124 Works

From zero deforestation to zero illegality: Discussing practices of territorialization in Southwest Pará

Michael Klingler & Philipp Mack
Presentation given at the 2nd Austrian Conference on International Resource Politics: Resources for a social-ecological transformation, 28th February - 2nd March 2019, Innsbruck/Austria.
Environmental policy changes and supply chain interventions greatly influenced the post-2004 deforestation slowdown in the Brazilian Amazon. Nevertheless, since 2012 deforestation rates are on the rise again. Especially in Southwest Pará, where the frontier dynamics of speculative deforestation and illegal cattle ranching are ubiquitous, deforestation is far from ‘zero’. Even though a series...

Data from: Temporal scale-dependence of plant-pollinator networks

Benjamin Schwarz, Diego Vázquez, Paul CaraDonna, Tiffany Knight, Gita Benadi, Carsten Dormann, Benoit Gauzens, Elena Motivans, Julian Resasco, Nico Blüthgen, Laura Burkle, Qiang Fang, Christopher Kaiser-Bunbury, Ruben Alarcón, Justin Bain, Natacha Chacoff, Shuang-Quan Huang, Gretchen LeBuhn, Molly MacLeod, Theodora Petanidou, Claus Rasmussen, Michael Simanonok, Amibeth Thompson, Daniel Cariveau, Michael Roswell … & Jochen Fründ
The study of mutualistic interaction networks has led to valuable insights into ecological and evolutionary processes. However, our understanding of network structure may depend upon the temporal scale at which we sample and analyze network data. To date, we lack a comprehensive assessment of the temporal scale-dependence of network structure across a wide range of temporal scales and geographic locations. If network structure is temporally scale-dependent, networks constructed over different temporal scales may provide very...

Just Popular Entertainment or Longing for a Posthuman Eden?

Stephanie Bender
In the context of the ecological crisis, tales of the apocalypse have become a regular feature of the contemporary cultural imaginary, be it in popular feature films, non-fictional texts, or dystopian novels. Margaret Atwood’s MaddAddam Trilogy (2004 [2003], 2010 [2009], 2014 [2013]) investigates this curious form of entertainment both by employing the template of the apocalypse itself and by reflecting on its cause and effect at the same time. The novels reveal how worlds and...

Oftmals durch den truck aus gangen oder: Eine methodische Perspektive zur Gruppierung und Interpretation gedruckter Chroniken des 16. Jahrhunderts

Pia Eckhart
In sixteenth-century Augsburg a number of plain German chronicles was published and repeatedly reprinted, revised and updated. In order to understand and evaluate similarities and differences between editions adequately, this article discusses criteria that allow us to classify print editions and to conceptualize them within an overarching category such as a ‘work’. The suggested focus on codicological evidence and layout offers advantages for recognizing similarities between different editions that an analysis limited on the textual...

Data from: Stepwise evolution of resistance to toxic cardenolides via genetic substitutions in the Na+/K+-ATPase of milkweed butterflies (Lepidoptera: Danaini)

Georg Petschenka, Steffi Fandrich, Nils Sander, Vera Wagschal, Michael Boppré & Susanne Dobler
Despite the monarch butterfly (Danaus plexippus) being famous for its adaptations to the defensive traits of its milkweed host plants, little is known about the macroevolution of these traits. Unlike most other animal species, monarchs are largely insensitive to cardenolides, since their target site, the sodium pump (Na+/K+-ATPase), has evolved amino acid substitutions which reduce cardenolide binding (so-called target site insensitivity, TSI). Since many, but not all, species of milkweed butterflies (Danaini) are associated with...

