296 Works

Data from: Nonlinear thermal gradients shape broad-scale patterns in geographic range size and can reverse Rapoport’s rule

Adam Tomasovych, David Jablonski, Sarah K. Berke, Andrew Z. Krug & James W. Valentine
Aim: Species living at latitudes that have greater annual temperature variations are expected to achieve broader geographic ranges than species living at latitudes that have smaller annual temperature variations, generating a positive relationship between range size and latitude (Rapoport's rule). However, this prediction fails to take into account the greater latitudinal extent of tropical temperatures relative to those at higher latitudes. Here we model the contributions of the broader latitudinal extent of equal-temperature habitats at...

Pectoral fin kinematics and motor patterns are shaped by fin ray mechanosensation during steady swimming in Scarus quoyi

Brett R. Aiello, Aaron M. Olsen, Chris E. Mathis, Mark W. Westneat & Melina E. Hale
For many species of fish, rhythmic movement of the pectoral fins, or forelimbs, drives locomotion. In terrestrial vertebrates, normal limb- based rhythmic gaits require ongoing modulation with limb mechanosensors. Given the complexity of the fluid environment and dexterity of fish swimming through it, we hypothesize that mechanosensory modulation is also critical to normal fin-based swimming. Here, we examined the role of sensory feedback from the pectoral fin rays and membrane on the neuromuscular control and...

Phylogenetic and ecological correlates of pollen morphological diversity in a neotropical rainforest

Luke Mander, Caroline Parins-Fukuchi, Christopher W. Dick, Surangi W. Punyasena & Carlos Jaramillo.
Morphology varies enormously across clades, and the morphology of a trait may reflect ecological function or the retention of ancestral features. We examine the tension between ecological and phylogenetic correlates of morphological diversity through a case study of pollen grains produced by angiosperms in Barro Colorado Island, Panama (BCI). Using a molecular phylogeny of 730 taxa we demonstrate a statistically significant association between morphological and genetic distance for these plants. However, the relationship is non-linear,...

Comparative skeletal anatomy of neonatal ursids and the extreme altriciality of the giant panda

Peishu Li & Kathleen Smith
Vertebrate neonates are born with a wide range of maturity at birth. Altricial newborns are born with limited sensory agency and require significant parental care, while precocial neonates are relatively mature physically and often capable of independent function. In extant mammals, placental newborns span this range, while marsupials and monotremes are all extremely altricial at birth. Bears (family Ursidae) have one of the lowest neonatal-maternal mass ratios in placental mammals and are considered to have...

Data from: Phylogenetic relationships and the evolution of BMP4 in triggerfishes and filefishes (Balistoidea)

Charlene L. McCord & Mark W. Westneat
The triggerfishes (family Balistidae) and filefishes (family Monacanthidae) comprise a charismatic superfamily (Balistoidea) within the diverse order Tetraodontiformes. This group of largely marine fishes occupies an impressive ecological range across the world’s oceans, and is well known for its locomotor and feeding diversity, unusual body shapes, small genome size, and ecological and economic importance. In order to investigate the evolutionary history of these important fish families, we used multiple phylogenetic methods to analyze molecular data...

Data from: Mechanosensation is evolutionarily tuned to locomotor mechanics

Brett R. Aiello, Mark W. Westneat & Melina E. Hale
The biomechanics of animal limbs has evolved to meet the functional demands for movement associated with different behaviors and environments. Effective movement relies not only on limb mechanics but also on appropriate mechanosensory feedback. By comparing sensory ability and mechanics within a phylogenetic framework, we show that peripheral mechanosensation has evolved with limb biomechanics, evolutionarily tuning the neuromechanical system to its functional demands. We examined sensory physiology and mechanics of the pectoral fins, forelimb homologs,...

Data from: Detecting past and ongoing natural selection among ethnically Tibetan women at high altitude in Nepal

Choongwon Jeong, David B. Witonsky, Buddha Basnyat, Maniraj Neupane, Cynthia M. Beall, Geoff Childs, Sienna R. Craig, John Novembre & Anna Di Rienzo
Adaptive evolution in humans has rarely been characterized for its whole set of components, i.e. selective pressure, adaptive phenotype, beneficial alleles and realized fitness differential. We combined approaches for detecting selective sweeps and polygenic adaptations and for mapping the genetic bases of physiological and fertility phenotypes in approximately 1000 indigenous ethnically Tibetan women from Nepal, adapted to high altitude. We performed genome-wide association analysis and tests for polygenic adaptations which showed evidence of positive selection...

Data from: How little data is enough? Phase-diagram analysis of sparsity-regularized X-ray computed tomography

Jakob S. Jørgensen, Emil Y. Sidky & J. S. Jorgensen
We introduce phase-diagram analysis, a standard tool in compressed sensing (CS), to the X-ray computed tomography (CT) community as a systematic method for determining how few projections suffice for accurate sparsity-regularized reconstruction. In CS, a phase diagram is a convenient way to study and express certain theoretical relations between sparsity and sufficient sampling. We adapt phase-diagram analysis for empirical use in X-ray CT for which the same theoretical results do not hold. We demonstrate in...

