60 Works

Data from: Gene flow in the European coal tit, Periparus ater (Aves: Passeriformes): low among Mediterranean populations but high in a continental contact zone

Christian Tritsch, Heiko Stuckas, Jochen Martens, Stefan Pentzold, Laura Kvist, Mario Lo Valvo, Gabriele Giacalone, Dieter Thomas Tietze, Alexander A. Nazarenko & Martin PÄckert
Extant phylogeographic patterns of Palearctic terrestrial vertebrates are generally believed to have originated from glacial range fragmentation. Post-Pleistocene range expansions have led to the formation of secondary contact zones among genetically distinct taxa. For coal tits (Periparus ater), such a contact zone has been localized in Germany. In this study, we quantified gene flow between Fennoscandian and southern European coal tits using a set of 13 microsatellite loci. STRUCTURE analysis revealed four genetic clusters two...

Data from: Multi-modal defenses in aphids offer redundant protection and increased costs likely impeding a protective mutualism

Adam J. Martinez, Matthew R. Doremus, Laura J. Kraft, Kyungsun L. Kim & Kerry M. Oliver
1.The pea aphid, Acyrthosiphon pisum, maintains extreme variation in resistance to its most common parasitoid wasp enemy, Aphidius ervi, which is sourced from two known mechanisms: protective bacterial symbionts, most commonly Hamiltonella defensa, or endogenously encoded defenses. We have recently found that individual aphids may employ each defense individually, occasionally both defenses together, or neither. 2.In field populations, Hamiltonella-infected aphids are found at low to moderate frequencies and while less is known about the frequency...

Data from: Genetic and ecotypic differentiation in a Californian plant polyploid complex (Grindelia, Asteraceae)

Abigail J. Moore, William L. Moore & Bruce G. Baldwin
Studies of ecotypic differentiation in the California Floristic Province have contributed greatly to plant evolutionary biology since the pioneering work of Clausen, Keck, and Hiesey. The extent of gene flow and genetic differentiation across interfertile ecotypes that span major habitats in the California Floristic Province is understudied, however, and is important for understanding the prospects for local adaptation to evolve or persist in the face of potential gene flow across populations in different ecological settings....

Data from: Tandem-running and scouting behavior are characterized by up-regulation of learning and memory formation genes within the ant brain

Austin Alleman, Marah Stoldt, Barbara Feldmeyer & Susanne Foitzik
Tandem-running is a recruitment behavior in ants that has been described as a form of teaching, where spatial information possessed by a leader is conveyed to following nestmates. Within Temnothorax ants, tandem-running is used within a variety of contexts, from foraging and nest relocation to – in the case of slavemaking species – slave raiding. Here, we elucidate the transcriptomic basis of scouting, tandem-leading, and tandem-following behavior across two species with divergent lifestyles: the slavemaking...

Data from: The population genomics of archaeological transition in west Iberia: investigation of ancient substructure using imputation and haplotype-based methods

Rui Martiniano, Lara M. Cassidy, Ros Ó'Maoldúin, Russell McLaughlin, Nuno M. Silva, Licinio Manco, Daniel Fidalgo, Tania Pereira, Maria J. Coelho, Miguel Serra, Joachim Burger, Rui Parreira, Elena Moran, Antonio C. Valera, Eduardo Porfirio, Rui Boaventura, Ana M. Silva & Daniel G. Bradley
We analyse new genomic data (0.05–2.95x) from 14 ancient individuals from Portugal distributed from the Middle Neolithic (4200–3500 BC) to the Middle Bronze Age (1740–1430 BC) and impute genomewide diploid genotypes in these together with published ancient Eurasians. While discontinuity is evident in the transition to agriculture across the region, sensitive haplotype-based analyses suggest a significant degree of local hunter-gatherer contribution to later Iberian Neolithic populations. A more subtle genetic influx is also apparent in...

Experimental increase in fecundity causes upregulation of fecundity and body maintenance genes in the fat body of ant queens

Susanne Foitzik
In most organisms, fecundity and longevity are negatively associated and the molecular regulation of these two life history traits is highly interconnected. In addition, nutrient intake often has opposing effects on lifespan and reproduction. In contrast to solitary insects, the main reproductive individual of social hymenopterans, the queen, is also the most long-lived. During development, queen larvae are well-nourished, but we are only beginning to understand the impact of nutrition on the queens’ adult life...