Data from: Lessons learned from microsatellite development for non-model organisms using 454 pyrosequencing

Corine Schoebel, Sabine Brodbeck, Dominique Buehler, Carolina Cornejo, Jyoti Gajurel, Hanna Hartikainen, Daniela Keller, Marie Leys, Štěpánka Říčanová, Gernot Segelbacher, Silke Werth, Daniela Csencsics & C. N. Schoebel
Microsatellites, also known as simple sequence repeats (SSRs), are among the most commonly used marker types in evolutionary and ecological studies. Next Generation Sequencing techniques such as 454 pyrosequencing allow the rapid development of microsatellite markers in nonmodel organisms. 454 pyrosequencing is a straightforward approach to develop a high number of microsatellite markers. Therefore, developing microsatellites using 454 pyrosequencing has become the method of choice for marker development. Here, we describe a user friendly way...

Data from: Cuticular hydrocarbon divergence in the jewel wasp Nasonia: evolutionary shifts in chemical communication channels?

Jan Buellesbach, Juergen Gadau, Leo W. Beukeboom, Felix Echinger, Rhitoban Raychoudhury, Jack H. Werren & Thomas Schmitt
The evolution and maintenance of intraspecific communication channels constitutes a key feature of chemical signaling and sexual communication. However, how divergent chemical communication channels evolve while maintaining their integrity for both sender and receiver is poorly understood. In the present study, we compare male and female cuticular hydrocarbon (CHC) profiles in the jewel wasp genus Nasonia, analyze their chemical divergence, and investigate their role as species-specific sexual signaling cues. Males and females of all four...

Data from: An inverse latitudinal gradient in speciation rate for marine fishes

Daniel L. Rabosky, Jonathan Chang, Pascal O. Title, Peter F. Cowman, Lauren Sallan, Matt Friedman, Kristin Kaschner, Cristina Garilao, Thomas J. Near, Marta Coll & Michael E. Alfaro
Far more species of organisms are found in the tropics than in temperate and polar regions, but the evolutionary and ecological causes of this pattern remain controversial1,2. Tropical marine fish communities are much more diverse than cold-water fish communities found at higher latitudes3,4, and several explanations for this latitudinal diversity gradient propose that warm reef environments serve as evolutionary ‘hotspots’ for species formation5,6,7,8. Here we test the relationship between latitude, species richness and speciation rate...

Data from: Assessing changes in arthropod predator-prey interactions through DNA-based gut content analysis - variable environment, stable diet

Bernhard Eitzinger, Nerea Abrego, Dominique Gravel, Tea Huotari, Eero J. Vesterinen & Tomas Roslin
Analyzing the structure and dynamics of biotic interaction networks and the processes shaping them is currently one of the key fields in ecology. In this paper, we develop a novel approach to gut content analysis, thereby deriving a new perspective on community interactions and their responses to environment. For this, we use an elevational gradient in the High Arctic, asking how the environment and species traits interact in shaping predator-prey interactions involving the wolf spider...

Data from: LiDAR-derived canopy structure supports the more-individuals hypothesis for arthropod diversity in temperate forests

Jörg Müller, Roland Brandl, Martin Brändle, Bernhard Förster, Bruno Cancian De Araujo, Martin M. Gossner, Alexander Ladas, Martin Wagner, Mark Maraun, Peter Schall, Stefan Schmidt, Marco Heurich, Simon Thorn & Sebastian Seibold
Despite considerable progress in the ability to measure the complex 3-D structure of forests with the improvement of remote-sensing techniques, our mechanistic understanding of how biodiversity is linked to canopy structure is still limited. Here we tested whether the increase in arthropod abundance and richness in beech forest canopies with increasing canopy complexity supports the more-individuals hypothesis or the habitat-heterogeneity hypothesis. We used fogging to collect arthropod samples from 80 standardized plots from canopies of...

Data from: Linking diversity, synchrony and stability in soil microbial communities

Cameron Wagg, Jan-Hendrik Dudenhöffer, Franco Widmer, Marcel G.A. Van Der Heijden & Marcel G. A. Van Der Heijden
1. It is becoming well established that plant diversity is instrumental in stabilizing the temporal functioning of ecosystems through population dynamics and the so-called insurance or portfolio effect. However, it is unclear whether diversity-stability relationships and the role of population dynamics in soil microbial communities parallel those in plant communities. 2. Our study took place in a long-term land management experiment with and without perturbation to the soil ecosystem by tilling. We assessed the impacts...

