22 Works

Data from: Diversity change during the rise of tetrapods and the impact of the ‘Carboniferous rainforest collapse’

Emma M. Dunne, Roger A. Close, David J. Button, Neil Brocklehurst, Daniel D. Cashmore, Graeme T. Lloyd & Richard J. Butler
The Carboniferous and early Permian were critical intervals in the diversification of early four-limbed vertebrates (tetrapods), yet the major patterns of diversity and biogeography during this time remain unresolved. Previous estimates suggest that global tetrapod diversity rose continuously across this interval and that habitat fragmentation following the ‘Carboniferous rainforest collapse’ (CRC) drove increased endemism among communities. However, previous work failed to adequately account for spatial and temporal biases in sampling. Here, we reassess early tetrapod...

Data from: The mosasaur fossil record through the lens of fossil completeness

Daniel A. Driscoll, Alexander M. Dunhill, Thomas L. Stubbs & Michael J. Benton
The quality of the fossil record affects our understanding of macroevolutionary patterns. Palaeodiversity is filtered through geological and human processes; efforts to correct for these biases are part of a debate concerning the role of sampling proxies and standardization in biodiversity models. We analyse the fossil record of mosasaurs in terms of fossil completeness as a measure of fossil quality, using three novel, correlating metrics of fossil completeness and 4083 specimens. A new qualitative measure...

Data from: Journeys through discrete-character morphospace: synthesising phylogeny, tempo, and disparity

Graeme T. Lloyd
Palaeontologists have long employed discrete categorical data to capture morphological variation in fossil species, using the resulting character-taxon matrices to measure evolutionary tempo, infer phylogenies, and capture morphological disparity. However, to date these have been seen as separate approaches despite a common goal of understanding morphological evolution over deep time. Here I argue that there are clear advantages to considering these three lines of enquiry in a single space: the phylomorphospace. Conceptually these high-dimensional spaces...

Data from: Debugging diversity – a pan‐continental exploration of the potential of terrestrial blood‐feeding leeches as a vertebrate monitoring tool

Ida Bærholm Schnell, Kristine Bohmann, Sebastian E. Schultze, Stine R. Richter, Dáithí C. Murray, Mikkel-Holger S. Sinding, David Bass, John E. Cadle, Mason J. Campbell, Rainer Dulch, David P. Edwards, Thomas N. E. Gray, Teis Hansen, Anh N. Q. Hoa, Christina Lehmkuhl Noer, Sigrid Heise-Pavlov, Adam F. Sander Pedersen, Juliot C. Ramamonjisoa, Mark E. Siddall, Andrew Tilker, Carl Traeholt, Nicholas Wilkinson, Paul Woodcock, Douglas W. Yu, Mads Frost Bertelsen … & Ida Baerholm Schnell
The use of environmental DNA (eDNA) has become an applicable non-invasive tool with which to obtain information about biodiversity. A sub-discipline of eDNA is iDNA (invertebrate-derived DNA), where genetic material ingested by invertebrates is used to characterise the biodiversity of the species that served as hosts. While promising, these techniques are still in their infancy, as they have only been explored on limited numbers of samples from only a single or a few different locations....

Data from: Selective logging intensity in an East African rain forest predicts reductions in ant diversity

Samuel R. P-J. Ross, Francisco Hita Garcia, Georg Fischer, Marcell K. Peters & Samuel R. P.-J. Ross
As natural forest ecosystems increasingly face pressure from deforestation, it is ever more important to understand the impacts of habitat fragmentation and degradation on biodiversity. Most studies of anthropogenic change in the tropics come from Southeast Asia and South America, and impacts of habitat modification are often taxon-specific. Here we empirically assessed the impact of habitat fragmentation and recent (within 25 years) and historic (>25 years ago) selective logging on the diversity of ants in...

