179 Works

Emojis as a Language of their Own

Dmitriy Agranovskiy & Alina Avilova
Emojis are a product of computer mediated communication. As a means of expressing emotion, indicating the illocutionary force or the intended tone, they are well-researched. However, emojis are rarely seen as a visual language in their own right. The article analyzes the syntax and semantics semantics of emojis and people’s ability to interpret them. The research method for this article was an online survey. An emoji rendering of the title of a literary work was...

Comparative analysis of passerine feather traits: data and script

Tomas Albrecht & Krystof Horak
Tropical bird species are characterised by a comparatively slow pace of life, being predictably different from their temperate zone counterparts in their investments in growth, survival and reproduction. In birds, the development of functional plumage is often considered energetically demanding investment, with consequences on individual fitness and survival. However, current knowledge of interspecific variation in feather growth patterns is mostly based on species of the northern temperate zone. We evaluated patterns in tail feather growth...

The Process of Artwork Interpretation

Kristýna Ríhová

Data from: An empirical assessment of a single family-wide hybrid capture locus set at multiple evolutionary timescales in Asteraceae

Katy E Jones, Tomáš Fér, Roswitha E Schmickl, Rebecca B Dikow, Vicki A Funk, Sonia Herrando-Moraira, Norbert Kilian, Carolina M Siniscalchi, Alfonso Susanna, Marek Slovák, Ramhari Thapa, Linda E Watson & Jennifer R Mandel
Premise of the study: Hybrid capture with high-throughput sequencing (Hyb-Seq) is a powerful tool for evolutionary studies. The applicability of an Asteraceae family-specific Hyb-Seq method and the outcomes of different phylogenetic analyses are assessed. Methods: Hyb-Seq data from 112 Asteraceae samples were organized into groups at different taxonomic levels (tribe, genus, and species). For each group, datasets of non-paralogous loci were built and proportions of parsimony informative characters estimated. The impacts of the analyzing alternative...

Nested whole-genome duplications coincide with diversification and high morphological disparity in Brassicaceae

Marcus Koch, Nora Walden, Dmitry German, Eva Wolf, Markus Kiefer, Philippe Rigault, Xiao-Chen Huang, Christiane Kiefer, Roswitha Schmickl, Andreas Franzke, Klaus Mummenhoff & Barbara Neuffer
Angiosperms have become the dominant terrestrial plant group by diversifying for ~145 million years into a broad range of environments. During the course of evolution, numerous morphological innovations arose, often preceded by whole genome duplications (WGD). The mustard family (Brassicaceae), a successful angiosperm clade with ~4000 species, has been diversifying into many evolutionary lineages for more than 30 million years. Here we develop a species inventory, analyze morphological variation, and present a maternal, plastome-based genus-level...

Nucleotide alignments of eight meiosis genes under extreme selection following whole genome duplication in Arabidopsis lyrata/A.arenosa.

Paul Seear, Martin France, Catherine Gregory, Darren Heavens, Roswitha Schmickl, Levi Yant & James Higgins
In this study we performed a genotype-phenotype association analysis of meiotic stability in ten autotetraploid Arabidopsis lyrata and A. lyrata/A. arenosa hybrid populations collected from the Wachau region and East Austrian Forealps. The aim was to determine the effect of eight meiosis genes under extreme selection upon adaptation to whole genome duplication. Individual plants were genotyped by high-throughput sequencing of the eight meiosis genes (ASY1, ASY3, PDS5b, PRD3, REC8, SMC3, ZYP1a/b) implicated in synaptonemal complex...

Determinate growth is predominant and likely ancestral in squamate reptiles

Petra Frýdlová, Jana Mrzílková, Martin Šeremeta, Jan Křemen, Jan Dudák, Jan Žemlička, Bernd Minnich, Kristina Kverková, Pavel Němec, Petr Zach & Daniel Frynta
Body growth is typically thought to be indeterminate in ectothermic vertebrates. Indeed, until recently, this growth pattern was considered to be ubiquitous in ectotherms. Our recent observations of a complete growth plate cartilage (GPC) resorption, a reliable indicator of arrested skeletal growth, in many species of lizards clearly reject the ubiquity of indeterminate growth in reptiles and raise the question about the ancestral state of the growth pattern. Using X-ray micro-computed tomography (µCT), here we...

