In the context of the ecological crisis, tales of the apocalypse have become a regular feature of the contemporary cultural imaginary, be it in popular feature films, non-fictional texts, or dystopian novels. Margaret Atwood’s MaddAddam Trilogy (2004 , 2010 , 2014 ) investigates this curious form of entertainment both by employing the template of the apocalypse itself and by reflecting on its cause and effect at the same time. The novels reveal how worlds and...
Oftmals durch den truck aus gangen oder: Eine methodische Perspektive zur Gruppierung und Interpretation gedruckter Chroniken des 16. JahrhundertsPia Eckhart
In sixteenth-century Augsburg a number of plain German chronicles was published and repeatedly reprinted, revised and updated. In order to understand and evaluate similarities and differences between editions adequately, this article discusses criteria that allow us to classify print editions and to conceptualize them within an overarching category such as a ‘work’. The suggested focus on codicological evidence and layout offers advantages for recognizing similarities between different editions that an analysis limited on the textual...
Multi-trophic interactions maintain critical ecosystem functions. Biodiversity is declining globally, while responses of trophic interactions to biodiversity change are largely unclear. Thus, studying responses of multi-trophic interaction robustness to biodiversity change is crucial for understanding ecosystem functioning and persistence. We investigate plant-Hemiptera- (antagonism) and Hemiptera-ant- (mutualism) interaction networks in response to experimental manipulation of tree diversity. We show increased diversity at both higher trophic levels (Hemiptera and ants) and increased robustness through redundancy of lower...
Data from: Diversity and evolution of the transposable element repertoire in arthropods with particular reference to insectsMalte Petersen, David Armisén, Richard Gibbs, Lars Hering, Abderrahman Khila, Georg Mayer, Stephen Richards, Oliver Niehuis & Bernhard Misof
Background: Transposable elements (TEs) are a major component of metazoan genomes and are associated with a variety of mechanisms that shape genome architecture and evolution. Despite the ever-growing number of insect genomes sequenced to date, our understanding of the diversity and evolution of insect TEs remains poor. Results: Here, we present a standardized characterization and an order-level comparison of arthropod TE repertoires, encompassing 62 insect and 11 outgroup species. The insect TE repertoire contains TEs...
Data from: Fear of the dark? contrasting impacts of humans vs lynx on diel activity of roe deer across EuropeNadège C. Bonnot, Ophélie Couriot, Anne Berger, Francesca Cagnacci, Simone Ciuti, Johannes De Groeve, Benedikt Gehr, Marco Heurich, Petter Kjellander, Max Kröschel, Nicolas Morellet, Leif Sönnichsen & A.J. Mark Hewison
Humans, as super predators, can have strong effects on wildlife behaviour, including profound modifications of diel activity patterns. Subsequent to the return of large carnivores to human-modified ecosystems, many prey species have adjusted their spatial behaviour to the contrasting landscapes of fear generated by both their natural predators and anthropogenic pressures. The effects of predation risk on temporal shifts in diel activity of prey, however, remain largely unexplored in human-dominated landscapes. We investigated the influence...
Data from: A tale of scale: plot but not neighbourhood tree diversity increases leaf litter ant diversityMichael Staab, Merle Noack, Helge Bruelheide, Werner Härdtle, Goddert Von Oheimb, Thomas Scholten, Steffen Seitz & Carl Skarbek
1. Diversity of producers (e.g. plants) usually increases the diversity of associated organisms, but the scale (i.e. the spatial area of plant diversity considered) at which plant diversity acts on other taxa has rarely been studied. Most evidence for cross-taxon diversity relations come from aboveground consumers that directly interact with plants. 2. Experimental tests of plant diversity effects on elusive organisms inhabiting the leaf litter layer, which are important for nutrient cycling and decomposition, are...
Data from: An alternative interpretation of the Paleogene turtle Cardichelyon rogerwoodi as a hinged kinosternoidWalter Gordon Joyce & Julien Claude
Cardichelyon rogerwoodi is an enigmatic fossil turtle from the late Paleocene to early Eocene of North America. Previous analyses suggested affiliation with Testudinoidea, in particular the big-headed turtle Platysternon megacephalum, based on the presence of multiple musk-duct foramina and a large head. We here highlight previously undocumented characteristics for this turtle, notably the presence of short costiform processes, a rib-like axillary process, and a posterior plastral hinge. Phylogenetic analysis places Cardichelyon rogerwoodi within Testudinoidea but...
Kapitel des Online Lehrbuch der Medizinischen Psychologie und Medizinischen Soziologie
Data from: No signal of deleterious mutation accumulation in conserved gene sequences of extant asexual hexapodsAlexander Brandt, Jens Bast, Stefan Scheu, Karen Meusemann, Alexander Donath, Kai Schütte, Ryuichiro Machida & Ken Kraaijeveld
Loss of sex and recombination is generally assumed to impede the effectiveness of purifying selection and to result in the accumulation of slightly deleterious mutations. Empirical evidence for this has come from several studies investigating mutational load in a small number of individual genes. However, recent whole transcriptome based studies have yielded inconsistent results, hence questioning the validity of the assumption of mutational meltdown in asexual populations. Here, we study the effectiveness of purifying selection...
Kapitel im Online Lehrbuch der Medizinischen Psychologie und Medizinischen Soziologie
Global forest loss and fragmentation have strongly increased the frequency of forest patches smaller than a few hectares. Little is known about the biodiversity and ecosystem service supply potential of such small woodlands in comparison to larger forests. As it is widely recognized that high biodiversity levels increase ecosystem functionality and the delivery of multiple ecosystem services, small, isolated woodlands are expected to have a lower potential for ecosystem service delivery than large forests hosting...
Data from: The interplay of landscape composition and configuration: new pathways to manage functional biodiversity and agro-ecosystem services across EuropeEmily A. Martin, Matteo Dainese, Yann Clough, András Báldi, Riccardo Bommarco, Vesna Gagic, Michael Garratt, Andrea Holzschuh, David Kleijn, Anikó Kovács-Hostyánszki, Lorenzo Marini, Simon G. Potts, Henrik G. Smith, Diab Al Hassan, Matthias Albrecht, Georg K. S. Andersson, Josep Asis, Stephanie Aviron, Mario Balzan, Laura Baños-Picón, Ignasi Bartomeus, Peter Batary, Françoise Burel, Berta Caballero-López, Elena D. Concepcion … & Ingolf Steffan-Dewenter
Managing agricultural landscapes to support biodiversity and ecosystem services is a key aim of a sustainable agriculture. However, how the spatial arrangement of crop fields and other habitats in landscapes impacts arthropods and their functions is poorly known. Synthesising data from 49 studies (1515 landscapes) across Europe, we examined effects of landscape composition (% habitats) and configuration (edge density) on arthropods in fields and their margins, pest control, pollination and yields. Configuration effects interacted with...
Fire is a major disturbance factor in many terrestrial ecosystems, leading to landscape transformation in fire‐prone areas. Species in mutualistic interactions are often highly sensitive to disturbances like fire events, but the degree and complexity of their responses are unclear. We use bipartite insect–flower interaction networks across a recently burned landscape to explore how plant–pollinator interaction networks respond to a recent major fire event at the landscape level, and where fire refuges were present. We...
University of Freiburg13
Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences3
University of Göttingen2
University of Padua1
Estación Biológica de Doñana1
University of Würzburg1
University of Hamburg1
École Nationale Supérieure des Sciences Agronomiques de Bordeaux-Aquitaine1
Zoological Research Museum Alexander Koenig1