29 Works

Data from: Extra food provisioning reduces extra-pair paternity in the lesser kestrel (Falco naumanni)

Alessandra Costanzo, Nicola Tommasi, Andrea Galimberti, Giorgia Scesa, Roberto Ambrosini, Matteo Griggio, Jacopo G. Cecere & Diego Rubolini
Female promiscuity can function to acquire both direct and indirect benefits from their social mate and extra-pair males. In many raptor species, intense mate-feeding significantly contributes to female energy requirements before and during egg laying. Moreover, females may use mate-feeding effort to assess male quality. In this study of the lesser kestrel (Falco naumanni), we aimed at experimentally manipulating the female’s perception of mate quality by providing females with extra food during egg laying, and...

Data from: Reliable wolf-dog hybrid detection in Europe using a reduced SNP panel developed for non-invasively collected samples

Jenni Harmoinen, Alina Von Thaden, Jouni Aspi, Laura Kvist, Berardino Cocchiararo, Anne Jarausch, Andrea Gazzola, Teodora Sin, Hannes Lohi, Marjo Hytönen, Ilpo Kojola, Astrid Vik Stronen, Romolo Caniglia, Federica Mattucci, Marco Galaverni, Raquel Godinho, Aritz Ruiz-González, Ettore Randi, Violeta Muñoz-Fuentes & Carsten Nowak
Background: Understanding the processes that lead to hybridization of wolves and dogs is of scientific and management importance, particularly over large geographical scales, as wolves can disperse great distances. However, a method to efficiently detect hybrids in routine wolf monitoring is lacking. Microsatellites offer only limited resolution due to the low number of markers showing distinctive allele frequencies between wolves and dogs. Moreover, calibration across laboratories is time-consuming and costly. In this study, we selected...

An objective-based prioritization approach to support trophic complexity through ecological restoration

Emma Ladouceur, Jennifer McGowan, Patrick Huber, Hugh Possingham, Davide Scridel, Roel Van Klink, Peter Poschlod, Hans Cornelissen, Costantino Bonomi & Borja Jiménez-Alfaro
1. Reassembling ecological communities and rebuilding habitats through active restoration treatments requires curating the selection of plant species to use in seeding and planting mixes. Ideally, these mixes should be assembled based on attributes that support ecosystem function and services, promote plant and animal species interactions and ecological networks in restoration while balancing project constraints. Despite these critical considerations, it is common for species mixes to be selected opportunistically. Reframing the selection of seed mixes...

Dataframe from: Diversity of European habitat types is correlated with geography more than climate and human pressure

Marco Cervellini, Michele Di Musciano, Piero Zannini, Simone Fattorini, Borja Jiménez-Alfaro, Emiliano Agrillo, Fabio Attorre, Pierangela Angelini, Carl Beierkuhnlein, Laura Casella, Richard Field, Jan-Christopher Fischer, Piero Genovesi, Samuel Hoffmann, Severin D.H. Irl, Juri Nascimbene, Duccio Rocchini, Manuel Steinbauer, Ole R. Vetaas & Alessandro Chiarucci
We generated this dataframe to model EU habitat richness at continental scale as a function of geographical, climate and anthropogenic variables (please, see Material and Method section in the published paper version for all the details). We found geographical variables were by far the most strongly correlated with habitat richness, followed by climate. However, anthropogenic variables gained importance when consindering their interactions, with important implications for conservation planning.

Data from: Detecting a hierarchical genetic population structure: the case study of the Fire Salamander (Salamandra salamandra) in Northern Italy

Giulia Pisa, Valerio Orioli, Giulia Spilotros, Elena Fabbri, Ettore Randi & Luciano Bani
The multi-step method here applied in studying the genetic structure of a low dispersal and philopatric species, like the Fire Salamander Salamandra salamandra, was proved to be effective in identifying the hierarchical structure of population living in broadleaved forest ecosystems in Northern Italy. In this study 477 salamander larvae, collected in 28 sampling populations (SPs) in the Prealpine and in the foothill areas of Northern Italy, were genotyped at 16 specie-specific microsatellites. SPs showed a...

