73 Works

Data from: A metacognitive illusion in monkeys

Stephen Ferrigno, Nate Kornell & Jessica F. Cantlon
Like humans, monkeys can make accurate judgements about their own memory by reporting their confidence during cognitive tasks. Some have suggested that animals use associative learning to make accurate confidence judgements, while others have suggested animals directly access and estimate the strength of their memories. Here we test a third, non-exclusive possibility: perhaps monkeys, like humans, base metacognitive inferences on heuristic cues. Humans are known to use cues like perceptual fluency (e.g. how easy something...

Data from: Infectious adaptation: potential host range of a defensive endosymbiont in Drosophila

Tamara S. Haselkorn, Sarah N. Cockburn, Phineas T. Hamilton, Steve. J Perlman & John Jaenike
Maternally transmitted symbionts persist over macroevolutionary time scales by undergoing occasional lateral transfer to new host species. To invade a new species, a symbiont must survive and reproduce in the new host, undergo maternal transmission, and confer a selective benefit sufficient to overcome losses due to imperfect maternal transmission. Drosophila neotestacea is naturally infected with a strain of Spiroplasma that restores fertility to nematode-parasitized females, which are otherwise sterilized by parasitism. We experimentally transferred Spiroplasma...

Data from: Diversification rates have declined in the Malagasy herpetofauna

Daniel P. Scantlebury
The evolutionary origins of Madagascar's biodiversity remain mysterious despite the fact that relative to land area, there is no other place with consistently high levels of species richness and endemism across a range of taxonomic levels. Most efforts to explain diversification on the island have focused on geographical models of speciation, but recent studies have begun to address the island's accumulation of species through time, although with conflicting results. Prevailing hypotheses for diversification on the...

Data from: Plasma metabolomic biomarkers accurately classify acute mild traumatic brain injury from controls

Massimo S. Fiandaca, Mark Mapstone, Amin Mahmoodi, Thomas Gross, Fabio Macciardi, Amrita K. Cheema, Kian Merchant-Borna, Jeffrey Bazarian & Howard J. Federoff
Past and recent attempts at devising objective biomarkers for traumatic brain injury (TBI) in both blood and cerebrospinal fluid have focused on abundance measures of time-dependent proteins. Similar independent determinants would be most welcome in diagnosing the most common form of TBI, mild TBI (mTBI), which remains difficult to define and confirm based solely on clinical criteria. There are currently no consensus diagnostic measures that objectively define individuals as having sustained an acute mTBI. Plasma...

Data from: Heterochromatin-enriched assemblies reveal the sequence and organization of the Drosophila melanogaster Y chromosome

Ching-Ho Chang & Amanda M. Larracuente
Heterochromatic regions of the genome are repeat-rich and poor in protein coding genes, and are therefore underrepresented in even the best genome assemblies. One of the most difficult regions of the genome to assemble are sex-limited chromosomes. The Drosophila melanogaster Y chromosome is entirely heterochromatic, yet has wide-ranging effects on male fertility, fitness, and genome-wide gene expression. The genetic basis of this phenotypic variation is difficult to study, in part because we do not know...

Data from: Using genomic data to revisit a classic example of reproductive character displacement in Haitian Anolis lizards

Shea M. Lambert, Anthony J. Geneva, D. Luke Mahler & Richard E. Glor
The pattern of reproductive character displacement (RCD)—in which traits associated with reproductive isolation are more different where two species occur together than where they occur in isolation—is frequently attributed to reinforcement, a process during which natural selection acting against maladaptive mating events leads to enhanced prezygotic isolation between species or incipient species. One of the first studies of RCD to include molecular genetic data was described 40 years ago in a complex of Haitian trunk...

