73 Works

Data from: Macroevolutionary persistence of heritable endosymbionts: acquisition, retention, and expression of adaptive phenotypes in Spiroplasma

Tamara S. Haselkorn & John Jaenike
The phylogenetic incongruence between insects and their facultative maternally transmitted endosymbionts indicates that these infections are generally short-lived evolutionarily. Therefore, long-term persistence of many endosymbionts must depend on their ability to colonize and spread within new host species. At least 17 species of Drosophila are infected with endosymbiotic Spiroplasma that have various phenotypic effects. We transinfected five strains of Spiroplasma from three divergent clades into Drosophila neotestacea to test their capacity to spread in a...

Optimizing parameters for using the parallel auditory brainstem response (pABR) to quickly estimate hearing thresholds

Melissa Polonenko & Ross Maddox
Objectives: Timely assessments are critical to providing early intervention and better hearing and spoken language outcomes for children with hearing loss. To facilitate faster diagnostic hearing assessments in infants, the authors developed the parallel auditory brainstem response (pABR), which presents randomly timed trains of tone pips at five frequencies to each ear simultaneously. The pABR yields high-quality waveforms that are similar to the standard, single-frequency serial ABR but in a fraction of the recording time....

Constitutive model of erythrocyte membranes with distributions of spectrin orientations and lengths - pipette aspiration data and MatLab Code

Richard Waugh & Zhangli Peng
The speadsheet contains the original micropipette aspiration measurement of red blood cell membrane. There are five days of experiment each on its own tab, the first three of which are reported in the manuscript. The MatLab code used to generate theoretical predictions based on our new microstructurebased constitutive model are also included. This is the code used to generate least squared regression values for the material coefficients.

The lexical and grammatical sources of neg-raising inferences

Hannah Y. An & Aaron S. White

Data from: Maintenance of a male-killing Wolbachia in Drosophila innubila by male-killing dependent and male-killing independent mechanisms

Robert L. Unckless & John Jaenike
Many maternally inherited endosymbionts manipulate their host’s reproduction in various ways to enhance their own fitness. One such mechanism is male-killing, in which sons of infected mothers are killed by the endosymbiont during development. Several hypotheses have been proposed to explain the advantages of male-killing, including resource reallocation from sons to daughters of infected females, avoidance of inbreeding by infected females, and, if transmission is not purely maternal, the facilitation of horizontal transmission to uninfected...

Data from: Gene flow mediates the role of sex chromosome meiotic drive during complex speciation

Colin D. Meiklejohn, Emily L. Landeen, Kathleen E. Gordon, Thomas Rzatkiewicz, Sarah B. Kingan, Anthony J. Geneva, Jeffrey P. Vedanayagam, Christina A. Muirhead, Daniel Garrigan, David L. Stern & Daven C. Presgraves
During speciation, sex chromosomes often accumulate interspecific genetic incompatibilities faster than the rest of the genome. The drive theory posits that sex chromosomes are susceptible to recurrent bouts of meiotic drive and suppression, causing the evolutionary build-up of divergent cryptic sex-linked drive systems and, incidentally, genetic incompatibilities. To assess the role of drive during speciation, we combine high-resolution genetic mapping of X-linked hybrid male sterility with population genomics analyses of divergence and recent gene flow...

Data from: Cis- and trans-acting genetic factors contribute to heterogeneity in the rate of crossing over between the Drosophila simulans clade species

M. Victoria Cattani, Sarah B. Kingan & Daven C. Presgraves
In the genus Drosophila, variation in recombination rates has been found within and between species. Genetic variation for both cis- and trans-acting factors has been shown to affect recombination rates within species, but little is known about the genetic factors that affect differences between species. Here we estimate rates of crossing over for seven segments that tile across the euchromatic length of the X chromosome in the genetic backgrounds of three closely related Drosophila species....

Data from: Multilocus phylogenetic analyses of Hispaniolan and Bahamian trunk anoles (distichus species group)

Anthony J. Geneva, Jared Hilton, Sabina Noll & Richard E. Glor
The distichus species group includes six species and 21 subspecies of trunk ecomorph anoles distributed across Hispaniola and its satellite islands as well as the northern Bahamas. Although this group has long served as a model system for studies of reproductive character displacement, adaptation, behavior and speciation, it has never been the subject of a comprehensive phylogenetic analysis. Our goal here is to generate a multilocus phylogenetic dataset (one mitochondrial and seven nuclear loci) and...

Data from: The organization and evolution of the Responder satellite in species of the Drosophila melanogaster group: dynamic evolution of a target of meiotic drive

Amanda M. Larracuente
Background: Satellite DNA can make up a substantial fraction of eukaryotic genomes and has roles in genome structure and chromosome segregation. The rapid evolution of satellite DNA can contribute to genomic instability and genetic incompatibilities between species. Despite its ubiquity and its contribution to genome evolution, we currently know little about the dynamics of satellite DNA evolution. The Responder (Rsp) satellite DNA family is found in the pericentric heterochromatin of chromosome 2 of Drosophila melanogaster....