Data from: Flexible memory controls sperm competition responses to male Drosophila melanogaster

James Rouse, Katherine Watkinson & Amanda Bretman
Males of many species use social cues to predict sperm competition and tailor their reproductive strategies, such as ejaculate or behavioural investment, accordingly. Whilst these plastic strategies are widespread, the underlying mechanisms remain largely unknown. Plastic behaviour requires individuals to learn and memorise cues associated with environmental change before using this experience to modify behaviour. Drosophila melanogaster respond to an increase in sperm competition threat by extending mating duration after exposure to a rival male....

Nitrogen fixation and phosphatase activity of 97 nitrogen-fixing and non-fixing trees in Panama

S.A. Batterman, J.S. Hall, B. Turner, L.O. Hedin, J.K. LaHaela Walter, P. Sheldon & M. Van Breugel
This data includes information about nitrogen fixation, phosphatase activity, plant nitrogen and phosphorus demand and soil nitrogen and phosphorus availability of nitrogen-fixing and non-fixing trees from seven species grown in an experimental plantation at the Agua Salud Native Species Plantation, El Giral, Panama (9°12'50.15''N, 79°43'26''W). Data were collected by the Smithsonian Tropical Research Institute and Princeton University and were analysed by the University of Leeds. This work was funded by the following organisations: Heising-Simons Foundation,...

Data from: Effects of increased N and P availability on biomass allocation and root carbohydrate reserves differ between N‐fixing and non‐N‐fixing savanna tree seedlings

Varun Varma, Arockia M. Catherin & Mahesh Sankaran
In mixed tree‐grass ecosystems, tree recruitment is limited by demographic bottlenecks to seedling establishment arising from inter‐ and intra‐life‐form competition, and disturbances such as fire. Enhanced nutrient availability resulting from anthropogenic nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) deposition can alter the nature of these bottlenecks by changing seedling growth and biomass allocation patterns, and lead to longer‐term shifts in tree community composition if different plant functional groups respond differently to increased nutrient availability. However, the extent...

Data from: Effector gene birth in plant parasitic nematodes: neofunctionalization of a housekeeping glutathione synthetase gene

Catherine J. Lilley, Abbas Maqbool, Duqing Wu, Hazijah B. Yusup, Laura M. Jones, Paul R. J. Birch, Mark J. Banfield, Peter E. Urwin & Sebastian Eves-Van Den Akker
Plant pathogens and parasites are a major threat to global food security. Plant parasitism has arisen four times independently within the phylum Nematoda, resulting in at least one parasite of every major food crop in the world. Some species within the most economically important order (Tylenchida) secrete proteins termed effectors into their host during infection to re-programme host development and immunity. The precise detail of how nematodes evolve new effectors is not clear. Here we...

Data from: Environmental drivers of forest structure and stem turnover across Venezuelan tropical forests

Emilio Vilanova, Hirma Ramirez-Angulo, Armando Torres-Lezama, Gerardo Aymard, Luis Gámez, Cristabel Durán, Lionel Hernández, Rafael Herrera, Geertje Van Der Heijden, Oliver L. Phillips & Gregory J. Ettl
Using data from 50 long-term permanent plots from across Venezuelan forests in northern South America, we explored large-scale patterns of stem turnover, aboveground biomass (AGB) and woody productivity (AGWP), and the relationships between them and with potential climatic drivers. We used principal component analysis coupled with generalized least squares models to analyze the relationship between climate, forest structure and stem dynamics. Two major axes associated with orthogonal temperature and moisture gradients effectively described more than...

Data from: Screening of candidate substrates and coupling ions of transporters by thermostability shift assays

Homa Majd, Martin S. King, Shane M. Palmer, Anthony C. Smith, Liam D. H. Elbourne, Ian T. Paulsen, David Sharples, Peter J. F. Henderson, Edmund R. S. Kunji, Peter JF Henderson, Liam DH Elbourne & Edmund RS Kunji
Substrates of most transport proteins have not been identified, limiting our understanding of their role in physiology and disease. Traditional identification methods use transport assays with radioactive compounds, but they are technically challenging and many compounds are unavailable in radioactive form or are prohibitively expensive, precluding large-scale trials. Here, we present a high-throughput screening method that can identify candidate substrates from libraries of unlabeled compounds. The assay is based on the principle that transport proteins...