Data from: Population structure, genetic connectivity, and adaptation in the Olympia oyster (Ostrea lurida) along the west coast of North America

Katherine Silliman
Effective management of threatened and exploited species requires an understanding of both the genetic connectivity among populations and local adaptation. The Olympia oyster (Ostrea lurida), patchily distributed from Baja California to the central coast of Canada, has a long history of population declines due to anthropogenic stressors. For such coastal marine species, population structure could follow a continuous isolation-by-distance model, contain regional blocks of genetic similarity separated by barriers to gene flow, or be consistent...

Data from: Morphology of the petrosal and stapes of Borealestes (Mammaliaformes, Docodonta) from the Middle Jurassic of Skye, Scotland

Elsa Panciroli, Julia A. Schultz & Zhe-Xi Luo
\We describe, in unprecedented detail, the petrosals and stapes of the docodont Borealestes from the Middle Jurassic of Scotland, using high resolution μCT and phase‐contrast synchrotron imaging. We describe the inner ear endocast and the vascularized interior structure of the petrosal, and provide the first endocranial view of a docodontan petrosal. Our study confirms some similarities in petrosal and stapedial morphology with the better known Haldanodon of the Late Jurassic of Portugal, including: (1) the...

Data from: The evolutionary origin of variation in song length and frequency in the avian family Cettiidae

Chentao Wei, Trevor D. Price, Jiayu Liu, Per Alström & Yanyun Zhang
Aspects of bird song have been shown to correlate with morphological and ecological features, including beak and body size, and habitat. Here we study evolution of song length and song frequency among 30 species belonging to the Cettiidae. Frequency is negatively correlated with body size, and song length increases with latitude. Although migration distance correlates with latitude, the association of song length with latitude is only present within the non-migratory species, implying the association is...

Data from: Genotype-by-genotype interactions between an insect and its pathogen

Asher I. Hudson, Arietta E. Fleming-Davies, David J. Paez & Greg Dwyer
Genotype-by-genotype (G×G) interactions are an essential requirement for the coevolution of hosts and parasites, but have only been documented in a small number of animal model systems. G×G effects arise from interactions between host and pathogen genotypes, such that some pathogen strains are more infectious in certain hosts and some hosts are more susceptible to certain pathogen strains. We tested for G×G interactions in the gypsy moth (Lymantria dispar) and its baculovirus. We infected 21...

Data from: Testing the adaptive hypothesis of Batesian mimicry among hybridizing North American admiral butterflies

Evan Breaux Kristiansen, Susan D. Finkbeiner, Ryan Isaac Hill, Louis Prusa & Sean Patrick Mullen
Batesian mimicry is characterized by phenotypic convergence between an unpalatable model and a palatable mimic. However, because convergent evolution may arise via alternative evolutionary mechanisms, putative examples of Batesian mimicry must be rigorously tested. Here we used artificial butterfly facsimiles (N=4000) to test the prediction that 1) palatable Limenitis lorquini butterflies should experience reduced predation when in sympatry with their putative model, Adelpha californica, 2) protection from predation on L. lorquini should erode outside of...

Data from: Prevalence and beta diversity in avian malaria communities: host species is a better predictor than geography

Elizabeth S. C. Scordato & Melissa R. Kardish
1. Patterns of diversity and turnover in macroorganism communities can often be predicted from differences in habitat, phylogenetic relationships among species, and the geographic scale of comparisons. In this study, we asked if these factors also predict diversity and turnover in parasite communities. 2. We studied communities of avian malaria in two sympatric, ecologically similar, congeneric host species at three different sites. We asked if parasite prevalence and community structure varied with host population, host...

Data from: Accurate genomic prediction of Coffea canephora in multiple environments using whole-genome statistical models

Luis Felipe V. Ferrão, Romario G. Ferrão, Maria Amelia G. Ferrão, Aymbiré Fonseca, Peter Carbonetto, Matthew Stephens & Antonio A.F Garcia
Genomic selection have been proposed as the standard method to predict breeding values in animal and plant breeding. Although some crops have benefited from this methodology, studies in Coffea are still emerging. To date, there have been no studies of how well genomic prediction models work across populations and environments for different complex traits in coffee. Considering that predictive models are based on biological and statistical assumptions, it is expected that their performance vary depending...

Data from: Systemic thyroid hormone status during levothyroxine therapy in hypothyroidism: a systematic review and meta-analysis

Elizabeth A. McAninch, Kumar B. Rajan, Corinne H. Miller & Antonio C. Bianco
CONTEXT: The standard of care for overt hypothyroidism is levothyroxine at doses that normalize serum TSH levels. Whether this approach universally restores thyroid hormone signaling is unknown. OBJECTIVE: To review studies of overt hypothyroidism in which participants were treated with levothyroxine to normalize serum TSH levels and measured other objective markers of thyroid hormone signaling. DESIGN: Databases were searched for studies that reported objective markers of thyroid hormone signaling (serum low-density lipoprotein (LDL), total cholesterol...

