155 Works

Hyde within the Boundaries of Mere Jekyll: Strange Cases of Evil in Kant & Stevenson

Virgil W. Brower
This essay experiments with Kant’s writings on rational religion distilled through the Strange Case of Dr Jekyll and Mr Hyde as canonical confrontations with primal problems of evil. It suggests boundaries between Stevenson’s characters and their occupations comparable to those conflicted in the Kantian university, namely, law, medicine, theology, and philosophy (which makes a short anticipatory appearance in his earlier text on rational religion). With various faculties it investigates diffuse comprehensions—respectively, legal crime, biogenetic transmission,...

High-pressure partial melting of the Moldanubian felsic granulites in the Bohemian Massif

Radmila Nahodilová, Shah Wali Faryad, David Dolejs, Peter Tropper & Jürgen Konzett

Amelogenesis and tribosphenic molars: patterns and variation.

Ivan Horacek , Pavla Hanouskova & Anna Kallistova
(1) University of California, Santa Barbara, CA (UCSB) Department of Zoology, Charles University, Vinicna 7, Cz 128 44 Prague, Czech Republic; (2) University of California, Santa Barbara, CA (UCSB), USA

The tribosphenic molar presents phylotypic stage of the mammalian dental evolution. A study of its enamel microarchitecture in several clades (Chiroptera, Afrosoricida, Eulipotyphla, Didelphomorhia, Cetartiodactyla) revealed, apart of considerable taxon-specific variation, a set of structural (i-iii) and developmental (iv-x) characteristics common to all: (i)...

Data from: The genetic regulation of avian migration timing: combining candidate genes and quantitative genetic approaches in a long-distance migrant

Miloš Krist, Pavel Munclinger, Martins Briedis & Peter Adamík
Plant and animal populations can adapt to prolonged environmental changes if they have sufficient genetic variation in important phenological traits. The genetic regulation of annual cycles can be studied either via candidate genes or through the decomposition of phenotypic variance by quantitative genetics. Here we combined both approaches to study the timing of migration in a long-distance migrant, the collared flycatcher (Ficedula albicollis). We found that none of the four studied candidate genes (CLOCK, NPAS2,...

Data from: The south-western Carpathians as a centre of ancient diversity of freshwater gammarid amphipods: insights from the Gammarus fossarum species complex

Denis Copilaş-Ciocianu & Adam Petrusek
Gammarus fossarum is a diverse species complex of epigean freshwater amphipods throughout Europe. Due to their poor dispersal capabilities and ubiquity, these crustaceans may serve as a model for investigating the influence of historical factors on the contemporary distribution and diversity patterns of freshwater macrozoobenthos. Here, we investigate the fine-scale phylogeographic structure of this complex across its range in the southwestern Carpathian Mountains, which comprises two areas that are geographically isolated from its main European...

Data from: Host association drives significant genetic divergence in the bed bug, Cimex lectularius

Warren Booth, Ondřej Balvín, Edward L. Vargo, Jitka Vilímová & Coby Schal
Genetic differentiation may exist among sympatric populations of a species due to long-term associations with alternative hosts (i.e., host-associated differentiation). While host-associated differentiation has been documented in several phytophagus insects, there are far fewer cases known in animal parasites. The bed bug, Cimex lectularius, a wingless insect, represents a potential model organism for elucidating the processes involved in host-associated differentiation in animal parasites with relatively limited mobility. In conjunction with the expansion of modern humans...

Data from: Postcopulatory sexual selection is associated with accelerated evolution of sperm morphology

Melissah Rowe, Tomas Albrecht, Emily Rebecca Alison Cramer, Arild Johnsen, Terje Laskemoen, Jason T. Weir & Jan T. Lifjeld
Rapid diversification of sexual traits is frequently attributed to sexual selection, though explicit tests of this hypothesis remain limited. Spermatozoa exhibit remarkable variability in size and shape, and studies report a correlation between sperm morphology (sperm length and shape) and sperm competition risk or female reproductive tract morphology. However, whether postcopulatory processes (e.g. sperm competition and cryptic female choice) influence the speed of evolutionary diversification in sperm form is unknown. Using passerine birds, we quantified...

