204 Works

Data from: Tolerance requires the right smell: first evidence for interspecific selection on chemical recognition cues

Florian Menzel & Thomas Schmitt
The integument of insects is generally covered with cuticular hydrocarbons (CHC). They serve multiple functions, most prominent among them waterproofing and – especially among social insects – as communication signal. CHC profiles are incredibly diverse within and across species. However, the causes for CHC variation between species, and potential selection pressures that may shape CHC profiles, are hardly understood. Here, we investigated potential selection pressures on ant CHC. We tested the hypotheses that living in...

Data from: Geographic and temporal dynamics of a global radiation and diversification in the killer whale

Phillip A. Morin, Kim M. Parsons, Frederick I. Archer, María C. Ávila-Arcos, Lance G. Barrett-Lennard, Luciano Dalla Rosa, Sebastián Duchêne, John W. Durban, Graeme M. Ellis, Steven H. Ferguson, John K. Ford, Michael J. Ford, Cristina Gabrilao, M. Thomas P. Gilbert, Kristin Kaschner, Craig O. Matkin, Stephen D. Petersen, Kelly M. Robertson, Ingrid N. Visser, Paul R. Wade, Simon Y. W. Ho & Andrew D. Foote
Global climate change during the Late Pleistocene periodically encroached and then released habitat during the glacial cycles, causing range expansions and contractions in some species. These dynamics have played a major role in geographic radiations, diversification and speciation. We investigate these dynamics in the most widely distributed of marine mammals, the killer whale (Orcinus orca), using a global data set of over 450 samples. This marine top predator inhabits coastal and pelagic ecosystems ranging from...

Data from: Biotic and climatic velocity identify contrasting areas of vulnerability to climate change

Carlos Carroll, Joshua J. Lawler, David R. Roberts & Andreas Hamann
Metrics that synthesize the complex effects of climate change are essential tools for mapping future threats to biodiversity and predicting which species are likely to adapt in place to new climatic conditions, disperse and establish in areas with newly suitable climate, or face the prospect of extirpation. The most commonly used of such metrics is the velocity of climate change, which estimates the speed at which species must migrate over the earth’s surface to maintain...

Data from: Globally, functional traits are weak predictors of juvenile tree growth, and we do not know why

C. E. Timothy Paine, Lucy Amissah, Harald Auge, Christopher Baraloto, Martin Baruffol, Nils Bourland, Helge Bruelheide, Kasso Daïnou, Roland C. De Gouvenain, Jean-Louis Doucet, Susan Doust, Paul V. A. Fine, Claire Fortunel, Josephine Haase, Karen D. Holl, Hervé Jactel, Xuefei Li, Kaoru Kitajima, Julia Koricheva, Cristina Martínez-Garza, Christian Messier, Alain Paquette, Christopher Philipson, Daniel Piotto, Lourens Poorter … & Andy Hector
1. Plant functional traits, in particular specific leaf area (SLA), wood density and seed mass, are often good predictors of individual tree growth rates within communities. Individuals and species with high SLA, low wood density and small seeds tend to have faster growth rates. 2. If community-level relationships between traits and growth have general predictive value, then similar relationships should also be observed in analyses that integrate across taxa, biogeographic regions and environments. Such global...

Data from: Configurational landscape heterogeneity shapes functional community composition of grassland butterflies

David Perović, Sagrario Gámez-Virués, Carmen Börschig, Alexandra-Maria Klein, Jochen Krauss, Juliane Steckel, Christoph Rothenwöhrer, Stefan Erasmi, Teja Tscharntke & Catrin Westphal
1. Landscape heterogeneity represents two aspects of landscape simplification: (i) compositional heterogeneity (diversity of habitat types) and (ii) configurational heterogeneity (number, size and arrangement of habitat patches); both with different ecological implications for community composition. 2. We examined how independent gradients of compositional and configurational landscape heterogeneity, at eight spatial scales, shape taxonomic and functional composition of butterfly communities in 91 managed grasslands across Germany. We used landscape metrics that were calculated from functional maps...

Data from: Comparative evaluation of potential indicators and temporal sampling protocols for monitoring genetic erosion

Sean Hoban, Jan A. Arntzen, Michael W. Bruford, José A. Godoy, A. Rus Hoelzel, Gernot Segelbacher, Carles Vilà & Giorgio Bertorelle
Genetic biodiversity contributes to individual fitness, species' evolutionary potential, and ecosystem stability. Temporal monitoring of the genetic status and trends of wild populations' genetic diversity can provide vital data to inform policy decisions and management actions. However, there is a lack of knowledge regarding which genetic metrics, temporal sampling protocols, and genetic markers are sufficiently sensitive and robust, on conservation-relevant timescales. Here, we tested six genetic metrics and various sampling protocols (number and arrangement of...