Data from: Rediscovery of the enigmatic fungus-farming ant \"Mycetosoritis\" asper Mayr (Hymenoptera: Formicidae): Implications for taxonomy, phylogeny, and the evolution of agriculture in ants

Jeffrey Sosa-Calvo, Ana Ješovnik, Heraldo L. Vasconcelos, , Ted R. Schultz & Mauricio Bacci
We report the rediscovery of the exceedingly rarely collected and enigmatic fungus-farming ant species Mycetosoritis asper. Since the description of the type specimen in 1887, only four additional specimens are known to have been added to the world's insect collections. Its biology is entirely unknown and its phylogenetic position within the fungus-farming ants has remained puzzling due to its aberrant morphology. In 2014 we excavated and collected twenty-one colonies of M. asper in the Floresta...

Data from: Origin, evolution, and population genetics of the selfish Segregation distorter gene duplication in European and African populations of Drosophila melanogaster

Cara L. Brand, Amanda M. Larracuente & Daven C. Presgraves
Meiotic drive elements are a special class of evolutionarily “selfish genes” that subvert Mendelian segregation to gain preferential transmission at the expense of homologous loci. Many drive elements appear to be maintained in populations as stable polymorphisms, their equilibrium frequencies determined by the balance between drive (increasing frequency) and selection (decreasing frequency). Here we show that a classic, seemingly balanced, drive system is instead characterized by frequent evolutionary turnover giving rise to dynamic, rather than...

Data from: Genome-wide association study of behavioral, physiological and gene expression traits in outbred CFW mice

Clarissa C. Parker, Shyam Gopalakrishnan, Peter Carbonetto, Natalia M. Gonzales, Emily Leung, Yeonhee J. Park, Emmanuel Aryee, Joe Davis, David A. Blizard, Cheryl L. Ackert-Bicknell, Arimantas Lionikas, Jonathan K. Pritchard & Abraham A. Palmer
Although mice are the most widely used mammalian model organism, genetic studies have suffered from limited mapping resolution due to extensive linkage disequilibrium (LD) that is characteristic of crosses among inbred strains. Carworth Farms White (CFW) mice are a commercially available outbred mouse population that exhibit rapid LD decay in comparison to other available mouse populations. We performed a genome-wide association study (GWAS) of behavioral, physiological and gene expression phenotypes using 1,200 male CFW mice....

Data from: Risk factors for suicidality in Huntington's disease: an analysis of the 2CARE clinical trial

Andrew J. McGarry, Michael P. McDermott, Karl Kieburtz, Wai Lun Alan Fung, Elizabeth Anne McCusker, Jing Peng, Elisabeth A. De Blieck & Merit E. Cudkowicz
Most suicidality literature in HD is based on natural history studies or retrospective reviews, but reports on risk factors from clinical trials are limited. We analyzed 609 participants from 2CARE, a randomized, double-blind, placebo controlled clinical trial with up to 5 years of follow-up, for risk factors related to suicidality. The primary outcome variable was the time from randomization until the first occurrence of either suicidal ideation or attempt. We also considered time from randomization...

Data from: Dynamics of the continent-wide spread of a Drosophila defensive symbiont

Sarah N. Cockburn, Tamara S. Haselkorn, Phineas T. Hamilton, Elizabeth Landzberg, John Jaenike & Steve J. Perlman
Facultative symbionts can represent important sources of adaptation for their insect hosts and thus have the potential for rapid spread. Drosophila neotestacea harbors a heritable symbiont, Spiroplasma, that confers protection against parasitic nematodes. We previously found a cline in Spiroplasma prevalence across central Canada, ending abruptly at the Rocky Mountains. Resampling these populations nine years later revealed that Spiroplasma had increased substantially across the region, resembling a Fisherian wave of advance. Associations between Spiroplasma infection...

Data from: Loss of reproductive parasitism following transfer of male-killing Wolbachia to Drosophila melanogaster and Drosophila simulans

Kostas Bourtzis, Zoe Veneti, Sofia Zabalou, George Papafotiou, Charalampos Paraskevopoulos, Savvas Pattas, Ioannis Livadaras, George Markakis, Jeremy Herren & John Jaenike
Wolbachia manipulates insect host biology through a variety of means that result in elevated fitness of infected females, enhancing its own transmission. A Wolbachia strain (wInn) naturally infecting D. innubila induces male-killing, while native strains of D. melanogaster and D. simulans usually induce cytoplasmic incompatibility (CI). In this study, we transferred wInn to D. melanogaster and D. simulans by embryonic microinjection, expecting conservation of the male-killing phenotype to the novel hosts, which are more suitable...