Data from: Patterns of MHC-dependent mate selection in humans and non-human primates: a meta-analysis

Jamie Winternitz, Jessica Abbate, Elise Huchard, Jan Havlíček & Laszlo Z. Garamszegi
Genes of the major histocompatibility complex (MHC) in vertebrates are integral for effective adaptive immune response and are associated with sexual selection. Evidence from a range of vertebrates supports MHC-based preference for diverse and dissimilar mating partners, but evidence from human mate choice studies has been disparate and controversial. Methodologies and sampling peculiarities specific to human studies make it difficult to know whether wide discrepancies in results among human populations are real or artefact. To...

Data from: Clinical correlation between erectile function and ejaculatory function in the Czech male population

Watcharaphol Alexandre Kamnerdsiri, Jesús Eugenio Rodríguez Martinez, Christopher Fox & Petr Weiss
Introduction The objective of this study is to determine whether there is any relationship between erectile function (EF) and ejaculatory function (EJF), with the aim of improving care protocols in the clinical practice. Materials and methods A total of 1004 Czech males between 15 and 84 years (42.77 ± 17.556 years) completed a sexual behavior questionnaire. A correlational, between-subjects design was used, where a 5-item abbreviated form of the International Index of Erectile Function (IIEF-5)...

Data from: Fuel for the pace of life: baseline blood glucose concentration coevolves with life history traits in songbirds

Oldrich Tomasek, Lukas Bobek, Tereza Kralova, Marie Adamkova & Tomas Albrecht
1. It has been proposed that life histories have coevolved with a suite of physiological and behavioural adaptations, termed pace-of-life syndromes (POLS). Here, we hypothesise that basal concentration of blood glucose (G0), a major source of energy circulating in vertebrate blood, may constitute a key component of POLS. 2. To test this hypothesis, we measured G0 in 30 passerine species and tested its covariation with body mass and other life history traits. Importantly, body mass...

Data from: Ecological causes of decelerating diversification in carnivoran mammals

Antonin Machac, David Storch & John J. Wiens
Clade diversification is a central topic in macroevolutionary studies. Recently, it has been shown that diversification rates appear to decelerate over time in many clades. What causes this deceleration remains unclear, but it has been proposed that competition for limited resources between sympatric, ecologically similar species slows diversification. Employing carnivoran mammals as a model system, we test this hypothesis using a comprehensive time-calibrated phylogeny. We also explore several conceptually related explanations including limited geographic area...

Data from: Phylogenetic marker development for target enrichment from transcriptome and genome skim data: the pipeline and its application in southern African Oxalis (Oxalidaceae)

Roswitha Schmickl, Aaron Liston, Vojtěch Zeisek, Kenneth Oberlander, Kevin Weitemier, Shannon C. K. Straub, Richard C. Cronn, Léanne L. Dreyer & Jan Suda
Phylogenetics benefits from using a large number of putatively independent nuclear loci and their combination with other sources of information, such as the plastid and mitochondrial genomes. To facilitate the selection of orthologous low-copy nuclear (LCN) loci for phylogenetics in nonmodel organisms, we created an automated and interactive script to select hundreds of LCN loci by a comparison between transcriptome and genome skim data. We used our script to obtain LCN genes for southern African...

Data from: Gastrointestinal microbiota of wild and inbred individuals of two house mouse subspecies assessed using high throughput parallel pyrosequencing

Jakub Kreisinger, Dagmar Čížková & Jaroslav Piálek
The effects of gastrointestinal tract microbiota (GTM) on host physiology and health has been the subject of considerable interest in recent years. While a variety of captive bred species have been used in experiments, the extent to which GTM of captive and/or inbred individuals resembles natural composition and variation in wild populations is poorly understood. Using 454 pyrosequencing, we performed 16S rDNA GTM barcoding for 30 wild house mice (Mus musculus) and wild-derived inbred strain...