Data from: Colour, design, and reward: phenotypic integration of fleshy fruit displays

Alfredo Valido, H Martin Schaefer & Pedro Jordano
The functional or structural linkage among traits (phenotypic integration; PI) within complex structures can constrain the evolutionary response of individual traits. To analyse whether frugivores with distinct sensory ecology have shaped the patterns of fruit diversification differently, we compared PI values of fleshy fruits that are consumed by birds and mammals. We used phylogenetic comparative analyses of PI among 13 morphological, nutritional and visual fruit traits from 111 Mediterranean plant species. Results showed that morphological...

Data from: Tree species richness increases ecosystem carbon storage in subtropical forests

Xiaojuan Liu, Stefan Trogisch, Jin-Sheng He, Pascal A. Niklaus, Helge Bruelheide, Zhiyao Tang, Alexandra Erfmeier, Michael Scherer-Lorenzen, Katherina A. Pietsch, Bo Yang, Peter Kühn, Thomas Scholten, Yuanyuan Huang, Chao Wang, Michael Staab, Katrin N. Leppert, Christian Wirth, Bernhard Schmid & Keping Ma
Forest ecosystems are an integral component of the global carbon cycle as they take up and release large amounts of C in short time (C flux) or accumulate it over longer time (C stock). However, there remains uncertainty about whether and in which direction C fluxes and in particular C stocks may differ between forests of high vs. low species richness. Based on a comprehensive dataset derived from field-based measurements, we tested the effect of...

Data from: Frequency dependence of pollinator visitation rates suggests that pollination niches can allow plant species coexistence

Gita Benadi & Anton Pauw
1. How do many species coexist within a trophic level? Resource niches are the classical answer, but in plants which share a small set of abiotic resources the possibilities for resource partitioning are limited. One possible explanation is that plant species have different pollination niches, with each species specialized to a subset of the available animal species. If this pollinator partitioning results in negative frequency dependence such that each plant species’ reproduction is reduced when...

Data from: Hemimetabolous genomes reveal molecular basis of termite eusociality

Mark C Harrison, Evelien Jongepier, Hugh M. Robertson, Nicolas Arning, Tristan Bitard-Feildel, Hsu Chao, Christopher P. Childers, Huyen Dinh, Harshavardhan Doddapaneni, Shannon Dugan, Johannes Gowin, Carolin Greiner, Yi Han, Haofu Hu, Daniel S.T. Hughes, Ann-Kathrin Huylmans, Carsten Kemena, Lukas P.M. Kremer, Sandra L. Lee, Alberto Lopez-Ezquerra, Ludovic Mallet, Jose M. Monroy-Kuhn, Annabell Moser, Shwetha C. Murali, Donna M. Muzny … & Erich Bornberg-Bauer
Around 150 million years ago, eusocial termites evolved from within the cockroaches, 50 million years before eusocial Hymenoptera, such as bees and ants, appeared. Here, we report the 2-Gb genome of the German cockroach, Blattella germanica, and the 1.3-Gb genome of the drywood termite Cryptotermes secundus. We show evolutionary signatures of termite eusociality by comparing the genomes and transcriptomes of three termites and the cockroach against the background of 16 other eusocial and non-eusocial insects....

Data from: Trap nests for bees and wasps to analyse trophic interactions in changing environments - a systematic overview and user guide

Michael Staab, Gesine Pufal, Teja Tscharntke & Alexandra-Maria Klein
1. Trap nests are artificially made nesting resources for solitary cavity-nesting bees and wasps and allow easy quantification of multiple trophic interactions between bees, wasps, their food objects and natural enemies. 2. We synthesized all trap nest studies available in the ISI Web of Science™ to provide a comprehensive overview of trap nest research and identify common practical challenges and promising future research directions. 3. Trap nests have been used on all continents and across...

Data from: Plant species richness negatively affects root decomposition in grasslands

Hongmei Chen, Liesje Mommer, Jasper Van Ruijven, Hans De Kroon, Christine Fischer, Arthur Gessler, Anke Hildebrandt, Michael Scherer-Lorenzen, Christian Wirth & Alexandra Weigelt
Plant diversity enhances many ecosystem functions, including root biomass production, which drives soil carbon input. Although root decomposition accounts for a large proportion of carbon input for soil, little is known about plant diversity effect on this process. Plant diversity may affect root decomposition in two non-exclusive ways: by providing roots of different substrate quality (e.g. root chemistry) and/or by altering the soil environment (e.g. microclimate). To disentangle these two pathways, we conducted three decomposition...