Evolutionary history and genetic diversity of apomictic allopolyploids in Hieracium s.str. (Asteraceae): morphological versus genomic features

Jindrich Chrtek, Patrik Mraz, Alexander Belyayev, Ladislava Pastova, Viera Mrazova, Petra Caklova, Jirina Josefiova, Danijela Zagorski, Matthias Hartmann, Michaela Jandova, Jan Pinc & Judith Fehrer
Premise of the Study The origin of allopolyploids is believed to shape their evolutionary potential, ecology and geographical ranges. Morphologically distinct apomictic types sharing the same parental species belong to the most challenging groups of polyploids. We evaluated the origins and variation of two triploid taxa (Hieracium pallidiflorum, H. picroides) presumably derived from the same diploid parental pair (H. intybaceum, H. prenanthoides). Methods We used a suite of approaches ranging from morphological, phylogenetic (three unlinked...

Data from: Drivers of plant species’ potential to spread: the importance of demography versus seed dispersal

Lucie Hemrová, James M. Bullock, Danny A.P. Hooftman, Steven M. White, Zuzana Munzbergova & Danny A. P. Hooftman
Understanding the ability of plants to spread is important for assessing conservation strategies, landscape dynamics, invasiveness and ability to cope with climate change. While long-distance seed dispersal is often viewed as a key process in population spread, the importance of inter-specific variation in demography is less explored. Indeed, the relative importance of demography vs seed dispersal in determining population spread is still little understood. We modelled species’ potential for population spread in terms of annual...

Data from: Autofertility and self-compatibility moderately benefit island colonization of plants

Mialy Razanajatovo, Mark Van Kleunen, Holger Kreft, Wayne Dawson, Franz Essl, Jan Pergl, Petr Pyšek, Marten Winter & Patrick Weigelt
Aim: The current geographical distribution of species largely reflects colonization success after natural long‐distance dispersal or introduction by humans. Plants with selfing ability should have an advantage when establishing on islands where mates and pollinators are limited (Baker's law). However, high percentages of dioecious and self‐incompatible species have been reported for some islands, possibly resulting from post‐colonization evolution. Given that such evolution is less likely to apply to alien species recently introduced to islands by...

Data from: A prioritised list of invasive alien species to assist the effective implementation of EU legislation

Carles Carboneras, Piero Genovesi, Montserrat Vila, Tim Blackburn, Martina Carrete, Miguel Clavero, Bram D'hondt, Jorge F. Orueta, Belinda Gallardo, Pedro Geraldes, Pablo González-Moreno, Richard D. Gregory, Wolfgang Nentwig, Jean-Yves Paquet, Petr Pysek, Wolfgang Rabitsch, Iván Ramírez, Riccardo Scalera, Jose Tella, Paul Walton, Robin Wynde & Tim M. Blackburn
1. Effective prevention and control of invasive species generally relies on a comprehensive, coherent and representative list of species that enables resources to be used optimally. European Union (EU) Regulation 1143/2014 on invasive alien species (IAS) aims to control or eradicate priority species, and to manage pathways to prevent the introduction and establishment of new IAS; it applies to species considered of Union concern and subject to formal risk assessment. So far, 49 species have...

Data from: Life-history characteristics of European birds

Lenka Storchová & David Hořák
Motivation: Birds are an extremely diverse group in terms of adaptations to environmental conditions, which is reflected in their life histories and ecological traits. Recently, functional aspects of avian diversity have been used frequently in comparative analyses as well as in community ecology studies; thus, open access to complete datasets of traits will be valuable. We focused on European bird species and compiled information about crucial ecological traits. This dataset is thus useful for research...

Data from: Inbreeding depression of sperm traits in the zebra finch Taeniopygia guttata

Pavlína Opatová, Malika Ihle, Jana Albrechtová, Oldřich Tomášek, Bart Kempenaers, Wolfgang Forstmeier & Tomáš Albrecht
Inbreeding depression, or the reduction in fitness due to mating between close relatives, is a key issue in biology today. Inbreeding negatively affects many fitness-related traits, including survival and reproductive success. Despite this, very few studies have quantified the effects of inbreeding on vertebrate gamete traits under controlled breeding conditions using a full-sib mating approach. Here, we provide comprehensive evidence for the negative effect of inbreeding on sperm traits in a bird, the zebra finch...

Data from: Philip Grime's fourth corner: are there plant species adapted to high disturbance and low productivity?

Tomas Herben, Jitka Klimešová & Milan Chytrý
Grime's CSR species life-strategy theory (competition-stress-ruderality) provides a conceptual framework to classify species into competitive (high productivity, low disturbance), stress-tolerant (low productivity, low disturbance) and ruderal (high productivity, high disturbance). Importantly, this classification is based on the assumption that the niche space of disturbance and productivity is filled unevenly: while in productive habitats species can adapt to different disturbance regimes, species of low-productivity and disturbed habitats do not exist, resulting in a triangular distribution of...

