147 Works

Seasonal shifts of biodiversity patterns and species’ elevation ranges of butterflies and moths along a complete rainforest elevational gradient on Mount Cameroon

Vincent Maicher, Szabolcs Sáfián, Mercy Murkwe, Sylvain Delabye, Łukasz Przybyłowicz, Pavel Potocký, Ishmeal N. Kobe, Štěpán Janeček, Jan E. J. Mertens, Eric B. Fokam, Tomasz Pyrcz, Jiří Doležal, Jan Altman, David Hořák, Konrad Fiedler & Robert Tropek
Aim Temporal dynamics of biodiversity along tropical elevational gradients are unknown. We studied seasonal changes of Lepidoptera biodiversity along the only complete forest elevational gradient in the Afrotropics. We focused on shifts of species richness patterns, seasonal turnover of communities, and seasonal shifts of species’ elevational ranges, the latter often serving as an indicator of the global change effects on mountain ecosystems. Location Mount Cameroon, Cameroon. Taxon Butterflies and moths (Lepidoptera) Methods We quantitatively sampled...

Data from: The influence of climate variability on demographic rates of avian Afro-palearctic migrants

Jiri Reif, Tomáš Telenský, Petr Klvaňa, Miroslav Jelínek & Jaroslav Cepák
Climate is an important driver of changes in animal population size, but its effect on the underlying demographic rates remains insufficiently understood. This is particularly true for avian long-distance migrants which are exposed to different climatic factors at different phases of their annual cycle. To fill this knowledge gap, we used data collected by a national-wide bird ringing scheme for eight migratory species wintering in sub-Saharan Africa and investigated the impact of climate variability on...

Moose occurrence data in Bohemian Forest Ecosystem

Tomáš Janík, Marco Heurich, Wibke Peters, Martin Šálek, Dušan Romportl, Miloslav Jirků, Thomas Engleder, Martin Ernst & Jiří Neudert
This dataset contains all gathered spatial data for moose occurrence in our study area (see manuscript). In the table you can find these attributes: country of the occurrence, data quality according to SCALP classification, details about occurrence, coordinates for used S-JTSK (5514) reference system, locality and year of the record.

Data from: Functional traits determine why species belong to the dark diversity in a dry grassland fragmented landscape

Rocío Belinchón, Lucie Hemrová & Zuzana Münzbergová
A challenge for nature conservation is to know why many species are absent from suitable habitats and whether they might be able to disperse and to establish. Here, we used 272 dry grassland patches within a fragmented landscape to investigate the role of local abiotic conditions and dispersal filtering in determining the likelihood of vascular plants to belong to the dark diversity (i.e. absent portion of the species pool). First, we quantified the species (SD),...

Data from: Context-dependence of maternal effects: testing assumptions of optimal egg size, differential- and sex-allocation models

Miloš Krist & Pavel Munclinger
If offspring develop in adverse conditions, the maternal component of their phenotypic variation might increase due to the stronger dependence of offspring traits on parental investment. This should result in increased parental investment to individual offspring, as assumed by the model of optimal egg size. The opposite pattern, i.e., stronger dependence of offspring fitness on parental investment and consequently larger parental investment under good conditions is assumed by both the theory of differential allocation if...

Data from: Squamate hatchling size and the evolutionary causes of negative offspring size allometry

Shai Meiri, Anat Feldman & Lukáš Kratochvil
Although fecundity selection is ubiquitous, in an overwhelming majority of animal lineages, small species produce smaller number of offspring per clutch. In this context, egg, hatchling and neonate sizes are absolutely larger, but smaller relative to adult body size in larger species. The evolutionary causes of this widespread phenomenon are not fully explored. The negative offspring size allometry can result from processes limiting maximal egg/offspring size forcing larger species to produce relatively smaller offspring (‘upper...

Data from: Nest as an extended phenotype signal of female quality in the great reed warbler

Václav Jelínek, Milica Požgayová, Marcel Honza & Petr Procházka
Extended phenotypes with signalling function are mostly restricted to animal taxa that use construction behaviour during courtship displays. However, they can be used also as post-mating signals of mate quality, allowing individuals to obtain reliable information about their partners. Nest size may have such a signalling function and a lot of indirect evidence supports this view. However, direct evidence based on an experimental approach is still widely missing. Here we test the role of nest...