Data from: Disturbance intensity is a stronger driver of biomass recovery than remaining tree-community attributes in a managed Amazonian forest

Angela L. De Avila, Masha T. Van Der Sande, Carsten F. Dormann, Marielos Peña-Claros, Lourens Poorter, Lucas Mazzei, Ademir R. Ruschel, José N. M. Silva, João O. P. De Carvalho & Jürgen Bauhus
1.Forest recovery following management interventions is important to maintain ecosystem functioning and the provision of ecosystem services. It remains, however, largely unclear how aboveground biomass (AGB) recovery of species-rich tropical forests is affected by disturbance intensity and post-disturbance (remaining) tree-community attributes, following logging and thinning interventions. 2.We investigated whether annual AGB increment (∆AGB) decreases with management-related disturbance intensity (disturbance hypothesis), and increases with the diversity (niche-complementarity hypothesis) and the community-weighted mean (CWM) of acquisitive traits...

Data from: Gonadotropin-releasing hormone antagonists versus standard androgen suppression therapy for advanced prostate cancer: a systematic review with meta-analysis

Frank Kunath, Hendrik Borgmann, Anette Blümle, Bastian Keck, Bernd Wullich, Christine Schmucker, Danijel Sikic, Catharina Roelle, Schmidt Stefanie, Amr Wahba & Joerg J. Meerpohl
Objectives: To evaluate efficacy and safety of gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) antagonists compared to standard androgen suppression therapy for advanced prostate cancer. Setting: The international review team included methodologists of the German Cochrane Centre and clinical experts. Participants: We searched CENTRAL, MEDLINE, Web of Science, EMBASE, trial registries and conference books for randomised controlled trials (RCT) for effectiveness data analysis, and randomised or non-randomised controlled studies (non-RCT) for safety data analysis (March 2015). Two authors independently...

Data from: Tree diversity increases robustness of multi-trophic interactions

Felix Fornoff, Alexandra-Maria Klein, Nico Blüthgen & Michael Staab
Multi-trophic interactions maintain critical ecosystem functions. Biodiversity is declining globally, while responses of trophic interactions to biodiversity change are largely unclear. Thus, studying responses of multi-trophic interaction robustness to biodiversity change is crucial for understanding ecosystem functioning and persistence. We investigate plant-Hemiptera- (antagonism) and Hemiptera-ant- (mutualism) interaction networks in response to experimental manipulation of tree diversity. We show increased diversity at both higher trophic levels (Hemiptera and ants) and increased robustness through redundancy of lower...

Data from: An efficient method to exploit LiDAR data in animal ecology

Simone Ciuti, Henriette Tripke, Peter Antkowiak, Ramiro Silveyra Gonzalez, Carsten F. Dormann & Marco Heurich
1. Light detection and ranging (LiDAR) technology provides ecologists with high-resolution data on three-dimensional vegetation structure. Large LiDAR datasets challenge predictive ecologists, who commonly simplify point clouds into structural attributes (namely LiDAR-based metrics such as canopy height), which are used as predictors in ecological models, potentially with loss of relevant information. 2. We illustrate an efficient alternative approach to reduce the dimensionality of LiDAR data that aims at minimal data filtering with no a priori...

Data from: Beyond biomass: soil feedbacks are transient over plant life-stages and alter fitness

Jan-Hendrik Dudenhöffer, Anne Ebeling, Alexandra-Maria Klein & Cameron Wagg
1. Plants influence associated soil biotic communities that in turn can alter the performance of the subsequently growing plants. Although such ‘plant-soil feedbacks’ (PSFs) are considered as important drivers of plant community assembly, past PSF studies have mainly addressed plant biomass production. However, plant performance is not only the production of biomass, but comprises a sequence of different life-stages: from seed germination over vegetative growth up to the production of a viable progeny. 2. Here...

