traits. While evidence of genes and developmental pathways underlying craniofacial shape determination is accumulating, we are still far from understanding how such variation at the genetic level is translated into craniofacial shape variation. Here we used 3D geometric morphometrics to map genes involved in shape determination in a population of outbred mice (Carworth Farms White, or CFW). We defined shape traits via...

Data from: What caused over a century of decline in general intelligence? Testing predictions from the genetic selection and neurotoxin hypotheses

Michael A. Woodley Of Menie, Matthew A. Sarraf, Mateo Peñaherrera-Aguirre, Heitor B.F. Fernandes & David Becker
Several converging lines of evidence indicate that general intelligence (g) has declined in Western populations. The causes of these declines are debated. Here, two hypotheses are tested: (1) selection acting against genetic variants that promote g causes the decline and (2) the presence of neurotoxic pollution in the environment causes the decline. A linear mixed model was devised to test (1) and (2), in which the secular decline in a “heritable g” (g.h) chronometric factor...

Data from: Macroevolutionary persistence of heritable endosymbionts: acquisition, retention, and expression of adaptive phenotypes in Spiroplasma

Tamara S. Haselkorn & John Jaenike
The phylogenetic incongruence between insects and their facultative maternally transmitted endosymbionts indicates that these infections are generally short-lived evolutionarily. Therefore, long-term persistence of many endosymbionts must depend on their ability to colonize and spread within new host species. At least 17 species of Drosophila are infected with endosymbiotic Spiroplasma that have various phenotypic effects. We transinfected five strains of Spiroplasma from three divergent clades into Drosophila neotestacea to test their capacity to spread in a...

Optimizing parameters for using the parallel auditory brainstem response (pABR) to quickly estimate hearing thresholds

Melissa Polonenko & Ross Maddox
Objectives: Timely assessments are critical to providing early intervention and better hearing and spoken language outcomes for children with hearing loss. To facilitate faster diagnostic hearing assessments in infants, the authors developed the parallel auditory brainstem response (pABR), which presents randomly timed trains of tone pips at five frequencies to each ear simultaneously. The pABR yields high-quality waveforms that are similar to the standard, single-frequency serial ABR but in a fraction of the recording time....

Constitutive model of erythrocyte membranes with distributions of spectrin orientations and lengths - pipette aspiration data and MatLab Code

Richard Waugh & Zhangli Peng
The speadsheet contains the original micropipette aspiration measurement of red blood cell membrane. There are five days of experiment each on its own tab, the first three of which are reported in the manuscript. The MatLab code used to generate theoretical predictions based on our new microstructurebased constitutive model are also included. This is the code used to generate least squared regression values for the material coefficients.

Slave Movement -- Slave Trade to Jamaica, 1782-1788, 1805-1808

Herbert S. Klein & Stanley L. Engerman

Fraternity and Sorority New Members’ Self-Regulation of Alcohol Use

Andrew Wall, Janet Reis & Dan Bureau

Data from: A case for a joint strategy of diversified bet hedging and plasticity in the pea aphid wing polyphenism

Mary E. Grantham, Chris J. Antonio, Brian R. O'Neil, Yi Xiang Zhan & Jennifer A. Brisson
Phenotypic plasticity and diversified bet hedging are strategies for coping with variable environments. Plasticity is favoured when an organism can predict future conditions using environmental cues, while bet hedging is favoured when predictive cues are not available. Theoretical analyses suggest that many organisms should use a mixture of both strategies, because environments often present both scenarios. Here, we examine if the pea aphid wing polyphenism, a well-known case of plasticity, is potentially a mixture of...

Data from: Genetic perturbation of key central metabolic genes extends life span in Drosophila and affects response to dietary restriction

Matthew E. Talbert, Brittany Barnett, Robert Hoff, Maria Amella, Caitlin Kuczynski, Erik Lavington, Spencer Koury, Evgeny Brud & Walter F. Eanes
There is a connection between nutrient inputs, energy-sensing pathways, lifespan variation and aging. Despite the role of metabolic enzymes in energy homeostasis and their metabolites as nutrient signals, little is known about how their gene expression impacts lifespan. In this report, we use P-element mutagenesis in Drosophila to study the effect on lifespan of reductions in expression of seven central metabolic enzymes, and contrast the effects on normal diet and dietary restriction. The major observation...

Data from: Genomic regions underlying metabolic and neuronal signaling pathways are temporally consistent outliers in a moving avian hybrid zone

Dominique Wagner, Robert Curry, Nancy Chen, Irby Lovette & Scott Taylor
The study of hybrid zones can provide insight into the genetic basis of species differences that are relevant for the maintenance of reproductive isolation. Hybrid zones can also provide insight into climate change, species distributions, and evolution. The hybrid zone between black-capped chickadees (Poecile atricapillus) and Carolina chickadees (P. carolinensis) is shifting northward in response to increasing winter temperatures but is not increasing in width. This pattern indicates strong selection against chickadees with admixed genomes....