The evolution of hemocyanin genes in Tectipleura - a multitude of conserved introns in highly diverse gastropods

Gabriela Schäfer, Veronika Pedrini-Martha, Daniel John Jackson, Reinhard Dallinger & Bernhard Lieb
Background: Hemocyanin is the oxygen transporter of most molluscs. Thus, it is an essential protein of these animals which needs to be adapted perfectly to their environments. In Tectipleura, which is a very large and diverse gastropod group with >27,000 species living in all kinds of habitats, several hemocyanin genes have already been identified. They evolved independently from each other within different lineages due to multiple gene duplications and represent potential adaptations to different environments...

Vielfaltssicherung im Zeitalter von Medienintermediären

Birgit Stark & Daniel Stegmann
Vielfalt ist unerlässlich für die demokratische Meinungsbildung. Idealtypisch liefern die Medien vielfältige Informationen und Meinungen zu relevanten gesellschaftspolitischen Themen, auf deren Grundlage sich die Bürgerinnen und Bürger eine eigene, fundierte Meinung bilden können. Medienpolitisch gilt es daher zu verhindern, dass bestimmte Gruppen oder einzelne Personen einen zu mächtigen Einfluss auf die Meinungsbildung erhalten. Das Arbeitspapier reflektiert aus Sicht der Kommunikationswissenschaft das multidimensionale Konzept der publizistischen Vielfalt und konkretisiert seine demokratietheoretische Verankerung, leitet aus öffentlichkeitstheoretischen Überlegungen...

Implications of Asymmetry Risk for Portfolio Analysis and Asset Pricing

Fousseni Chabi-Yo, Dietmar Leisen & Eric Renault
Asymmetric shocks are common in markets; securities' payoffs are not normally distributed and exhibit skewness. This paper studies the portfolio holdings of heterogeneous agents with preferences over mean, variance and skewness, and derives equilibrium prices. A three funds separation theorem holds, adding a skewness portfolio to the market portfolio; the pricing kernel depends linearly only on the market return and its squared value. Our analysis extends Harvey and Siddique's (2000) conditional mean-variance-skewness asset pricing model...

Data from: Dinosaurian survivorship schedules revisited: new insights from an age-structured population model

Eva Maria Griebeler
Little is known on dinosaur population biology due to insufficient information on age-dependent fecundities and mortalities. So far, survivorship curves (hereafter SC) of only six dinosaurs (four tyrannosaurs, one ceratopsian, one hadrosaur) were erected from bone assemblages of aged specimens. They indicate high survival throughout most of their life with presumable higher mortalities after hatching and increasing mortalities towards its end. However, all studies ignored that assemblages must preserve stationary age distributions (i.e., the population’s...

Data from: GIbPSs: a toolkit for fast and accurate analyses of genotyping-by-sequencing data without a reference genome

A. Hapke & D. Thiele
Genotyping-by-sequencing (GBS) and related methods are increasingly used for studies of non-model organisms from population genetic to phylogenetic scales. We present GIbPSs, a new genotyping toolkit for the analysis of data from various protocols such as RAD, double-digest RAD, GBS, and two-enzyme GBS without a reference genome. GIbPSs can handle paired-end GBS data and is able to assign reads from both strands of a restriction fragment to the same locus. GIbPSs is most suitable for...

Data from: No inbreeding depression but increased sexual investment in highly inbred ant colonies

Ilka M. Kureck, Evelien Jongepier, Beate Nicolai & Susanne Foitzik
Inbreeding can lead to the expression of deleterious recessive alleles and to a subsequent fitness reduction. In Hymenoptera, deleterious alleles are purged in haploid males moderating inbreeding costs. However, in these haplo-diploid species, inbreeding can result in the production of sterile diploid males. We investigated the effects of inbreeding on the individual and colony level in field colonies of the highly inbred ant Hypoponera opacior. In this species, outbreeding winged sexuals and nest-mating wingless sexuals...