Data from: Dynamics of non-structural carbohydrates in terrestrial plants: a global synthesis

Jordi Martinez-Vilalta, Anna Sala, Dolores Asensio, Lucia Galiano, Guenter Hoch, Sara Palacio, Frida I. Piper & Francisco Lloret
Plants store large amounts of non-structural carbohydrates (NSC). While multiple functions of NSC have long been recognized, the interpretation of NSC seasonal dynamics is often based on the idea that stored NSC is a reservoir of carbon that fluctuates depending on the balance between supply via photosynthesis and demand for growth and respiration (the source-sink dynamics concept). Consequently, relatively high NSC concentrations in some plants have been interpreted to reflect excess supply relative to demand....

Data from: Agreements between industry and academia on publication rights: a retrospective study of protocols and publications of randomized clinical trials

Benjamin Kasenda, Erik Von Elm, John J. You, Anette Blümle, Yuki Tomonaga, Ramon Saccilotto, Alain Amstutz, Theresa Bengough, Joerg J. Meerpohl, Mihaela Stegert, Kelechi K. Olu, Kari A. O. Tikkinen, Ignacio Neumann, Alonso Carrasco-Labra, Markus Faulhaber, Sohail M. Mulla, Dominik Mertz, Elie A. Akl, Dirk Bassler, Jason W. Busse, Ignacio Ferreira-González, Francois Lamontagne, Alain Nordmann, Viktoria Gloy, Heike Raatz … & Matthias Briel
Background: Little is known about publication agreements between industry and academic investigators in trial protocols and the consistency of these agreements with corresponding statements in publications. We aimed to investigate (i) the existence and types of publication agreements in trial protocols, (ii) the completeness and consistency of the reporting of these agreements in subsequent publications, and (iii) the frequency of co-authorship by industry employees. Methods and Findings: We used a retrospective cohort of randomized clinical...

Data from: Systemic enrichment of antifungal traits in the rhizosphere microbiome after pathogen attack

Jan-Hendrik Dudenhöffer, Stefan Scheu & Alexandre Jousset
1. Plant-associated microbial communities are crucial for plant growth and play an important role in disease suppression. Community composition and function change upon pathogen attack, yet to date we do not know if these changes are a side effect of the infection or actively driven by the plant. 2. Here we used a split-root approach to test whether barley plants recruit bacteria carrying antifungal traits upon infestation with Fusarium graminearum. Split-root systems allow disentangling local...

Validation of the AD dementia conversion-related pattern as an ATN biomarker of neurodegeneration: Supplemental material

Ganna Blazhenets, Lars Frings, Yilong Ma, Arnd Sörensen, David Eidelberg, Jens Wiltfang & Philipp T. Meyer
Objective: To determine whether the Alzheimer’s disease dementia conversion-related pattern (ADCRP) on [18F]FDG PET can serve as a valid predictor for the development of Alzheimer’s disease dementia, the individual expression of the ADCRP (subject score) and its prognostic value were examined in subjects with mild cognitive impairment and biologically defined Alzheimer’s disease. Methods: 269 subjects with available [18F]FDG PET, [18F]AV-45 PET, phosphorylated and total tau in CSF, and neurofilament light chain in plasma were included....

Professionsorientierte Fachwissenschaft als Element der Allgemeinen Fachdidaktik

Eva-Maria Spiegelhalter
Konzepte der fachlichen Bildung sind Elemente einer Allgemeinen Fachdidaktik. Die Bedeutung fachlicher Bildung im Bildungsprozess ist bisher nicht eindeutig geklärt. Am Freiburg Advanced Center of Education (FACE) werden aktuell in den Domänen Germanistik, Romanistik und Theologie Lehrprojekte konzipiert, die eine professionsorientierte Fachwissenschaft fokussieren. Professionsorientierte Fachwissenschaft zielt auf den Aufbau eines fachwissenschaftlichen Wissens, das strukturell auf die spätere professionelle Tätigkeit ausgerichtet ist. Der Artikel arbeitet heraus, welchen Beitrag professionsorientierte Fachwissenschaft zum Konzept der fachlichen Bildung leistet,...

