Data from: Plasma metabolomic biomarkers accurately classify acute mild traumatic brain injury from controlsMassimo S. Fiandaca, Mark Mapstone, Amin Mahmoodi, Thomas Gross, Fabio Macciardi, Amrita K. Cheema, Kian Merchant-Borna, Jeffrey Bazarian & Howard J. Federoff
Past and recent attempts at devising objective biomarkers for traumatic brain injury (TBI) in both blood and cerebrospinal fluid have focused on abundance measures of time-dependent proteins. Similar independent determinants would be most welcome in diagnosing the most common form of TBI, mild TBI (mTBI), which remains difficult to define and confirm based solely on clinical criteria. There are currently no consensus diagnostic measures that objectively define individuals as having sustained an acute mTBI. Plasma...
Data from: Heterochromatin-enriched assemblies reveal the sequence and organization of the Drosophila melanogaster Y chromosomeChing-Ho Chang & Amanda M. Larracuente
Heterochromatic regions of the genome are repeat-rich and poor in protein coding genes, and are therefore underrepresented in even the best genome assemblies. One of the most difficult regions of the genome to assemble are sex-limited chromosomes. The Drosophila melanogaster Y chromosome is entirely heterochromatic, yet has wide-ranging effects on male fertility, fitness, and genome-wide gene expression. The genetic basis of this phenotypic variation is difficult to study, in part because we do not know...
During speciation, sex chromosomes often accumulate interspecific genetic incompatibilities faster than the rest of the genome. The drive theory posits that sex chromosomes are susceptible to recurrent bouts of meiotic drive and suppression, causing the evolutionary build-up of divergent cryptic sex-linked drive systems and, incidentally, genetic incompatibilities. To assess the role of drive during speciation, we combine high-resolution genetic mapping of X-linked hybrid male sterility with population genomics analyses of divergence and recent gene flow...
Data from: Electrophysiological correlates of semantic dissimilarity reflect the comprehension of natural, narrative speechMichael P. Broderick, Andrew J. Anderson, Giovanni M. Di Liberto, Michael J. Crosse & Edmund C. Lalor
People routinely hear and understand speech at rates of 120–200 words per minute [1, 2]. Thus, speech comprehension must involve rapid, online neural mechanisms that process words’ meanings in an approximately time-locked fashion. However, in the context of continuous speech, electrophysiological evidence for such time-locked processing has been lacking. Whilst valuable insights into the semantic processing of speech have been provided by the “N400 component” of the event-related potential [3-6], this literature has been dominated...
Data from: Age and sex differences in burnout, career satisfaction, and well-being in US neurologistsKathrin LaFaver, Janis M. Miyasaki, Christopher M. Keran, Carol Rheaume, Lisa Gulya, Kerry H. Levin, Elaine C. Jones, Heidi B. Schwarz, Jennifer R. Molano, Amy Hessler, Divya Singhal, Tait D. Shanafelt, Jeff A. Sloan, Paul J. Novotny, Terrence L. Cascino & Neil A. Busis
Objective: To examine age and sex differences in burnout, career satisfaction, and well-being in US neurologists. Methods: Quantitative and qualitative analyses of men’s (n = 1,091) and women’s (n = 580) responses to a 2016 survey of US neurologists. Results: Emotional exhaustion in neurologists initially increased with age, then started to decrease as neurologists got older. Depersonalization decreased as neurologists got older. Fatigue and overall quality of life in neurologists initially worsened with age, then...
Temporal processing is fundamental for an accurate synchronization between motor behavior and sensory processing. Here we investigate how motor timing during rhythmic tapping influences perception of visual time. Participants listen to a sequence of four auditory tones played at 1 Hz and continue the sequence (without auditory stimulation) by tapping four times with their finger. During finger tapping, they are presented with an empty visual interval and are asked to judge its length compared to...
Data from: All-optical recording and stimulation of retinal neurons in vivo in retinal degeneration miceSoon Keen Cheong, Jennifer M. Strazzeri, David R. Williams & William H. Merigan
Here we demonstrate the application of a method that could accelerate the development of novel therapies by allowing direct and repeatable visualization of cellular function in the living eye, to study loss of vision in animal models of retinal disease, as well as evaluate the time course of retinal function following therapeutic intervention. We use high-resolution adaptive optics scanning light ophthalmoscopy to image fluorescence from the calcium sensor GCaMP6s. In mice with photoreceptor degeneration (rd10),...