Data from: When earwig mothers do not care to share: parent-offspring competition and the evolution of family life

Jos Kramer, Maximilian Körner, Janina Diehl, Christine Scheiner, Aytül Yüksel-Dadak, Teresa Christl, Philip Kohlmeier, Joël Meunier & Janina M. C. Diehl
1. Kin competition often reduces – and sometimes entirely negates – the benefits of cooperation among relatives, and hence is often regarded as central process in social evolution. Surprisingly, however, our understanding of the role of kin competition in the evolution of family life remains fragmentary, despite the close scrutiny it received in studies on sibling rivarly. This is because much less attention has been given to local competition between parents and their offspring, and...

Data from: Vitellogenin-like A–associated shifts in social cue responsiveness regulate behavioral task specialization in an ant

Philip Kohlmeier, Barbara Feldmeyer & Susanne Foitzik
Division of labor and task specialization explain the success of human and insect societies. Social insect colonies are characterized by division of labor with workers specializing on brood care early and foraging later in life. Theory posits that this task switching requires shifts in responsiveness to task-related cues, yet experimental evidence is weak. Here we show that a Vitellogenin (Vg) ortholog identified in a RNAseq study on the ant Temnothorax longispinosus is involved in this...

Data from: Gene expression is more strongly associated with behavioural specialisation than with age or fertility in ant workers

Philip Kohlmeier, Austin R. Alleman, Romain Libbrecht, Susanne Foitzik & Barbara Feldmeyer
The ecological success of social insects is based on division of labour, not only between queens and workers, but also among workers. Whether a worker tends the brood or forages is influenced by age, fertility and nutritional status, with brood carers being younger, more fecund and more corpulent. Here, we experimentally disentangle behavioural specialisation from age and fertility in Temnothorax longispinosus ant workers and analyse how these parameters are linked to whole-body gene expression. A...

Data from: Negative association between parental care and sibling cooperation in earwigs: a new perspective on the early evolution of family life?

Jos Kramer, Julia Thesing & Joël Meunier
The evolution of family life requires net fitness benefits for offspring, which are commonly assumed to mainly derive from parental care. However, an additional source of benefits for offspring is often overlooked: cooperative interactions among juvenile siblings. In this study, we examined how sibling cooperation and parental care could jointly contribute to the early evolution of family life. Specifically, we tested whether the level of food transferred among siblings (sibling cooperation) in the European earwig...

Data from: Feces production as a form of social immunity in an insect with facultative maternal care

Janina M. C. Diehl, Maximilian Körner, Michael Pietsch & Joël Meunier
Background: Social animals have the unique capability of mounting social defenses against pathogens. Over the last decades, social immunity has been extensively studied in species with obligatory and permanent forms of social life. However, its occurrence in less derived social systems and thus its role in the early evolution of group-living remains unclear. Here, we investigated whether lining nests with feces is a form of social immunity against microbial growth in the European earwig Forficula...

Data from: Short-term benefits, but transgenerational costs of maternal loss in an insect with facultative maternal care

Julia Thesing, Jos Kramer, Lisa K. Koch & Joël Meunier
A lack of parental care is generally assumed to entail substantial fitness costs for offspring that ultimately select for the maintenance of family life across generations. However, it is unknown whether these costs arise when parental care is facultative, thus questioning their fundamental importance in the early evolution of family life. Here, we investigated the short-term, long-term and transgenerational effects of maternal loss in the European earwig Forficula auricularia, an insect with facultative post-hatching maternal...

Data from: Oligocene niche shift, Miocene diversification - cold tolerance and accelerated speciation rates in the St. John's Worts (Hypericum, Hypericaceae)

Nicolai M. Nürk, Simon Uribe-Convers, Berit Gehrke, David C. Tank & Frank R. Blattner
Background: Our aim is to understand the evolution of species-rich plant groups that shifted from tropical into cold/temperate biomes. It is well known that climate affects evolutionary processes, such as how fast species diversify, species range shifts, and species distributions. Many plant lineages may have gone extinct in the Northern Hemisphere due to Late Eocene climate cooling, while some tropical lineages may have adapted to temperate conditions and radiated; the hyper-diverse and geographically widespread genus...