Data from: Female collared flycatchers choose neighbouring and older extra-pair partners from the pool of males around their nests

Anais Edme, Pavel Munclingwe, Miloš Krist & Pavel Munclinger
Extra-pair copulation is common among passerine birds. Females might engage in this behavior to obtain direct or indirect benefits. They may choose extra-pair males with larger ornaments, especially if they are costly to produce. Here we studied extra-pair paternity in the collared flycatcher. Genetic analysis allowed us to identify the presence or absence of extra-pair young in the focal nests, and to identify extra-pair fathers. We also identified potential males available as extra-pair sires around...

Data from: Habitat use, but not gene flow, is influenced by human activities in two ecotypes of Egyptian fruit bat (Rousettus aegyptiacus)

Alejandro Centeno-Cuadros, Pavel Hulva, Dusan Romportl, Simone Santoro, Tereza Stříbná, David Shohami, Ivan Horáček, Asaf Tsoar, Ran Nathan & P. Benda
Understanding the ecological, behavioral and evolutionary response of organisms to changing environments is of primary importance in a human-altered world. It is crucial to elucidate how human activities alter gene flow and what are the consequences for the genetic structure of a species. We studied two lineages of the Egyptian fruit bat (Rousettus aegyptiacus) throughout the contact zone between mesic and arid ecozones in the Middle East to evaluate the species' response to the growing...

Data from: Vertical root distribution of individual species in a mountain grassland community: does it respond to neighbours?

Tomas Herben, Tereza Vozábová, Věra Hadincová, František Krahulec, Hana Mayerová, Sylvie Pecháčková, Hana Skálová & Karol Krak
1.Vertical differentiation in root placement is one of the potential mechanisms of plant niche differentiation. It can be due to the remarkable plasticity of roots in response to nutrients and neighbours, but most data on it come from pot or garden experiments. The roles of vertical differentiation and of plasticity in it in the field are thus not well known. 2.We examined species-specific root vertical distribution in a montane grassland using quantitative Real-Time PCR. We...

Data from: Divergent clades or cryptic species? Mito-nuclear discordance in a Daphnia species complex

Anne Thielsch, Alexis Knell, Ali Mohammadyari, Adam Petrusek & Klaus Schwenk
Background: Genetically divergent cryptic species are frequently detected by molecular methods. These discoveries are often a byproduct of molecular barcoding studies in which fragments of a selected marker are used for species identification. Highly divergent mitochondrial lineages and putative cryptic species are even detected in intensively studied animal taxa, such as the crustacean genus Daphnia. Recently, eleven such lineages, exhibiting genetic distances comparable to levels observed among well-defined species, were recorded in the D. longispina...

Data from: Effects of disturbance frequency and severity on plant traits: an assessment across a temperate flora

Tomas Herben, Jitka Klimesova & Milan Chytry
(1) Recent analyses of plant traits across large sets of species have revolutionized our understanding of plant functional differentiation. However, understanding of ecological relevance of this differentiation is contingent upon knowledge of environmental preferences of species, namely along gradients of disturbance and productivity for which no quantitative data were available until recently. (2) We examined the relationships of key functional traits (life-history categories, leaf-height-seed traits, clonal growth and bud bank traits) in the herb-dominated flora...

Data from: Earthworms affect growth and competition between ectomycorrhizal and arbuscular mycorrhizal plants

Jan Frouz, Jabbar Moradi, David Püschel & Jana Rydlová
Previous research showed that during intermediate stages of primary succession, when vegetation is dominated by ectomycorrhizal (EcM) shrubs and trees, site colonization by earthworms substantially alters plant communities. Research has also shown that EcM shrubs and trees suppress arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) plants in the understory. To determine whether earthworm activity reduces this asymmetric competition, we conducted a full factorial laboratory experiment in which we grew EcM Betula pendula and AM Tripleurospermum inodorum, together or apart,...