Data from: Multi-trophic guilds respond differently to changing elevation in a subtropical forest

Julia Binkenstein, Alexandra-Maria Klein, Thorsten Assmann, Francois Buscot, Alexandra Erfmeier, Keping Ma, Katherina A. Pietsch, Karsten Schmidt, Thomas Scholten, Tesfaye Wubet, Helge Bruelheide, Andreas Schuldt & Michael Staab
Negative relationships between species richness and elevation are common and attributed to changes in single environmental properties associated to elevation, such as temperature and habitat area. However, research has lacked taxonomic breadth and comprehensive elevation studies that consider multiple groups from different trophic levels are rare. We thus analysed 24 groups of plants, arthropods, and microorganisms grouped into six trophic guilds (predators, detritivores, herbivores, plants, bacteria and fungi) along a relatively short elevational gradient (~600...

Data from: Diversity and evolution of the transposable element repertoire in arthropods with particular reference to insects

Malte Petersen, David Armisén, Richard Gibbs, Lars Hering, Abderrahman Khila, Georg Mayer, Stephen Richards, Oliver Niehuis & Bernhard Misof
Background: Transposable elements (TEs) are a major component of metazoan genomes and are associated with a variety of mechanisms that shape genome architecture and evolution. Despite the ever-growing number of insect genomes sequenced to date, our understanding of the diversity and evolution of insect TEs remains poor. Results: Here, we present a standardized characterization and an order-level comparison of arthropod TE repertoires, encompassing 62 insect and 11 outgroup species. The insect TE repertoire contains TEs...

Data from: Fear of the dark? contrasting impacts of humans vs lynx on diel activity of roe deer across Europe

Nadège C. Bonnot, Ophélie Couriot, Anne Berger, Francesca Cagnacci, Simone Ciuti, Johannes De Groeve, Benedikt Gehr, Marco Heurich, Petter Kjellander, Max Kröschel, Nicolas Morellet, Leif Sönnichsen & A.J. Mark Hewison
Humans, as super predators, can have strong effects on wildlife behaviour, including profound modifications of diel activity patterns. Subsequent to the return of large carnivores to human-modified ecosystems, many prey species have adjusted their spatial behaviour to the contrasting landscapes of fear generated by both their natural predators and anthropogenic pressures. The effects of predation risk on temporal shifts in diel activity of prey, however, remain largely unexplored in human-dominated landscapes. We investigated the influence...

Data from: Management trade-offs on ecosystem services in apple orchards across Europe: direct and indirect effects of organic production

Ulrika Samnegard, Georgina Alins, Virginie Boreux, Jordi Bosch, Daniel García, Anne-Kathrin Happe, Alexandra Klein, Marcos Miñarro, Karsten Mody, Mario Porcel, Anselm Rodrigo, Laura Roquer-Beni, Marco Tasin, Peter A. Hambäck & Alexandra-Maria Klein
1. Apple is considered the most important fruit crop in temperate areas and profitable production depends on multiple ecosystem services, including the reduction of pest damage and the provision of sufficient pollination levels. Management approaches present an inherent trade-off as each affects species differently. 2. We quantified the direct and indirect effects of management (organic versus integrated pest management (IPM)) on species richness, ecosystem services and fruit production in 85 apple orchards in three European...

Carbohydrate depletion in roots impedes phosphorus nutrition of forest trees

Simon Clausing, Rodica Pena, Bin Song, Karolin Müller, Paula Mayer-Gruner, Sven Marhan, Martin Grafe, Stefanie Schulz, Jaane Krüger, Friederike Lang, Michael Schloter, Ellen Kandeler & Andrea Polle
The aim of the study was to determine the effect of belowground plant-derived carbohydrates on P uptake, P concentrations and enzymes activities related to P mobilization in roots, ectomycorrhizas and soil and on the abundances of P-related genes in soil bacteria. We report data from a girdling experiment in two temperate beech forest with contrasting soil phosphorus concentrations. We used soil cores and the fractions of the organic layer and mineral topsoil separately one and...

Impact of nitrogen and phosphorus addition on resident soil and root mycobiomes in beech forests

Simon Clausing, Likulunga Emmanuel Likulunga, Dennis Janz, Huanying Feng, Dominik Schneider, Rolf Daniel, Jaane Krüger, Friederike Lang & Andrea Polle
The aim of the study was to investigate the influence of fertilizers on root-associated and soil residing fungi in beech forests. We report data from a fertilization experiment in three temperate beech forest with contrasting soil phosphorus concentrations. We used soil cores and the fractions of the organic layer and mineral topsoil separately of spring and fall 2018. We collected bulk soil and roots. We provide data on soil for pH, mineral elements, ammonium, nitrate,...