Integrating univariate niche dynamics in species distribution models: a step forward for marine research on biological invasions

Ernesto Azzurro & Manuela D'Amen
Aim The development of approaches to predict the distribution and potential expansion of invasive species is still an open challenge. Here our goal is to improve the modelling procedure for marine invaders by coupling Species Distribution Models (SDMs) with an analysis of their univariate niche dynamics. In particular, we tested for the first time whether choosing model predictors among the stable niche dimensions was effective in improving predictions of invasive species expansion. Location Mediterranean Sea...

RETRACE-3D Central Italy Geological Model

Mauro Buttinelli, Francesco Emanuele Maesano, Lorenzo Petracchini, Chiara D'Ambrogi, Davide Scrocca, Daniela Di Bucci, Roberto Basili, Pierluigi Cara, Sergio Castenetto, Roberta Giuliani, Ilaria Salvi, Sabina Bigi, Gian Paolo Cavinato, Michele Di Filippo, Paolo Messina, Raffaele Castaldo, Vincenzo De Novellis, Susi Pepe, Giuseppe Solaro, Pietro Tizzani, Marco Anzidei, Christian Bignami, Lorenzo Bonini, Pierfrancesco Burrato, Daniele Cheloni … & Renato Ventura
Three-dimensional geological model of the area of the central Apennines affected by the 2016-2018 seismic sequence. The model consists of stratigraphic surfaces (top or basal unconformity of units, or sequences of units, with homogeneous behavior) and main faults of the area. The stratigraphic surfaces are, from the oldest to the most recent: the top of pre-Upper Triassic units, the top of the intra-Triassic units, the top of Calcare Massiccio, the top of the Marne a...

Annual egg productivity predicts female-biased mortality in avian species

Diego Rubolini, Andrea Romano, Andras Liker, Gaia Bazzi, Roberto Ambrosini & Anders Møller
Among avian species, the differential cost entailed by either sex in competition for mates have been regarded as the main evolutionary influence on sex differences in mortality rates. However, empirical evidence suggests that sex-biased adult mortality is mainly related to differential energy investment in gamete production, a greater annual mass devoted to egg production leading to higher female mortality. We explicitly tested the generality of this pattern in a comparative framework. Annual egg production can...

Data from: Assessing patterns in introduction pathways of alien species by linking major invasion databases

Wolf-Christian Saul, Helen E. Roy, Olaf Booy, Lucilla Carnevali, Hsuan-Ju Chen, Piero Genovesi, Colin A. Harrower, Philip E. Hulme, Shyama Pagad, Jan Pergl & Jonathan M. Jeschke
1. Preventing the arrival of invasive alien species (IAS) is a major priority in managing biological invasions. However, information on introduction pathways is currently scattered across many databases that often use different categorisations to describe similar pathways. This hampers the identification and prioritisation of pathways in order to meet the main targets of recent environmental policies. 2. Therefore, we integrate pathway information from two major IAS databases, IUCN's Global Invasive Species Database (GISD) and the...

Data from: MHC variability in an isolated wolf population in Italy

Marco Galaverni, Romolo Caniglia, Elena Fabbri, Silvana Lapalombella & Ettore Randi
Small, isolated populations may experience increased extinction risk due to reduced genetic variability at important functional genes, thus decreasing the population’s adaptive potential. The major histocompatibility complex (MHC), a key immunological gene cluster, usually shows high variability maintained by positive or balancing selection in response to challenges by pathogens. Here we investigated for the first time, the variability of 3 MHC class II genes (DRB1, DQA1, and DQB1) in 94 samples collected from Italian wolves....