Data from: The Caenorhabditis elegans Myc-Mondo/Mad complexes integrate diverse longevity signals

David W. Johnson, Jesse R. Llop, Sara F. Farrell, Jie Yuan, Lindsay R. Stolzenburg & Andrew Vaughn Samuelson
The Myc family of transcription factors regulates a variety of biological processes, including the cell cycle, growth, proliferation, metabolism, and apoptosis. In Caenorhabditis elegans, the “Myc interaction network” consists of two opposing heterodimeric complexes with antagonistic functions in transcriptional control: the Myc-Mondo:Mlx transcriptional activation complex and the Mad:Max transcriptional repression complex. In C. elegans, Mondo, Mlx, Mad, and Max are encoded by mml-1, mxl-2, mdl-1, and mxl-1, respectively. Here we show a similar antagonistic role...

Data from: Genotype specificity among hosts, pathogens, and beneficial microbes influences the strength of symbiont mediated protection

Benjamin J. Parker, Jan Hrcek, Ailsa H.C. McLean, H. Charles J. Godfray & Ailsa H. C. McLean
The microbial symbionts of eukaryotes influence disease resistance in many host-parasite systems. Symbionts show substantial variation in both genotype and phenotype, but it is unclear how natural selection maintains this variation. It is also unknown whether variable symbiont genotypes show specificity with the genotypes of hosts or parasites in natural populations. Genotype by genotype interactions are a necessary condition for coevolution between interacting species. Uncovering the patterns of genetic specificity among hosts, symbionts, and parasites...

Data from: Assessment of plasma proteomics biomarker’s ability to distinguish benign from malignant lung nodules

Gerard A. Silvestri, Nichole T. Tanner, Paul Kearney, Anil Vachani, Pierre P. Massion, Alexander Porter, Steven C. Springmeyer, Kenneth C. Fang, David Midthun, Peter J. Mazzone, D. Madtes, J. Landis, A. Levesque, K. Rothe, M. Balaan, B. Dimitt, B. Fortin, N. Ettinger, A. Pierre, L. Yarmus, K. Oakjones-Burgess, N. Desai, Z. Hammoud, A. Sorenson, R. Murali … & F. Allison
Background: Lung nodules are a diagnostic challenge, with an estimated yearly incidence of 1.6 million in the United States. This study evaluated the accuracy of an integrated proteomic classifier in identifying benign nodules in patients with a pretest probability of cancer (pCA) ≤ 50%. Methods: A prospective, multicenter observational trial of 685 patients with 8- to 30-mm lung nodules was conducted. Multiple reaction monitoring mass spectrometry was used to measure the relative abundance of two...

Data from: Mutation accumulation is still potentially problematic, despite declining paternal age: a comment on Arslan et al. (2017).

Michael A. Woodley Of Menie, Matthew A. Sarraf & Heitor B. F. Fernandes
Icelandic mutation accumulation modelIcelandic mutation accumulation model (Ibs 0.5-0.99 and Ibs 0.35) - secondary analysis of data from Kong et al. (2012) Rate of de novo mutations and the importance of father’s age to disease risk. Nature 488, 471–475. (doi:10.1038/nature11396), Fig. 4, p.474.

Data from: Introgression study reveals two quantitative trait loci involved in interspecific variation in memory retention among Nasonia wasp species

Katja M. Hoedjes, Hans M. Smid, Louise E. M. Vet & John H. Werren
Genes involved in the process of memory formation have been studied intensively in model organisms; however, little is known about the mechanisms that are responsible for natural variation in memory dynamics. There is substantial variation in memory retention among closely related species in the parasitic wasp genus Nasonia. After a single olfactory conditioning trial, N. vitripennis consolidates long-term memory that lasts at least 6 days. Memory of the closely related species N. giraulti is present...