Data from: Nest attentiveness drives nest predation in arctic sandpipers

Nicolas Meyer, Loïc Bollache, François-Xavier Dechaume-Moncharmont, Jerôme Moreau, Eve Afonso, Anders Angerbjörn, Joël Bety, Dorothee Ehrich, Vladimir Gilg, Marie-Andrée Giroux, Jannik Hansen, Richard Lanctot, Johannes Lang, Nicolas Lecomte, Laura McKinnon, Jeroen Reneerkens, Sarah Saalfeld, Brigitte Sabard, Niels Schmidt, Benoît Sittler, Paul Smith, Aleksandr Sokolov, Vasiliy Sokolov, Natalya Sokolova, Rob Van Bemmelen … & Olivier Gilg
Most birds incubate their eggs to allow embryo development. This behaviour limits the ability of adults to perform other activities. Hence, incubating adults trade-off incubation and nest protection with foraging to meet their own needs. Parents can either cooperate to sustain this trade-off or incubate alone. The main cause of reproductive failure at this reproductive stage is predation and adults reduce this risk by keeping the nest location secret. Arctic sandpipers are interesting biological models...

Saber trágico y sensibilidad melodramática Consideraciones preliminares y enfoques latinoamericanos

Hermann Herlinghaus

Evolution of body size and wing shape trade-offs in arsenurine silkmoths

Chris Hamilton, Nathalie Winiger, Juliette Rubin, Jesse Breinholt, Rodolphe Rougerie, Ian Kitching, Jesse Barber & Akito Kawahara
One of the key objectives in biological research is understanding how evolutionary processes have produced Earth's diversity. A critical step towards revealing these processes is an investigation of evolutionary tradeoffs – that is, the opposing pressures of multiple selective forces. For millennia, nocturnal moths have had to balance successful flight, as they search for mates or host plants, with evading bat predators. However, the potential for evolutionary trade-offs between wing shape and body size are...

The emergence of ecotypes in a parasitoid wasp: a case of incipient sympatric speciation in Hymenoptera?

Pawel Malec, Justus Weber, Marc Fiebig, Denise Meinert, Carolin Rein, Ronja Reinisch, Maik Henrich, Viktoria Polyvas, Marie Pollmann, Lea Von Berg, Christian König, Johannes L.M. Steidle & Robin Böhmer
Background To understand which reproductive barriers initiate speciation is a major question in evolutionary research. Despite their high species numbers and specific biology, there are only few studies on speciation in Hymenoptera. This study aims to identify very early reproductive barriers in a local, sympatric population of Nasonia vitripennis (Walker 1836), a hymenopterous parasitoid of fly pupae. We studied ecological barriers, sexual barriers, and the reduction in F1-female offspring as a postmating barrier, as well...

Data From: Fit and fatty freshwater fish: Contrasting polyunsaturated fatty acid phenotypes between hybridizing stickleback lineages

Cameron Hudson, Nemiah Ladd, Miguel Leal, Carsten Schubert, Ole Seehausen & Blake Matthews
Long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids are biologically important lipids that are unevenly distributed between and throughout environments. This heterogeneity can affect the evolution of metabolic processes, as populations adapt to the resource landscape that they encounter. Here, we compare fatty acid phenotypes of stickleback over two time scales of evolutionary divergence: between two lineages with different metabolic capacities for fatty acid synthesis (i.e. different copy number of the fatty acid desaturase gene; FADS2) that independently colonized...

Transcriptomic signatures of ageing vary in solitary and social forms of an orchid bee

Alice Séguret, Eckart Stolle, Fernando Fleites-Ayil, Javier Quezada-Euán, Klaus Hartfelder, Karen Meusemann, Mark Harrison, Antonella Soro & Robert Paxton
Eusocial insect queens are remarkable in their ability to maximise both fecundity and longevity, thus escaping the typical trade-off between these two traits. Several mechanisms have been proposed to underlie the remoulding of the trade-off, such as reshaping of the juvenile hormone pathway, or caste-specific susceptibility to oxidative stress. However, it remains a challenge to disentangle the molecular mechanisms underlying the remoulding of the trade-off in eusocial insects from caste-specific physiological attributes that have subsequently...

Influence of past climate change on phylogeography and demographic history of narwhals, Monodon monoceros

Marie Louis, Mikkel Skovrind, Jose Alfredo Samaniego Castruita, Cristina Garilao, Kristin Kaschner, Shyam Gopalakrishnan, James Haile, Christian Lydersen, Kit Kovacs, Eva Garde, Mads Peter Heide-Jørgensen, Lianne Postma, Steve Ferguson, Eske Willerslev & Eline Lorenzen
The Arctic is warming at an unprecedented rate, with unknown consequences for endemic fauna. However, Earth has experienced severe climatic oscillations in the past, and understanding how species responded to them might provide insight into their resilience to near-future climatic predictions. Little is known about the responses of Arctic marine mammals to past climatic shifts, but narwhals (Monodon monoceros) are considered one of the endemic Arctic species most vulnerable to environmental change. Here, we analyze...

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