Data from: Microbial-tubeworm associations in a 440 million year old hydrothermal vent community

Magdalena N. Georgieva, Crispin T.S. Little, Russell J. Bailey, Alexander D. Ball, Adrian G. Glover & Crispin T. S. Little
Microorganisms are the chief primary producers within present-day deep-sea hydrothermal vent ecosystems, and play a fundamental role in shaping the ecology of these environments. However, very little is known about the microbes that occurred within, and structured ancient vent communities. The evolutionary history, diversity, and the nature of interactions between ancient vent microorganisms and hydrothermal vent animals are largely undetermined. The oldest known hydrothermal vent community that includes metazoans is preserved within the Ordovician-early Silurian...

Data from: Temporal activity patterns of predators and prey across broad geographic scales

Stephen D.J. Lang, Richard P. Mann, Damien R. Farine & Stephen D J Lang
Predators and prey are locked in an evolutionary arms race that shapes their behaviour and life history. Predators target prey vulnerabilities to maximise hunting success, while prey trade-off foraging against predation avoidance. Though studies have demonstrated how predation risk can alter how prey allocate daily foraging effort, little work has considered the implications of this temporal component of behaviour from a predator’s perspective, or assessed its influence on broad-scale predator-prey interactions. We develop a method...

Data from: Individual variation and the source-sink group dynamics of extra-group paternity in a social mammal

Paula H. Marjamaki, Hannah L. Dugdale, Deborah A. Dawson, Robbie A. McDonald, Richard Delahay, Terry Burke & Alastair J. Wilson
Movement of individuals, or their genes, can influence eco-evolutionary processes in structured populations. We have limited understanding of the extent to which spatial behaviour varies among groups and individuals within populations. Here we use genetic pedigree reconstruction in a long-term study of European badgers (Meles meles) to characterise the extent of extra-group paternity, occurring as a consequence of breeding excursions, and to test hypothesised drivers of variation at multiple levels. We jointly estimate parentage and...

Data from: Responses of aerial insectivorous bats to local and landscape-level features of coffee agroforestry systems in Western Ghats, India

Shasank Ongole, Mahesh Sankaran & Krithi K. Karanth
Shade coffee has shown great promise in providing crucial habitats for biodiversity outside formal protected areas. Insectivorous bats have been understudied in coffee, although they may provide pest control services. We investigated the influence of local and landscape-level features of coffee farms on aerial insectivorous bats in Chikmagalur district in the Western Ghats biodiversity hotspot, India. Bats were monitored in 20 farm sites using ultrasound detectors, and the response of bat species richness and activity...

Abundance of pollinators and diversity of bees in Ghana and the effect of urbanisation and management practices

S. Guenat, W.E. Kunin, A.J. Dougill & M. Dallimer
Data consists of abundance counts and diversity of pollinators collected in Ghana. Pollinators were sampled with pan-traps between August and November 2016 in 126 greenspaces spread over an urbanisation gradient and three management practices (amenity lands, farmed sites and informal greenspaces) around Sunyani and Techiman, Ghana. All insects were identified to order in the field. Samples were stored in 70% alcohol before being pinned for identification. Bees and wasps were pinned and differentiated with microscopy...

Data from: Ancient plants with ancient fungi: liverworts associate with early-diverging arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi

William R. Rimington, Silvia Pressel, Jeffrey G. Duckett, Katie J. Field, David J. Read & Martin I. Bidartondo
Arbuscular mycorrhizas are widespread in land plants including liverworts, some of the closest living relatives of the first plants to colonise land 500 MYA. Previous investigations reported near-exclusive colonisation of liverworts by the most recently evolved arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi, the Glomeraceae, indicating a recent acquisition from flowering plants at odds with the widely-held notion that arbuscular mycorrhizal-like associations in liverworts represent the ancestral symbiotic condition in land plants. We performed an analysis of symbiotic fungi...