Data from: Polymorphism at the Clock gene predicts phenology of long-distance migration in birds

Nicola Saino, Gaia Bazzi, Emanuele Gatti, Manuela Caprioli, Jacopo G. Cecere, Cristina D. Possenti, Andrea Galimberti, Valerio Orioli, Luciano Bani, Diego Rubolini, Luca Gianfranceschi & Fernando Spina
Dissecting phenotypic variance in life history traits into its genetic and environmental components is at the focus of evolutionary studies and of pivotal importance to identify the mechanisms and predict the consequences of human-driven environmental change. The timing of recurrent life history events (phenology) is under strong selection, but the study of the genes that control potential environmental canalization in phenological traits is at its infancy. Candidate genes for circadian behaviour entrained by photoperiod have...

Data from: Early exposure to a bacterial endotoxin advances the onset of moult in the European starling

Simone Pirrello, Andrea Pilastro, Diego Rubolini, Jacopo Cecere, Andrea Romano, Alessandro Andreotti, Stefano Volponi, Nicola Saino, Matteo Griggio & Lorenzo Serra
In animals, events occurring early in life can have profound effects on subsequent life-history events. Early developmental stresses often produce negative long-lasting impacts, although positive effects of mild stressors have also been documented. Most studies of birds have investigated the effects of events occurring at early developmental stages on the timing of migration or reproduction, but little is known on the long-term effects of these early events on moulting and plumage quality. We exposed European...

Data from: Choosy wolves? Heterozygote advantage but no evidence of MHC-based disassortative mating

Marco Galaverni, Romolo Caniglia, Pietro Milanesi, Silvana Lapalombella, Elena Fabbri & Ettore Randi
A variety of nonrandom mate choice strategies, including disassortative mating, are used by vertebrate species to avoid inbreeding, maintain heterozygosity and increase fitness. Disassortative mating may be mediated by the major histocompatibility complex (MHC), an important gene cluster controlling immune responses to pathogens. We investigated the patterns of mate choice in 26 wild-living breeding pairs of gray wolf (Canis lupus) that were identified through noninvasive genetic methods and genotyped at 3 MHC class II and...

Data from: A prioritised list of invasive alien species to assist the effective implementation of EU legislation

Carles Carboneras, Piero Genovesi, Montserrat Vila, Tim Blackburn, Martina Carrete, Miguel Clavero, Bram D'hondt, Jorge F. Orueta, Belinda Gallardo, Pedro Geraldes, Pablo González-Moreno, Richard D. Gregory, Wolfgang Nentwig, Jean-Yves Paquet, Petr Pysek, Wolfgang Rabitsch, Iván Ramírez, Riccardo Scalera, Jose Tella, Paul Walton, Robin Wynde & Tim M. Blackburn
1. Effective prevention and control of invasive species generally relies on a comprehensive, coherent and representative list of species that enables resources to be used optimally. European Union (EU) Regulation 1143/2014 on invasive alien species (IAS) aims to control or eradicate priority species, and to manage pathways to prevent the introduction and establishment of new IAS; it applies to species considered of Union concern and subject to formal risk assessment. So far, 49 species have...

Data from: Genetic structure and expansion of golden jackals (Canis aureus) in the north-western distribution range (Croatia and eastern Italian Alps)

Elena Fabbri, Romolo Caniglia, Ana Galov, Haidi Arbanasić, Luca Lapini, Ivica Bošković, Tihomir Florijančić, Albena Vlasseva, Atidzhe Ahmed, Rossen L. Mirchev & Ettore Randi
The golden jackal, widely distributed in Europe, Asia and Africa, is one of the less studied carnivores in the world and the genetic structure of the European populations is unknown. In the last century jackals strongly declined mainly due to human persecution, but recently they expanded again in eastern Europe. With the aim to determine the genetic structure and the origin of expanding jackals, we analyzed population samples obtained from Bulgaria, Serbia, Croatia (Dalmatia and...