Data from: A new method to scan genomes for introgression in a secondary contact model

Anthony J. Geneva, Christina A. Muirhead, Sarah B. Kingan & Daniel Garrigan
Secondary contact between divergent populations or incipient species may result in the exchange and introgression of genomic material. We develop a simple DNA sequence measure, called Gmin, which is designed to identify genomic regions experiencing introgression in a secondary contact model. Gmin is defined as the ratio of the minimum between-population number of nucleotide differences in a genomic window to the average number of between-population differences. Although it is conceptually simple, one advantage of Gmin...

Data from: Electrophysiological correlates of semantic dissimilarity reflect the comprehension of natural, narrative speech

Michael P. Broderick, Andrew J. Anderson, Giovanni M. Di Liberto, Michael J. Crosse & Edmund C. Lalor
People routinely hear and understand speech at rates of 120–200 words per minute [1, 2]. Thus, speech comprehension must involve rapid, online neural mechanisms that process words’ meanings in an approximately time-locked fashion. However, in the context of continuous speech, electrophysiological evidence for such time-locked processing has been lacking. Whilst valuable insights into the semantic processing of speech have been provided by the “N400 component” of the event-related potential [3-6], this literature has been dominated...

Data from: Age and sex differences in burnout, career satisfaction, and well-being in US neurologists

Kathrin LaFaver, Janis M. Miyasaki, Christopher M. Keran, Carol Rheaume, Lisa Gulya, Kerry H. Levin, Elaine C. Jones, Heidi B. Schwarz, Jennifer R. Molano, Amy Hessler, Divya Singhal, Tait D. Shanafelt, Jeff A. Sloan, Paul J. Novotny, Terrence L. Cascino & Neil A. Busis
Objective: To examine age and sex differences in burnout, career satisfaction, and well-being in US neurologists. Methods: Quantitative and qualitative analyses of men’s (n = 1,091) and women’s (n = 580) responses to a 2016 survey of US neurologists. Results: Emotional exhaustion in neurologists initially increased with age, then started to decrease as neurologists got older. Depersonalization decreased as neurologists got older. Fatigue and overall quality of life in neurologists initially worsened with age, then...

Data from: Anolis sex chromosomes are derived from a single ancestral pair

Tony Gamble, Anthony J. Geneva, Richard E. Glor & David Zarkower
To explain the frequency and distribution of heteromorphic sex chromosomes in the lizard genus Anolis we compared the relative roles of sex chromosome conservation vs. turnover of sex determining mechanisms. We used model based comparative methods to reconstruct karyotype evolution and the presence of heteromorphic sex chromosomes onto a newly generated Anolis phylogeny. We found that heteromorphic sex chromosomes evolved multiple times in the genus. Fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) of repetitive DNA showed variable...

Perceptual restoration fails to recover unconscious processing for smooth eye movements after occipital stroke

Sunwoo Kwon, Jude Mitchell & Krystel Huxlin
Visual pathways that guide actions do not necessarily mediate conscious perception. Patients with primary visual cortex (V1) damage lose conscious perception but often retain unconscious abilities (e.g. blindsight). Here, we asked if saccade accuracy and post-saccadic following responses (PFRs) that automatically track target motion upon saccade landing are retained when conscious perception is lost. We contrasted these behaviors in the blind and intact fields of 8 chronic V1-stroke patients, and in 8 visually-intact controls. Saccade...

Endothelial glycocalyx layer properties and its ability to limit leukocyte adhesion

Luis Delgadillo
The endothelial glycocalyx layer (EGL), consisting of long proteoglycans protruding from the endothelium, acts as a regulator of inflammation by preventing leukocyte engagement with adhesion molecules on the endothelial surface. The amount of resistance to adhesive events the EGL provides is the result of two properties: EGL thickness and stiffness. To determine these, we used an atomic force microscope to indent the surfaces of cultured endothelial cells with a glass bead and evaluated two different...

PRISM-HD: Patient-Reported Impact of Symptoms in Huntington Disease

Alistair M Glidden, Elizabeth A Luebbe, Molly J Elson, Steven B Goldenthal, Christopher W Snyder, Christine E Zizzi, E Ray Dorsey & Chad R Heatwole
OBJECTIVE: To determine the frequency and relative importance of symptoms experienced by adults with Huntington disease (HD) and to identify factors associated with a higher disease burden. METHODS: We performed 40 qualitative interviews (n = 20 with HD, n = 20 caregivers) and analyzed 2,082 quotes regarding the symptomatic burden of HD. We subsequently performed a cross-sectional study with 389 participants (n = 156 with HD [60 of whom were prodromal], n = 233 caregivers)...