Data from: Archosauromorph extinction selectivity during the Triassic-Jurassic mass extinction

Bethany J. Allen, Thomas L. Stubbs, Michael J. Benton & Mark N. Puttick
Many traits have been linked to extinction risk among modern vertebrates, including mode of life and body size. However, previous work has indicated there is little evidence that body size, or any other trait, was selective during past mass extinctions. Here, we investigate the impact of the Triassic–Jurassic mass extinction on early Archosauromorpha (basal dinosaurs, crocodylomorphs and their relatives) by focusing on body size and other life history traits. We built several new archosauromorph maximum‐likelihood...

Monthly global methane emissions from natural wetlands modelled by JULES with dynamic vegetation (1980-2014) v1.0

E. Comyn-Platt, G.D. Hayman, J. McNorton & N. Gedney
This dataset is a model output from the JULES land surface model driven with the Watch Forcing Data methodology applied to Era-Interim (WFDEI) data. It provides monthly global methane emissions from natural wetlands on 0.5 x 0.5 degree grid between 1980-2014. It includes the following variables: - fch4_wetl: modelled methane flux from natural wetland, in mg CH4 m-2 day-1 - fwetl: fraction of wetland - cs: soil carbon in each of these four soil carbon...

Data from: Diets of giants: the nutritional value of sauropod diet during the Mesozoic

Fiona L. Gill, Juergen Hummel, A. Reza Sharifi, Alexandra P. Lee & Barry H. Lomax
A major uncertainty in estimating energy budgets and population densities of extinct animals is the carrying capacity of their ecosystems, constrained by net primary productivity (NPP) and its digestible energy content. The hypothesis that increases in NPP due to elevated atmospheric CO2 contributed to the unparalleled size of the sauropods has recently been rejected, based on modern studies on herbivorous insects that imply a general, negative correlation of diet quality and increasing CO2. However, the...

Data from: Subordinate females in the cooperatively breeding Seychelles warbler obtain direct benefits by joining unrelated groups

Frank Groenewoud, Sjouke A. Kingma, Martijn Hammers, Hannah L. Dugdale, Terry Burke, David S. Richardson & Jan Komdeur
1. In many cooperatively breeding animals, a combination of ecological constraints and benefits of philopatry favours offspring taking a subordinate position on the natal territory instead of dispersing to breed independently. However, in many species individuals disperse to a subordinate position in a non-natal group (“subordinate between-group” dispersal), despite losing the kin-selected and nepotistic benefits of remaining in the natal group. It is unclear which social, genetic and ecological factors drive between-group dispersal. 2. We...

Data from: Herbivory and eutrophication mediate grassland plant nutrient responses across a global climatic gradient

T. Michael Anderson, Daniel M. Griffith, James B. Grace, Eric M. Lind, Peter B. Adler, Lori A. Biederman, Dana M. Blumenthal, Pedro Daleo, Jennifer Firn, Nicole Hagenah, W. Stanley Harpole, Andrew S. MacDougall, Rebecca L. McCulley, Suzanne M. Prober, Anita C. Risch, Mahesh Sankaran, Martin Schütz, Eric W. Seabloom, Carly J. Stevens, Lauren L. Sullivan, Peter D. Wragg & Elizabeth T. Borer
Plant stoichiometry, the relative concentration of elements, is a key regulator of ecosystem functioning and is also being altered by human activities. In this paper we sought to understand the global drivers of plant stoichiometry and compare the relative contribution of climatic vs. anthropogenic effects. We addressed this goal by measuring plant elemental (C, N, P and K) responses to eutrophication and vertebrate herbivore exclusion at eighteen sites on six continents. Across sites, climate and...

Registration Year

  • 2018
    22

Resource Types

  • Dataset
    22

Affiliations

  • University of Leeds
    22
  • University of Sheffield
    3
  • University of Cambridge
    2
  • University of Nottingham
    2
  • University of East Anglia
    2
  • Natural History Museum
    2
  • Tata Institute of Fundamental Research
    2
  • University of Exeter
    2
  • University of Bristol
    2
  • Max Planck Institute for Ornithology
    1