Data from: Phylogenetic relatedness determined between antibiotic resistance and 16S rRNA genes in actinobacteria

Marketa Sagova-Mareckova, Dana Ulanova, Petra Sanderova, Marek Omelka, Zdenek Kamenik, Jana Olsovska & Jan Kopecky
Background: Distribution and evolutionary history of resistance genes in environmental actinobacteria provide information on intensity of antibiosis and evolution of specific secondary metabolic pathways at a given site. To this day, actinobacteria producing biologically active compounds were isolated mostly from soil but only a limited range of soil environments were commonly sampled. Consequently, soil remains an unexplored environment in search for novel producers and related evolutionary questions. Results: Ninety actinobacteria strains isolated at contrasting soil...

Data from: Interspecific competition promotes habitat and morphological divergence in a secondary contact zone between two hybridizing songbirds

Camille Sottas, Jiri Reif, Lechoslaw Kuczynski, Radka Reifova & Lechosław Kuczyński
Interspecific competition is assumed to play an important role in the ecological differentiation of species and speciation. However, empirical evidence for competition’s role in speciation remains surprisingly scarce. Here we studied the role of interspecific competition in the ecological differentiation and speciation of two closely related songbird species, the Common Nightingale (Luscinia megarhynchos) and the Thrush Nightingale (L. luscinia). Both species are insectivorous and ecologically very similar. They hybridize in a secondary contact zone, which...

Data from: Polyphasic data support the splitting of Aspergillus candidus into two species; proposal of Aspergillus dobrogensis sp. nov.

Vit Hubka, Alena Nováková, Željko Jurjević, František Sklenář, Jens C. Frisvad, Jos Houbraken, Maiken C. Arendrup, João P. Z. Siqueira, Josepa Gené & Miroslav Kolařík
Aspergillus candidus is a species frequently isolated from stored grain, food, indoor environments, soil and occasionally also from clinical material. Recent bioprospecting studies highlighted the potential of using A. candidus and its relatives in various industrial sectors as a result of their significant production of enzymes and bioactive compounds. A high genetic variability was observed among A. candidus isolates originating from various European countries and the USA, that were mostly isolated from indoor environments, caves...

Data from: Genome-wide differentiation in closely related populations: the roles of selection and geographic isolation

Rebecca J. Safran, Elizabeth S. C. Scordato, Matthew R. Wilkins, Joanna K. Hubbard, Brittany R. Jenkins, Tomas Albrecht, Samuel M. Flaxman, Hakan Karaardic, Yoni Vortman, Arnon Lotem, Patrik Nosil, Péter Pap, Sheng-Feng Shen, Shih-Fan Chan, Thomas L. Parchman, Nolan C. Kane, S.-F. Chan & T.L. Parchman
Population divergence in geographic isolation is due to a combination of factors. Natural and sexual selection may be important in shaping patterns of population differentiation, a pattern referred to as ‘isolation by adaptation’ (IBA). IBA can be complementary to the well-known pattern of ‘isolation by distance’ (IBD), in which the divergence of closely related populations (via any evolutionary process) is associated with geographic isolation. The barn swallow Hirundo rustica complex comprises six closely related subspecies,...

Data from: Cross-sectional study of patients with axial spondyloarthritis fulfilling imaging arm of ASAS classification criteria: baseline clinical characteristics and subset differences in a single centre cohort

Kristyna Bubova, Šárka Forejtová, Kateřina Zegzulková, Monika Gregová, Markéta Hušáková, Mária Filková, Jana Hořínková, Jindřiška Gatterová, Michal Tomčík, Lenka Szczuková, Karel Pavelka & Ladislav Senolt
Objective: This study compared demographic, clinical and laboratory characteristics between patients with radiographic and non-radiographic axSpA. Methods: In this single centre cross-sectional study a total of 246 patients with axSpA fulfilling the imaging arm of ASAS classification criteria were recruited. A total of 140 patients were diagnosed as nr-axSpA, and 106 patients had AS. Sociodemographic characteristics, disease manifestations, clinical and laboratory disease activity and their differences between subsets were analysed. P values below 0.05 with...