Data from: Contrasting reproductive strategies of triploid hybrid males in vertebrate mating systems

Nicolas B. M. Pruvost, Peter Mikulíček, Lukáš Choleva & Heinz-Ulrich Reyer
The scarcity of parthenogenetic vertebrates is often attributed to their ‘inferior’ mode of clonal reproduction, which restricts them to self-reproduce their own genotype lineage and leaves little evolutionary potential with regard to speciation and evolution of sexual reproduction. Here, we show that for some taxa such uniformity does not hold. By using hybridogenetic water frogs (Pelophylax esculentus) as a model system, we demonstrate that triploid hybrid males from two geographic regions exhibit very different reproductive...

Data from: Zoogeography of epigean freshwater Amphipoda (Crustacea) in Romania: fragmented distributions and wide altitudinal variability

Denis Copilaș-Ciocianu, Michal Grabowski, Lucian Parvulescu & Adam Petrusek
Inland epigean freshwater amphipods of Romania are diverse and abundant for this region has a favourable geographical position between the Balkans and the Black Sea. Excluding Ponto-Caspian species originating in brackish waters and freshwater subterranean taxa, there are 11 formally recognized epigean freshwater species recorded from this country. They belong to 3 genera, each representing a different family: Gammarus (Gammaridae, 8 species or species complexes), Niphargus (Niphargidae, 2 epigean species) and Synurella (Crangonyctidae, one species)....

Data from: Breakdown of a geographic cline explains high performance of introduced populations of a weedy invader

Stacy B. Endriss, Christina Alba, Andrew P. Norton, Petr Pyšek & Ruth A. Hufbauer
1. What drives the evolution of increased growth and fecundity in plants introduced to a novel range is not well understood. 2. We investigate between-range differences in performance for Verbascum thapsus, a weedy invader known to grow larger in its introduced than native range. Specifically, we question whether adaptation to herbivory or climate best explains increased performance of introduced populations. 3. We grew 14 native and 22 introduced populations of V. thapsus in two common...

Data from: Asexual queen succession mediates an accelerated colony life cycle in the termite Silvestritermes minutus

Romain Fougeyrollas, Jan Křivánek, Virginie Roy, Klára Dolejšová, Sophie Frechault, Yves Roisin, Robert Hanus & David Sillam-Dussès
Mixed modes of reproduction, combining sexual processes with thelytokous parthenogenesis, occur in all major clades of social insects. In several species of termites, queens maximize their genetic input into nondispersing replacement queens through parthenogenesis, while maintaining genetically diverse sterile offspring and dispersing reproductives via sexual reproduction. This so-called asexual queen succession (AQS) has multiple independent origins and its presumed advantages are diverse as well, ranging from multiplication of colony reproductive potential to extension of its...

Data from: The direction of carbon and nitrogen fluxes between ramets changes during ontogeny under simulated competition for light

Jana Duchoslavová & Jan Jansa
Resource sharing is universal among connected ramets of clonal plants, and is driven both by the developmental status of ramets and resource gradients. Aboveground competition forms spatial light gradients, but the role of resource sharing in such competition is unclear. We examined translocation of resources between mother and daughter ramets of Agrostis stolonifera under light heterogeneity throughout ramet ontogeny. We labelled ramets by 13C and 15N to estimate bidirectional translocation of the resources at three...

Data from: The nest defence by the red-backed shrike (Lanius collurio) - support for the vulnerability hypothesis

Irena Strnadová, Michal Němec, Martin Strnad, Petr Veselý & Roman Fuchs
The majority of altricial bird species defend their brood against predators more intensively in nestlings rather than eggs stage. Several hypotheses have been proposed to explain this difference. The majority of existing experimental studies have recorded a gradually increasing intensity of nest defence supporting the reproductive value hypothesis. We have compared nest defence in two nesting stages of the red-backed shrike against two predators of adult birds and against two predators of nests. While the...