Die thrakische Hafenstadt Ainos. Ergebnisse eines interdisziplinären Forschungsprojektes

Thomas Schmidts, Sait Başaran, Andreas Bolten, Helmut Brückner, Heike Bücherl, Anja Cramer, Anca Dan, Martin Dennert, Ercan Erkul, Guido Heinz, Mustafa Koçak, Anna Pint, Martin Seeliger, Ioannis Triantafillidis, Dennis Wilken & Tina Wunderlich
Der Beitrag fasst die Ergebnisse eines von der Deutschen Forschungsgemeinschaft (DFG) im Rahmen des SPP 1630 von 2012 bis 2018 geförderten Projekts zusammen. Während der Feldkampagnen wurden archäologische, baugeschichtliche, geoarchäologische und geophysikalische Untersuchungen durchgeführt. Der Fokus der Untersuchungen lag auf der topographischen und wirtschaftlichen Entwicklung von Ainos in der Antike, insbesondere in der römischen Kaiserzeit, sowie in der byzantinischen Epoche. Neue Erkenntnisse konnten hinsichtlich der Entwicklung der Stadt und der Lokalisierung von möglichen Hafenstandorten erzielt...

Data from: Survival after pathogen exposure in group-living insects: don’t forget the stress of social isolation!

Philip Kohlmeier, Kai Holländer & Joël Meunier
A major cost of group-living is its inherent risk of pathogen infection. To limit this risk, many group-living animals have developed the capability to prophylactically boost their immune system in the presence of group members and/or to mount collective defenses against pathogens. These two phenomena, called density dependent prophylaxis and social immunity, respectively, are often used to explain why, in group-living species, individuals survive better in groups than in isolation. However, this survival difference may...

Data from: Odor diversity decreases with inbreeding in the ant Hypoponera opacior

Florian Menzel, René Radke & Susanne Foitzik
Reduction in heterozygosity can lead to inbreeding depression. This loss of genetic variability especially affects diverse loci, such as immune genes or those encoding recognition cues. In social insects, nestmates are recognized by their odor, i.e. their cuticular hydrocarbon profile. Genes underlying hydrocarbon production are thought to be under balancing selection. If so, inbreeding should result in a loss of chemical diversity. We show here that cuticular hydrocarbon diversity decreases with inbreeding. Studying an ant...

Data from: Controlled feeding experiments with diets of different abrasiveness reveal slow development of mesowear signal in goats (Capra aegagrus hircus)

Nicole L. Ackermans, Daniela E. Winkler, Ellen Schulz-Kornas, Thomas M. Kaiser, Dennis W.H. Mueller, Patrick R. Kircher, Jurgen Hummel, Marcus Clauss & Jean-Michel Hatt
Dental mesowear is applied as a proxy to determine the general diet of mammalian herbivores based on tooth-cusp shape and occlusal relief. Low, blunt cusps are considered typical for grazers and high, sharp cusps typical for browsers. However, how internal or external abrasives impact mesowear, and the time frame the wear signature takes to develop, still need to be explored. Four different pelleted diets of increasing abrasiveness (lucerne, grass, grass and rice husks, grass, rice...

Data from: How ants acclimate: impact of climatic conditions on the cuticular hydrocarbon profile

Florian Menzel, Miriam Zumbusch & Barbara Feldmeyer
1. Organisms from temperate zones are exposed to seasonal changes and must be able to cope with a wide range of climatic conditions. Especially ectotherms, including insects, are at risk to desiccate under dry and warm conditions, the more so given the changing climate. 2. To adjust to current conditions, organisms acclimate through changes in physiology, morphology and/or behaviour. Insects protect themselves against desiccation through a layer of cuticular hydrocarbons (CHC) on their body surface....

Data from: The origin of the serpentine endemic Minuartia laricifolia subsp. ophiolitica by vicariance and competitive exclusion

Abigail J. Moore, Dominik Merges & Joachim W. Kadereit
Serpentine soils harbour a unique flora that is rich in endemics. We examined the evolution of serpentine endemism in Minuartia laricifolia, which has two ecologically distinct subspecies with disjunct distributions: subsp. laricifolia on siliceous rocks in the western Alps and eastern Pyrenees and subsp. ophiolitica on serpentine in the northern Apennines. We analysed AFLPs and chloroplast sequences from 30 populations to examine their relationships and how their current distributions and ecologies were influenced by Quaternary...

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