Conflicting signal in transcriptomic markers leads to a poorly resolved backbone phylogeny of Chalcidoid wasps

Junxia Zhang, Amelia R.I. Lindsey, Ralph S. Peters, John M. Heraty, Keith R. Hopper, John H. Werren, Ellen O. Martinson, James B. Woolley, Matt J. Yoder & Lars Krogmann
Chalcidoidea (Hymenoptera) are a megadiverse superfamily of wasps with astounding variation in both morphology and biology. Most species are parasitoids and important natural enemies of insects in terrestrial ecosystems. In this study, we explored a transcriptome-based phylogeny of Chalcidoidea and found that poorly resolved relationships could only be marginally improved by adding more genes (a total of 5,591) and taxa (a total of 65), proof-checking for errors of homology and contamination, and decreasing missing data....

Extreme developmental instability is associated with the pea aphid wing plasticity

Rachel Hammelman, Carrie Heusinkveld, Emily Hung, Alydia Meinecke, Benjamin Parker & Jennifer Brisson
A key focus of evolutionary developmental biology is on how phenotypic diversity is generated. In particular, both plasticity and developmental instability can contribute to phenotypic variation among genetically identical individuals, but the interactions between the two phenomena and their general fitness impacts are unclear. We discovered a striking example of asymmetry in pea aphids: the presence of wings on one side and the complete or partial absence of wings on the opposite side. We used...

Wing plasticity and associated gene expression varies across the pea aphid biotype complex

Benjamin J. Parker, Rose M. H. Driscoll, Mary E. Grantham, Jan Hrcek & Jennifer A. Brisson
Developmental phenotypic plasticity is a widespread phenomenon that allows organisms to produce different adult phenotypes in response to different environments. Investigating the molecular mechanisms underlying plasticity has the potential to reveal the precise changes that lead to the evolution of plasticity as a phenotype. Here, we study wing plasticity in multiple host-plant adapted populations of pea aphids as a model for understanding adaptation to different environments within a single species. We describe the wing plasticity...

Data from: Genomic changes following the reversal of a Y chromosome to an autosome in Drosophila pseudoobscura

Ching-Ho Chang & Amanda M. Larracuente
Robertsonian translocations resulting in fusions between sex chromosomes and autosomes shape karyotype evolution by creating new sex chromosomes from autosomes. These translocations can also reverse sex chromosomes back into autosomes, which is especially intriguing given the dramatic differences between autosomes and sex chromosomes. To study the genomic events following a Y chromosome reversal, we investigated an autosome-Y translocation in Drosophila pseudoobscura. The ancestral Y chromosome fused to a small autosome (the dot chromosome) approximately 10–15...

Data from: A metacognitive illusion in monkeys

Stephen Ferrigno, Nate Kornell & Jessica F. Cantlon
Like humans, monkeys can make accurate judgements about their own memory by reporting their confidence during cognitive tasks. Some have suggested that animals use associative learning to make accurate confidence judgements, while others have suggested animals directly access and estimate the strength of their memories. Here we test a third, non-exclusive possibility: perhaps monkeys, like humans, base metacognitive inferences on heuristic cues. Humans are known to use cues like perceptual fluency (e.g. how easy something...

Data from: Infectious adaptation: potential host range of a defensive endosymbiont in Drosophila

Tamara S. Haselkorn, Sarah N. Cockburn, Phineas T. Hamilton, Steve. J Perlman & John Jaenike
Maternally transmitted symbionts persist over macroevolutionary time scales by undergoing occasional lateral transfer to new host species. To invade a new species, a symbiont must survive and reproduce in the new host, undergo maternal transmission, and confer a selective benefit sufficient to overcome losses due to imperfect maternal transmission. Drosophila neotestacea is naturally infected with a strain of Spiroplasma that restores fertility to nematode-parasitized females, which are otherwise sterilized by parasitism. We experimentally transferred Spiroplasma...

Data from: Diversification rates have declined in the Malagasy herpetofauna

Daniel P. Scantlebury
The evolutionary origins of Madagascar's biodiversity remain mysterious despite the fact that relative to land area, there is no other place with consistently high levels of species richness and endemism across a range of taxonomic levels. Most efforts to explain diversification on the island have focused on geographical models of speciation, but recent studies have begun to address the island's accumulation of species through time, although with conflicting results. Prevailing hypotheses for diversification on the...

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