Data from: Interspecific transfer of parasites following a range-shift in Ficedula flycatchers

William Jones, Katarzyna Kulma, Staffan Bensch, Mariusz Cichoń, Anvar Kerimov, Miloš Krist, Toni Laaksonen, Juan Moreno, Pavel Munclinger, Fred Slater, Eszter Szöllősi, Marcel E. Visser, Anna Qvarnström & Fred M. Slater
Human-induced climate change is expected to cause major biotic changes in species distributions and thereby including escalation of novel host-parasite associations. Closely related host species that come into secondary contact are especially likely to exchange parasites and pathogens. Two competing theories, the Enemy Release Hypothesis, where invading hosts escape their original parasites; and the Novel Weapon Hypothesis, where invading hosts bring new parasites that have detrimental effects on native hosts, have been described to predict...

Data from: The effect of meal frequency in a reduced-energy regimen on the gastrointestinal and appetite hormones in patients with type 2 diabetes: a randomised crossover study

Lenka Belinova, Hana Kahleova, Hana Malinska, Ondrej Topolcan, Jindra Windrichova, Olena Oliyarnyk, Ludmila Kazdova, Martin Hill & Terezie Pelikanova
Background: Appetite and gastrointestinal hormones (GIHs) participate in energy homeostasis, feeding behavior and regulation of body weight. We demonstrated previously the superior effect of a hypocaloric diet regimen with lower meal frequency (B2) on body weight, hepatic fat content, insulin sensitivity and feelings of hunger compared to the same diet divided into six smaller meals a day (A6).Studies with isoenergetic diet regimens indicate that lower meal frequency should also have an effect on fasting and...

Data from: Across a migratory divide: divergent migration directions and non-breeding grounds of Eurasian reed warblers revealed by geolocators and stable isotopes

Petr Procházka, Vojtěch Brlík, Elizabeth Yohannes, Bert Meister, Jürgen Auerswald, Mihaela Ilieva & Steffen Hahn
Migratory divides represent narrow zones of overlap between parapatric populations with distinct migration directions and, consequently, expected divergent non-breeding distributions. The composition of the mixed population at a migratory divide and the corresponding non-breeding ranges remain, however, unknown for many Palaearctic-African migrants. Here, we used light-level geolocation to track migration direction and non-breeding grounds of Eurasian reed warblers (Acrocephalus scirpaceus) from three breeding populations across the species’ migratory divide. Moreover, by using feathers grown at...

Data from: Can mixed singing facilitate coexistence of closely related nightingale species?

Abel Souriau, Hana Kohoutová, Jiri Reif, Jana Vokurková, Adam Petrusek, Radka Reifová & Tereza Petruskova
Knowledge of the mechanisms facilitating the coexistence of closely-related competing species is crucial for understanding biodiversity patterns. The concept of convergent agonistic character displacement (ACD) suggests that interspecific interference competition may lead to convergence in territorial signals between species, which helps to establish interspecific territoriality and thus facilitate the species coexistence. Despite a strong theoretical background, however, empirical evidence for convergent ACD in nature is still scarce. Here we tested whether mixed singing (i.e., copying...

Data from: Evolutionary implications of a new transitional blastozoan echinoderm from the mid Cambrian of Czech Republic

Elise Nardin, Bertrand Lefebvre, Oldrich Fatka, Martina Nohejlova, Libor Kašička, Miroslav Šinágl & Michal Szabad
The primitive blastozoan Felbabkacystis luckae n. gen. n. sp. is described from the Drumian Jince Formation, Barrandian area (Czech Republic) based on eleven fairly well-preserved specimens. Its unique body plan organization is composed of a relatively long stalk-like imbricate structure directly connected to the aboral imbricate cup of the test and of an adoral vaulted tessellate test supporting the ambulacral and brachiolar systems. Its bipartite test, called prototheca, highlights the evolution of the body wall...

Singing behind the stage: thrush nightingales produce more variable songs on their wintering grounds

Abel Souriau, Nicole Geberzahn, Vladimir V Ivanitskii, Irina M Marova, Jana Vokurková, Radka Reifová, Jiři Reif & Tereza Petrusková
The songs of migratory passerine birds have a key role in mate attraction and territory defence during the breeding season. Many species also sing on their wintering grounds, but the function of this behaviour remains unclear. One possible explanation, proposed by the song improvement hypothesis, is that the birds take advantage of this period to develop their singing skills for the next breeding season. If so, non-breeding songs should reflect features of an early phase...

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  • Charles University
  • Institute of Vertebrate Biology
  • Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic
  • University of South Bohemia in České Budějovice
  • Czech University of Life Sciences Prague
  • Czech Academy of Sciences
  • Max Planck Institute for Ornithology
  • University of Ostrava
  • Institute of Animal Physiology and Genetics
  • Masaryk University