Data from: Ocean acidification affects fish spawning but not paternity at CO2 seeps

Marco Milazzo, Carlo Cattano, Suzanne H. Alonzo, Andrew Foggo, Michele Gristina, Riccardo Rodolfo-Metalpa, Mauro Sinopoli, Davide Spatafora, Kelly A. Stiver & Jason M. Hall-Spencer
Fish exhibit impaired sensory function and altered behaviour at levels of ocean acidification expected to occur owing to anthropogenic carbon dioxide emissions during this century. We provide the first evidence of the effects of ocean acidification on reproductive behaviour of fish in the wild. Satellite and sneaker male ocellated wrasse (Symphodus ocellatus) compete to fertilize eggs guarded by dominant nesting males. Key mating behaviours such as dominant male courtship and nest defence did not differ...

Data from: Genomic evidence of demographic fluctuations and lack of genetic structure across flyways in a long distance migrant, the European turtle dove

Luciano Calderón, Leonardo Campagna, Thomas Wilke, Hervé Lormee, Cyril Eraud, Jenny C. Dunn, Gregorio Rocha, Pavel Zehtindjiev, Dimitrios E. Bakaloudis, Benjamin Metzger, Jacopo G. Cecere, Melanie Marx & Petra Quillfeldt
Background: Understanding how past climatic oscillations have affected organismic evolution will help predict the impact that current climate change has on living organisms. The European turtle dove, Streptopelia turtur, is a warm-temperature adapted species and a long distance migrant that uses multiple flyways to move between Europe and Africa. Despite being abundant, it is categorized as vulnerable because of a long-term demographic decline. We studied the demographic history and population genetic structure of the European...

Evolution of chain migration in an aerial insectivorous bird, the common swift Apus apus

Susanne Akesson, Phil Atkinson, Ana Bermejo, Javier De La Puente, Mauro Ferri, Chris Hewson, Jan Holmgren, Erich Kaiser, Lyndon Kearsley, Raymond Klaassen, Heikki Kolunen, Gittan Matsson, Fausto Minelli, Gabriel Norevik, Hannu Pietiäinen, Navinder J Singh, Fernando Spina, Lukas Viktora & Anders Hedenstrom
Spectacular long-distance migration has evolved repeatedly in animals enabling exploration of resources separated in time and space. In birds, these patterns are largely driven by seasonality, cost of migration, and asymmetries in competition leading most often to leap-frog migration, where northern breeding populations winter furthest to the south. Here we show that the highly aerial common swift Apus apus, spending the non-breeding period on the wing, instead exhibits a rarely-found chain migration pattern, where the...

Raw Material Potential from Historic Mine Sites

Henrike Sievers , Petr Rambousek , Monica Serra, Antje Wittenberg & Daniel Oliveira
Bundesanstalt für Geowissenschaften und Rohstoffe (BGR), Hannover, Germany (1); Česká geologická služba, prac. Geologická 6, Praha 5–Barrandov, Czech Republic (2); ISPRA - Dipartimento per il Servizio Geologico d'Italia, Roma, Italy (3); Laboratório Nacional de Energia e Geologia, Amadora, Portugal (4)

The raw materials required by the European industry, especially metallic raw materials, are largely imported into the EU. Thus, Europe’s economic and social wellbeing relies on supplies from international sources and depends on secure...

Data from: Effects of interspecific coexistence on laying date and clutch size in two closely related species of hole‐nesting birds

Anders Pape Møller, Javier Balbontin, André A. Dhondt, Vladimir Remeš, Frank Adriaensen, Clotilde Biard, Jordi Camprodon, Mariusz Cichoń, Blandine Doligez, Anna Dubiec, Marcel Eens, Tapio Eeva, Anne E. Goodenough, Andrew G. Gosler, Lars Gustafsson, Philipp Heeb, Shelley A. Hinsley, Staffan Jacob, Rimvydas Juškaitis, Toni Laaksonen, Bernard Leclercq, Bruno Massa, Tomasz D. Mazgajski, Rudi G. Nager, Jan-Åke Nilsson … & Ruedi G. Nager
Coexistence between great tits Parus major and blue tits Cyanistes caeruleus, but also other hole‐nesting taxa, constitutes a classic example of species co‐occurrence resulting in potential interference and exploitation competition for food and for breeding and roosting sites. However, the spatial and temporal variations in coexistence and its consequences for competition remain poorly understood. We used an extensive database on reproduction in nest boxes by great and blue tits based on 87 study plots across...