Microbial symbionts commonly protect their hosts from natural enemies, but it is unclear how protective symbionts influence the evolution of host immunity to pathogens. One possibility is that ‘extrinsic’ protection provided by symbionts allows hosts to reduce investment in ‘intrinsic’ immunological resistance mechanisms. We tested this idea using pea aphids (Acyrthosiphon pisum) and their facultative bacterial symbionts that increase host resistance to the fungal pathogen Pandora neoaphidis. The pea aphid taxon is composed of multiple...
Directed Evolution of AAV for Efficient Gene Delivery to Canine and Primate Retina - Raw counts of variants from deep sequencingLeah Byrne, Timothy Day, Meike Visel, Deniz Dalkara, Valerie Dufour, Felipe Pompeo Marinho, William Merigan, Gustavo Aguirre, William Beltran, David Schaffer & John Flannery
Efficient AAV-mediated gene delivery remains a significant obstacle to effective retinal gene therapies. Here, we apply the process of directed evolution – guided by deep sequencing and followed by direct in vivo secondary selection of high-performing vectors with a GFP-barcoded library – to create AAV viral capsids with new capabilities to deliver genes to the outer retina in large animals. The resulting vectors resulted in efficient targeting of photoreceptors, bipolar cells, and RPE cells in...
Data from: What caused over a century of decline in general intelligence? Testing predictions from the genetic selection and neurotoxin hypothesesMichael A. Woodley Of Menie, Matthew A. Sarraf, Mateo Peñaherrera-Aguirre, Heitor B.F. Fernandes & David Becker
Several converging lines of evidence indicate that general intelligence (g) has declined in Western populations. The causes of these declines are debated. Here, two hypotheses are tested: (1) selection acting against genetic variants that promote g causes the decline and (2) the presence of neurotoxic pollution in the environment causes the decline. A linear mixed model was devised to test (1) and (2), in which the secular decline in a “heritable g” (g.h) chronometric factor...
Data from: Impact of point-of-care ultrasound on clinical decision-making at an urban emergency department in TanzaniaTeri Reynolds, Stas S. Amato, Irene Kulola, Jeffrey C. Chuan-Jay, Juma Mfinanga, Hendry Sawe, Teri Ann Reynolds & Hendry Robert Sawe
Background: Point of care ultrasound (PoCUS) is an efficient, inexpensive, safe, and portable imaging modality that can be particularly useful in resource-limited settings. However, its impact on clinical decision making in such settings has not been well studied. The objective of this study is to describe the utilization and impact of PoCUS on clinical decision making at an urban emergency department in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania. Methods: This was a prospective descriptive cross-sectional study of...
Data from: Assessment of plasma proteomics biomarker’s ability to distinguish benign from malignant lung nodulesGerard A. Silvestri, Nichole T. Tanner, Paul Kearney, Anil Vachani, Pierre P. Massion, Alexander Porter, Steven C. Springmeyer, Kenneth C. Fang, David Midthun, Peter J. Mazzone, D. Madtes, J. Landis, A. Levesque, K. Rothe, M. Balaan, B. Dimitt, B. Fortin, N. Ettinger, A. Pierre, L. Yarmus, K. Oakjones-Burgess, N. Desai, Z. Hammoud, A. Sorenson, R. Murali … & F. Allison
Background: Lung nodules are a diagnostic challenge, with an estimated yearly incidence of 1.6 million in the United States. This study evaluated the accuracy of an integrated proteomic classifier in identifying benign nodules in patients with a pretest probability of cancer (pCA) ≤ 50%. Methods: A prospective, multicenter observational trial of 685 patients with 8- to 30-mm lung nodules was conducted. Multiple reaction monitoring mass spectrometry was used to measure the relative abundance of two...
Data from: Risk factors for suicidality in Huntington's disease: an analysis of the 2CARE clinical trialAndrew J. McGarry, Michael P. McDermott, Karl Kieburtz, Wai Lun Alan Fung, Elizabeth Anne McCusker, Jing Peng, Elisabeth A. De Blieck & Merit E. Cudkowicz
Most suicidality literature in HD is based on natural history studies or retrospective reviews, but reports on risk factors from clinical trials are limited. We analyzed 609 participants from 2CARE, a randomized, double-blind, placebo controlled clinical trial with up to 5 years of follow-up, for risk factors related to suicidality. The primary outcome variable was the time from randomization until the first occurrence of either suicidal ideation or attempt. We also considered time from randomization...
University of Rochester13
University of Pennsylvania2
Institut de la Vision1
Vrije Universiteit Brussel1
Howard Hughes Medical Institute1
Chemnitz University of Technology1
University of Washington1
Georgetown University Medical Center1
American Academy of Neurology1
University of California System1