Data from: Experimentally induced repeated anhydrobiosis in the eutardigrade Richtersius coronifer

Michaela Czernekova & K. Ingemar Jönsson
Tardigrades represent one of the main animal groups with anhydrobiotic capacity at any stage of their life cycle. The ability of tardigrades to survive repeated cycles of anhydrobiosis has rarely been studied but is of interest to understand the factors constraining anhydrobiotic survival. The main objective of this study was to investigate the patterns of survival of the eutardigrade Richtersius coronifer in tardigrades under repeated cycles of desiccation, and the potential effect of repeated desiccation...

Data from: Testing the phenotype-linked fertility hypothesis in the presence and absence of inbreeding

Wolfgang Forstmeier, Malika Ihle, Pavlina Opatova, Katrin Martin, Ulrich Knief, Jana Albrechtová, Tomas Albrecht & Bart Kempenaers
The phenotype-linked fertility hypothesis suggests that females can judge male fertility by inspecting male phenotypic traits. This is because male sexually selected traits might correlate with sperm quality if both are sensitive to factors that influence male condition. A recent meta-analysis found little support for this hypothesis, suggesting little or no shared condition dependence. However, we recently reported that in captive zebra finches (Taeniopygia guttata) inbreeding had detrimental effects both on phenotypic traits and on...

Data from: A phylogenetic analysis of the megadiverse Chalcidoidea (Hymenoptera)

John M. Heraty, Roger A. Burks, Astrid Cruaud, Gary A. P. Gibson, Johan Liljeblad, James Munro, Jean-Yves Rasplus, Gerard Delvare, Petr Janšta, Alex Gumovsky, John Huber, James B. Woolley, Lars Krogmann, Steve Heydon, Andrew Polaszek, Stefan Schmidt, D. Chris Darling, Michael W. Gates, Jason Mottern, Elizabeth Murray, Ana Dal Molin, Serguei Triapitsyn, Hannes Baur, John D. Pinto, Simon Van Noort … & Matthew Yoder
Chalcidoidea (Hymenoptera) is extremely diverse with an estimated 500 000 species. We present the first phylogenetic analysis of the superfamily based on both morphological and molecular data. A web-based, systematics workbench mx was used to score 945 character states illustrated by 648 figures for 233 morphological characters for a total of 66 645 observations for 300 taxa. The matrix covers 22 chalcidoid families recognized herein and includes 268 genera within 78 of 83 subfamilies. Morphological...

Data from: Around the Mediterranean: an extreme example of loop migration in a long-distance migratory passerine

Petr Klvaňa, Jaroslav Cepák, Pavel Munclinger, Romana Michálková, Oldřich Tomášek & Tomas Albrecht
An important issue in migration research is how small-bodied passerines pass over vast geographical barriers; in European-African avian migration, these are represented by the Mediterranean Sea and the Sahara Desert. Eastern (passing Eastern Mediterranean), central (passing Apennine Peninsula) and western (via western Mediterranean) major migration flyways are distinguished for European migratory birds. The autumn and spring migration routes may differ (loop migration) and there could be a certain level of individual flexibility in how individuals...

Data from: Competition-driven niche segregation on a landscape scale: evidence for escaping from syntopy toward allotopy in two coexisting sibling passerine species

Jiří Reif, Radka Reifova, Anna Skoracka & Lechosław Kuczyński
1. The role of interspecific competition for generating patterns in species’ distribution is hotly debated and studies taking into account processes occurring at both large and small spatial scales are almost missing. Theoretically, competition between species with overlapping niches should result in divergence of their niches in sympatry to reduce the costs of competition. Many species show a mosaic distribution within sympatric zones, with the syntopic sites occupied by both species, and allotopic sites where...

Data from: Flow of CO2 from soil may not correspond with CO2 concentration in soil

Jan Frouz & Luděk Bujalský
The relationship between CO2 flow from soil and soil CO2 concentration was investigated at 72 permanent sampling points at two forested post-mining sites in the northwest of the Czechia. Based on the entire data set (72 points sampled monthly during the growing season), CO2 flow from the soil was positively correlated with soil CO2 concentration. CO2 concentration in deeper soil layers was positively correlated with root biomass and negatively correlated with soil microbial respiration. In...