Data from: Haldane's rule is linked to extraordinary sex ratios and sperm length in stalk-eyed flies.

Gerald S. Wilkinson, Sarah J. Christianson, Cara L. Brand, George Ru & Wyatt Shell
We use three allopatric populations of the stalk-eyed fly Teleopsis dalmanni from Southeast Asia to test two predictions made by the sex chromosome drive hypothesis for Haldane's rule. The first is that modifiers that suppress or enhance drive should evolve rapidly and independently in isolated populations. The second is that drive loci or modifiers should also cause sterility in hybrid males. We tested these predictions by assaying the fertility of 2,066 males derived from backcross...

Data from: Human retinal pigment epithelium: in vivo cell morphometry, multispectral autofluorescence, and relationship to cone mosaic

Charles E. Granger, Qiang Yang, Hongxin Song, Kenichi Saito, Koji Nozato, Lisa R. Latchney, Bianca T. Leonard, Mina M. Chung, David R. Williams & Ethan A. Rossi
Purpose: To characterize in vivo morphometry and multispectral autofluorescence of the retinal pigment epithelial (RPE) cell mosaic and its relationship to cone cell topography across the macula. Methods: RPE cell morphometrics were computed in regularly spaced regions of interest (ROIs) from contiguous short-wavelength autofluorescence (SWAF) and photoreceptor reflectance images collected across the macula in one eye of 10 normal participants (23–65 years) by using adaptive optics scanning light ophthalmoscopy (AOSLO). Infrared autofluorescence (IRAF) images of...

Dynamic evolution of euchromatic satellites on the X chromosome in Drosophila melanogaster and the simulans clade

J.S. Sproul, D.E. Khost, D.G. Eickbush, S. Negm, X. Wei, I. Wong & A.M. Larracuente
ABSTRACTSatellite DNAs (satDNAs) are among the most dynamically evolving components of eukaryotic genomes and play important roles in genome regulation, genome evolution, and speciation. Despite their abundance and functional impact, we know little about the evolutionary dynamics and molecular mechanisms that shape satDNA distributions in genomes. Here we use high-quality genome assemblies to study evolutionary dynamics of two complex satDNAs, Rsp-like and 1.688 gm/cm3, in Drosophila melanogaster and its three nearest relatives in the simulans...

Data from: Osteosarcopenia in reproductive-aged women with polycystic ovary syndrome: a multicenter case-control study

Maryam Kazemi, Brittany Jarrett, Stephen Parry, Anna Thalacker-Mercer, Kathleen Hoeger & Steven Spandorfer
Context: Osteosarcopenia (loss of skeletal muscle and bone mass and/or function usually associated with aging) shares pathophysiological mechanisms with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS). However, the relationship between osteosarcopenia and PCOS remains unclear. Objective: We evaluated skeletal muscle index% (SMI%=[appendicular muscle mass/weight {kg}]×100) and bone mineral density (BMD) in PCOS (hyperandrogenism+oligoamenorrhea), and contrasted these musculoskeletal markers against 3 reproductive phenotypes: (1) HA (hyperandrogenism+eumenorrhea); (2) OA (normoandrogenic+oligoamenorrhea) and, (3) controls (normoandrogenic+eumenorrhea). Endocrine predictors of SMI% and BMD...

Intraspecific variation in symbiont density in an insect-microbe symbiosis

Benjamin Parker, Jan Hrcek, Ailsa McLean, Charles Godfray & Jennifer Brisson
Many insects host vertically-transmitted microbes, which can confer benefits to their hosts but are costly to maintain and regulate. A key feature of these symbioses is variation: for example, symbiont density can vary among host and symbiont genotypes. However, the evolutionary forces maintaining this variation remain unclear. We studied variation in symbiont density using the pea aphid (Acyrthosiphon pisum) and the bacterium Regiella insecticola, a symbiont that can protect its host against fungal pathogens. We...

Using Cost-Benefit Analysis for Fraternity and Sorority Affairs Assessment: Creating a Business Case for Student Success in Fraternal Organizations

Michael D'Arcangelo & Jessica R. Berner

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