Midgut transcriptome assessment of the cockroach-hunting wasp Ampulex compressa (Apoidea: Ampulicidae)

Manuela Sann, Jovana M. Jasso-Martínez, Alexander Donath, Dieter Schulten & Alejandro Zaldívar-Riverón
The emerald jewel wasp Ampulex compressa (Hymenoptera: Ampulicidae) is a solitary wasp that is widely known for its specialized hunting of cockroaches as larvae provision. Adult wasps mainly feed on pollen and nectar, while their larvae feed on the cockroachs’ body, first as ecto- and later as endoparsitoids. Little is known about the expression of digestive, detoxification and stress-response-related genes in the midgut of A. compressa, or about its transcriptional versatility between life stages. To...

Transcriptomic signatures of ageing vary in solitary and social forms of an orchid bee

Alice Séguret, Eckart Stolle, Fernando Fleites-Ayil, Javier Quezada-Euán, Klaus Hartfelder, Karen Meusemann, Mark Harrison, Antonella Soro & Robert Paxton
Eusocial insect queens are remarkable in their ability to maximise both fecundity and longevity, thus escaping the typical trade-off between these two traits. Several mechanisms have been proposed to underlie the remoulding of the trade-off, such as reshaping of the juvenile hormone pathway, or caste-specific susceptibility to oxidative stress. However, it remains a challenge to disentangle the molecular mechanisms underlying the remoulding of the trade-off in eusocial insects from caste-specific physiological attributes that have subsequently...

Influence of past climate change on phylogeography and demographic history of narwhals, Monodon monoceros

Marie Louis, Mikkel Skovrind, Jose Alfredo Samaniego Castruita, Cristina Garilao, Kristin Kaschner, Shyam Gopalakrishnan, James Haile, Christian Lydersen, Kit Kovacs, Eva Garde, Mads Peter Heide-Jørgensen, Lianne Postma, Steve Ferguson, Eske Willerslev & Eline Lorenzen
The Arctic is warming at an unprecedented rate, with unknown consequences for endemic fauna. However, Earth has experienced severe climatic oscillations in the past, and understanding how species responded to them might provide insight into their resilience to near-future climatic predictions. Little is known about the responses of Arctic marine mammals to past climatic shifts, but narwhals (Monodon monoceros) are considered one of the endemic Arctic species most vulnerable to environmental change. Here, we analyze...

Data from: Geographic and temporal dynamics of a global radiation and diversification in the killer whale

Phillip A. Morin, Kim M. Parsons, Frederick I. Archer, María C. Ávila-Arcos, Lance G. Barrett-Lennard, Luciano Dalla Rosa, Sebastián Duchêne, John W. Durban, Graeme M. Ellis, Steven H. Ferguson, John K. Ford, Michael J. Ford, Cristina Gabrilao, M. Thomas P. Gilbert, Kristin Kaschner, Craig O. Matkin, Stephen D. Petersen, Kelly M. Robertson, Ingrid N. Visser, Paul R. Wade, Simon Y. W. Ho & Andrew D. Foote
Global climate change during the Late Pleistocene periodically encroached and then released habitat during the glacial cycles, causing range expansions and contractions in some species. These dynamics have played a major role in geographic radiations, diversification and speciation. We investigate these dynamics in the most widely distributed of marine mammals, the killer whale (Orcinus orca), using a global data set of over 450 samples. This marine top predator inhabits coastal and pelagic ecosystems ranging from...

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