Data from: Flying between raindrops: strong seasonal turnover of several Lepidoptera groups in lowland rainforests of Mount Cameroon

Vincent Maicher, Szabolcs Sáfián, Mercy Murkwe, Łukasz Przybyłowicz, Štěpán Janeček, Eric B. Fokam, Tomasz Pyrcz & Robert Tropek
1. Although seasonality in the tropics is often less pronounced than in temperate areas, tropical ecosystems show seasonal dynamics as well. Nevertheless, individual tropical insects’ phenological patterns are still poorly understood, especially in the Afrotropics. To fill this gap, we investigated biodiversity patterns of Lepidoptera communities at three rainforest localities in the foothills of Mount Cameroon, West Africa, one of the wettest places in the world. 2. Our multi-taxa approach covered six lepidopteran groups (fruit-feeding...

Data from: Scrutinizing assortative mating in birds

Daiping Wang, Wolfgang Forstmeier, Mihai Valcu, Niels Dingemanse, Martin Bulla, Christiaan Both, Renée A. Duckworth, Lynna Marie Kiere, Patrik Karell, Tomáš Albrecht & Bart Kempenaers
It is often claimed that pair bonds preferentially form between individuals that resemble one another. Such assortative mating appears to be widespread throughout the animal kingdom. Yet it is unclear whether the apparent ubiquity of assortative mating arises primarily from mate choice (‘like attracts like’) which can be constrained by same-sex competition for mates, from spatial or temporal separation, or from observer, reporting, publication or search bias. Here, based on a conventional literature search, we...

Genomics of new ciliate lineages provides insight into the evolution of obligate anaerobiosis - single gene datasets for phylogenomic analysis of anaerobic ciliates (SAL, Ciliophora), protein datasets for mitochondrial pathways prediction, and mitochondrial genomes

Johana Rotterova, Eric Salomaki, Tomas Panek, William Bourland, David Zihala, Petr Taborsky, Virginia Edgcomb, Roxanne Beinart, Martin Kolisko & Ivan Cepicka
Oxygen plays a crucial role in energetic metabolism of most eukaryotes. Yet, adaptations to low oxygen concentrations leading to anaerobiosis have independently arisen in many eukaryotic lineages, resulting in a broad spectrum of reduced and modified mitochondrial organelles (MROs). In this study, we present the discovery of two new class-level lineages of free-living marine anaerobic ciliates, Muranotrichea, cl. nov. and Parablepharismea, cl. nov., that, together with the class Armophorea, form a major clade of obligate...

Data from: Moderate heritability and low evolvability of sperm morphology in a species with high risk of sperm competition, the collared flycatcher Ficedula albicollis

Anais Edme, Petr Zobač, Peter Korsten, Tomáš Albrecht, Tim Schmoll & Miloš Krist
Spermatozoa represent the morphologically most diverse type of animal cells and show remarkable variation in size across and also within species. To understand the evolution of this diversity, it is important to reveal to what degree this variation is genetic or environmental in origin and whether this depends on species’ life‐histories. Here we applied quantitative genetic methods to a pedigreed multigenerational data set of the collared flycatcher Ficedula albicollis, a passerine bird with high levels...

Language Elements and Subject Integration

Helena Kafková

Hyde within the Boundaries of Mere Jekyll: Strange Cases of Evil in Kant & Stevenson

Virgil W. Brower
This essay experiments with Kant’s writings on rational religion distilled through the Strange Case of Dr Jekyll and Mr Hyde as canonical confrontations with primal problems of evil. It suggests boundaries between Stevenson’s characters and their occupations comparable to those conflicted in the Kantian university, namely, law, medicine, theology, and philosophy (which makes a short anticipatory appearance in his earlier text on rational religion). With various faculties it investigates diffuse comprehensions—respectively, legal crime, biogenetic transmission,...

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