Data from: Convergent morphology in Alpinieae (Zingiberaceae): recircumscribing Amomum as a monophyletic genus

Hugo De Boer, Mark Newman, Axel Dalberg Poulsen, A. Jane Droop, Tomas Fer, Le Thi Thu Hien, Kristyna Hlavata, Vichith Lamxay, James E. Richardson, Karin Steffen & Jana Leong-Škorničková
The tropical ginger genus Amomum (Zingiberaceae) has always posed challenges for classification based on morphological characters. Previous molecular phylogenetic studies showed Amomum to be paraphyletic but limited sampling and absence of the data of the type Amomum subulatum made it impossible to resolve the paraphyly and make nomenclatural changes. Here, Amomum is further investigated in a multi-marker phylogenetic framework using matK and nrITS including multiple accessions of the type, the genus Elettaria and additional accessions...

Data from: Plant-soil feedback contributes to predicting plant invasiveness of 68 alien plant species differing in invasive status

Anna Aldorfová, Pavlína Knobová & Zuzana Münzbergová
Understanding what species characteristics allow some alien plants to become invasive while others fail is critical to our understanding of community assembly processes. While many characteristics have been shown to predict plant invasiveness, the importance of plant-soil feedback (PSF) in invasions has been difficult to assess since individual studies include only a few species and use disparate methodology. We studied PSF of 68 invasive and non-invasive alien species in a single two-phase common garden experiment,...

Genetic diversity and connectivity of southern right whales (Eubalaena australis) found in the Brazil and Chile–Peru wintering grounds and the South Georgia (Islas Georgias del Sur) feeding ground

Emma L Carroll, Paulo Ott, Louise McMillan, Bárbara Galletti Vernazzani, Petra Neveceralova, Els Vermeulen, Oscar Gaggiotti, Artur Andriolo, C. Scott Baker, Connor Bamford, Peter Best, Elsa Cabrera, Susannah Calderan, Andrea Chirife, Rachel M. Fewster, Paulo A. C. Flores, Timothy Frasier, Thales R. O. Freitas, Karina Groch, Pavel Hulva, Amy Kennedy, Russell Leaper, Mathew S. Leslie, Michael Moore, Larissa Oliviera … & Jennifer A Jackson
As species recover from exploitation, continued assessments of connectivity and population structure are warranted to provide information for conservation and management. This is particularly true in species with high dispersal capacity, such as migratory whales, where patterns of connectivity could change rapidly. Here we build on a previous long-term, large-scale collaboration on southern right whales (Eubalaena australis) to combine new (nnew) and published (npub) mitochondrial (mtDNA) and microsatellite genetic data from all major wintering grounds...

Data from: Environmental drivers and phylogenetic constraints of growth phenologies across a large set of herbaceous species

Lin Huang, Tomas Koubek, Martin Weiser & Tomas Herben
1. Because perennial herbs of temperate climates develop their aboveground parts every year anew, their success critically depends on the timing and speed of this growth (growth phenology). These parameters can play a role in species coexistence and may differ along environmental gradients. Still, we know little about them, as most phenological data come from observations of flowering and to a lesser degree leafing onset. 2. We collected data on growth phenology of about 400...

Data from: Living in two worlds: evolutionary mechanisms act differently in the native and introduced ranges of an invasive plant

Wen-Yong Guo, Carla Lambertini, Petr Pyšek, Laura A. Meyerson & Hans Brix
Identifying the factors that influence spatial genetic structure among populations can provide insights into the evolution of invasive plants. In this study, we used the common reed (Phragmites australis), a grass native in Europe and invading North America, to examine the relative importance of geographic, environmental (represented by climate here) and human effects on population genetic structure and its changes during invasion. We collected samples of P. australis from both the invaded North American and...

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