SNPs genotypes of Italian wild boar (Sus scrofa) populations

Massimo Scandura, Giulia Fabbri, Romolo Caniglia, Laura Iacolina, Federica Mattucci, Chiara Mengoni, Giulio Pante, Marco Apollonio & Nadia Mucci
Human activities can globally modify natural ecosystems determining ecological, demographic and range perturbations for several animal species. These changes can jeopardize native gene pools in different ways, leading either to genetic homogenization or, conversely, to the split into genetically divergent demes. In the past decades, most European wild boar (Sus scrofa) populations were heavily managed by humans. Anthropic manipulations have strongly affected also Italian populations through heavy hunting, translocations and reintroductions that might have deeply...

Data from: Towards a genome-wide approach for detecting hybrids: informative SNPs to detect introgression between domestic cats and European wildcats (Felis silvestris)

Rita Oliveira, Ettore Randi, Federica Mattucci, Jennifer Kurushima, Leslie Lyons & Paulo Alves
Endemic gene pools have been severely endangered by human-mediated hybridization, which is posing new challenges in the conservation of several vertebrate species. The endangered European wildcat is an example of this problem, as several natural populations are suffering introgression of genes from the domestic cat. The implementation of molecular methods for detecting hybridization is crucial for supporting appropriate conservation programs on the wildcat. In this study, genetic variation at 158 single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) was analyzed...

Data from: European wildcat populations are subdivided into five main biogeographic groups: consequences of Pleistocene climate changes or recent anthropogenic fragmentation?

Federica Mattucci, Rita Oliveira, Leslie A. Lyons, Paulo C. Alves & Ettore Randi
Extant populations of the European wildcat are fragmented across the continent, the likely consequence of recent extirpations due to habitat loss and over-hunting. However, their underlying phylogeographic history has never been reconstructed. For testing the hypothesis that the European wildcat survived the Ice Age fragmented in Mediterranean refuges, we assayed the genetic variation at 31 microsatellites in 668 presumptive European wildcats sampled in 15 European countries. Moreover, to evaluate the extent of subspecies/population divergence and...

Data from: Genome sequencing highlights the dynamic early history of dogs

Adam H. Freedman, Ilan Gronau, Rena M. Schweizer, Diego Ortega-Del Vecchyo, Eunjung Han, Pedro M. Silva, Marco Galaverni, Zhenxin Fan, Peter Marx, Belen Lorente-Galdos, Holly Beale, Oscar Ramirez, Farhad Hormozdiari, Can Alkan, Carles Vilà, Kevin Squire, Eli Geffen, Josip Kusak, Adam R. Boyko, Heidi G. Parker, Clarence Lee, Vasisht Tadigotla, Adam Siepel, Carlos D. Bustamante, Timothy T. Harkins … & John Novembre
To identify genetic changes underlying dog domestication and reconstruct their early evolutionary history, we generated high-quality genome sequences from three gray wolves, one from each of the three putative centers of dog domestication, two basal dog lineages (Basenji and Dingo) and a golden jackal as an outgroup. Analysis of these sequences supports a demographic model in which dogs and wolves diverged through a dynamic process involving population bottlenecks in both lineages and post-divergence gene flow....

Data from: Global patterns in threats to vertebrates by biological invasions

Celine Bellard, Piero Genovesi & Jonathan M. Jeschke
Biological invasions as drivers of biodiversity loss have recently been challenged. Fundamentally, we must know where species that are threatened by invasive alien species (IAS) live, and the degree to which they are threatened. We report the first study linking 1,372 vertebrates threatened by more than 200 IAS from the completely revised Global Invasive Species Database. New maps of the vulnerability of threatened vertebrates to IAS permit assessments of whether IAS have a major influence...

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