Slave Movement -- Slave Trade to Jamaica, 1782-1788, 1805-1808

Herbert S. Klein & Stanley L. Engerman

Fraternity and Sorority New Members’ Self-Regulation of Alcohol Use

Andrew Wall, Janet Reis & Dan Bureau

Data from: A case for a joint strategy of diversified bet hedging and plasticity in the pea aphid wing polyphenism

Mary E. Grantham, Chris J. Antonio, Brian R. O'Neil, Yi Xiang Zhan & Jennifer A. Brisson
Phenotypic plasticity and diversified bet hedging are strategies for coping with variable environments. Plasticity is favoured when an organism can predict future conditions using environmental cues, while bet hedging is favoured when predictive cues are not available. Theoretical analyses suggest that many organisms should use a mixture of both strategies, because environments often present both scenarios. Here, we examine if the pea aphid wing polyphenism, a well-known case of plasticity, is potentially a mixture of...

Data from: Genetic perturbation of key central metabolic genes extends life span in Drosophila and affects response to dietary restriction

Matthew E. Talbert, Brittany Barnett, Robert Hoff, Maria Amella, Caitlin Kuczynski, Erik Lavington, Spencer Koury, Evgeny Brud & Walter F. Eanes
There is a connection between nutrient inputs, energy-sensing pathways, lifespan variation and aging. Despite the role of metabolic enzymes in energy homeostasis and their metabolites as nutrient signals, little is known about how their gene expression impacts lifespan. In this report, we use P-element mutagenesis in Drosophila to study the effect on lifespan of reductions in expression of seven central metabolic enzymes, and contrast the effects on normal diet and dietary restriction. The major observation...

Data from: Genomic regions underlying metabolic and neuronal signaling pathways are temporally consistent outliers in a moving avian hybrid zone

Dominique Wagner, Robert Curry, Nancy Chen, Irby Lovette & Scott Taylor
The study of hybrid zones can provide insight into the genetic basis of species differences that are relevant for the maintenance of reproductive isolation. Hybrid zones can also provide insight into climate change, species distributions, and evolution. The hybrid zone between black-capped chickadees (Poecile atricapillus) and Carolina chickadees (P. carolinensis) is shifting northward in response to increasing winter temperatures but is not increasing in width. This pattern indicates strong selection against chickadees with admixed genomes....

Conflicting signal in transcriptomic markers leads to a poorly resolved backbone phylogeny of Chalcidoid wasps

Junxia Zhang, Amelia R.I. Lindsey, Ralph S. Peters, John M. Heraty, Keith R. Hopper, John H. Werren, Ellen O. Martinson, James B. Woolley, Matt J. Yoder & Lars Krogmann
Chalcidoidea (Hymenoptera) are a megadiverse superfamily of wasps with astounding variation in both morphology and biology. Most species are parasitoids and important natural enemies of insects in terrestrial ecosystems. In this study, we explored a transcriptome-based phylogeny of Chalcidoidea and found that poorly resolved relationships could only be marginally improved by adding more genes (a total of 5,591) and taxa (a total of 65), proof-checking for errors of homology and contamination, and decreasing missing data....

Extreme developmental instability is associated with the pea aphid wing plasticity

Rachel Hammelman, Carrie Heusinkveld, Emily Hung, Alydia Meinecke, Benjamin Parker & Jennifer Brisson
A key focus of evolutionary developmental biology is on how phenotypic diversity is generated. In particular, both plasticity and developmental instability can contribute to phenotypic variation among genetically identical individuals, but the interactions between the two phenomena and their general fitness impacts are unclear. We discovered a striking example of asymmetry in pea aphids: the presence of wings on one side and the complete or partial absence of wings on the opposite side. We used...

Wing plasticity and associated gene expression varies across the pea aphid biotype complex

Benjamin J. Parker, Rose M. H. Driscoll, Mary E. Grantham, Jan Hrcek & Jennifer A. Brisson
Developmental phenotypic plasticity is a widespread phenomenon that allows organisms to produce different adult phenotypes in response to different environments. Investigating the molecular mechanisms underlying plasticity has the potential to reveal the precise changes that lead to the evolution of plasticity as a phenotype. Here, we study wing plasticity in multiple host-plant adapted populations of pea aphids as a model for understanding adaptation to different environments within a single species. We describe the wing plasticity...

Data from: Genomic changes following the reversal of a Y chromosome to an autosome in Drosophila pseudoobscura

Ching-Ho Chang & Amanda M. Larracuente
Robertsonian translocations resulting in fusions between sex chromosomes and autosomes shape karyotype evolution by creating new sex chromosomes from autosomes. These translocations can also reverse sex chromosomes back into autosomes, which is especially intriguing given the dramatic differences between autosomes and sex chromosomes. To study the genomic events following a Y chromosome reversal, we investigated an autosome-Y translocation in Drosophila pseudoobscura. The ancestral Y chromosome fused to a small autosome (the dot chromosome) approximately 10–15...

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