Data from: Mosaic heterochrony and evolutionary modularity: the trilobite genus Zacanthopsis as a case study

Sylvain Gerber & Melanie J. Hopkins
Logical connections exist between evolutionary modularity and heterochrony, two unifying and structuring themes in the expanding field of evolutionary developmental biology. The former sees complex phenotypes as being made up of semi-independent units of evolutionary transformation; the latter requires such a modular organization of phenotypes to occur in a localized or mosaic fashion. This conceptual relationship is illustrated here by analyzing the evolutionary changes in the cranidial ontogeny of two related species of Cambrian trilobites....

Data from: Adaptive, convergent origins of the pygmy phenotype in African rainforest hunter-gatherers

George H. Perry, Matthieu Foll, Jean-Christophe Grenier, Etienne Patin, Yohann Nédélec, Alain Pacis, Maxime Barakatt, Simon Gravel, Xiang Zhou, Sam L. Nsobya, Laurent Excoffier, Lluis Quintana-Murci, Nathaniel J. Dominy & Luis B. Barreiro
The evolutionary history of the human pygmy phenotype (small body size), a characteristic of African and Southeast Asian rainforest hunter-gatherers, is largely unknown. Here we use a genome-wide admixture mapping analysis to identify 16 genomic regions that are significantly associated with the pygmy phenotype in the Batwa, a rainforest hunter-gatherer population from Uganda (east central Africa). The identified genomic regions have multiple attributes that provide supporting evidence of genuine association with the pygmy phenotype, including...

Data from: Genome-wide association study of Arabidopsis thaliana leaf microbial community

Matthew W. Horton, Natacha Bodenhausen, Kathleen Beilsmith, Dazhe Meng, Brian D. Muegge, Sathish Subramanian, M. Madlen Vetter, Bjarni J. Vilhjálmsson, Magnus Nordborg, Jeffrey I. Gordon & Joy Bergelson
Identifying the factors that influence the outcome of host–microbial interactions is critical to protecting biodiversity, minimizing agricultural losses and improving human health. A few genes that determine symbiosis or resistance to infectious disease have been identified in model species, but a comprehensive examination of how a host genotype influences the structure of its microbial community is lacking. Here we report the results of a field experiment with the model plant Arabidopsis thaliana to identify the...

Data from: Consequences of divergence and introgression for speciation in Andean cloud forest birds

Benjamin M. Winger
Divergence with gene flow is well documented and reveals the influence of ecological adaptation on speciation. Yet it remains intuitive that gene exchange inhibits speciation in many scenarios, particularly among ecologically similar populations. The influence of gene flow on the divergence of populations facing similar selection pressures has received less empirical attention than scenarios where differentiation is coupled with local environmental adaptation. I used a paired study design to test the influence of genomic divergence...

Data from: Trajectory-based training enables protein simulations with accurate folding and Boltzmann ensembles in cpu-hours

John M. Jumper, Nabil F. Faruk, Karl F. Freed & Tobin R. Sosnick
An ongoing challenge in protein chemistry is to identify the underlying interaction energies that capture protein dynamics. The traditional trade-off in biomolecular simulation between accuracy and computational efficiency is predicated on the assumption that detailed force fields are typically well-parameterized, obtaining a significant fraction of possible accuracy. We re-examine this trade-off in the more realistic regime in which parameterization is a greater source of error than the level of detail in the force field. To...

Data from: Diversity-dependent evolutionary rates in early Paleozoic zooplankton

Michael Foote, Roger A. Cooper, James S. Crampton & Peter M. Sadler
The extent to which biological diversity affects rates of diversification is central to understanding macroevolutionary dynamics, yet no consensus has emerged on the importance of diversity-dependence of evolutionary rates. Here we analyse the species-level fossil record of early Paleozoic graptoloids, documented with high temporal resolution, to test directly whether rates of diversification were influenced by levels of standing diversity within this major clade of marine zooplankton. To circumvent the statistical regression-to-the-mean artefact, whereby higher- and...

Data from: Genome-level homology and phylogeny of Vibrionaceae (Gammaproteobacteria: Vibrionales) with three new complete genome sequences

Rebecca B. Dikow & William Leo Smith
Background: Phylogenetic hypotheses based on complete genome data are presented for the Gammaproteobacteria family Vibrionaceae. Two taxon samplings are presented: one including all those taxa for which the genome sequences are complete in terms of arrangement (chromosomal location of fragments; 19 taxa) and one for which the genome sequences contain multiple contigs (44 taxa). Analyses are presented under the Maximum Parsimony and Maximum Likelihood optimality criteria for total evidence datasets, the two chromosomes separately, and...

Data from: Impacts of bioturbation on temporal variation in bacterial and archaeal nitrogen-cycling gene abundance in coastal sediments

Bonnie Laverock, Karen Tait, Jack A. Gilbert, A. Mark Osborn & Steve Widdicombe
In marine environments, macrofauna living in or on the sediment surface may alter the structure, diversity and function of benthic microbial communities. In particular, microbial nitrogen (N)-cycling processes may be enhanced by the activity of large bioturbating organisms. Here, we study the effect of the burrowing mud shrimp Upogebia deltaura upon temporal variation in the abundance of genes representing key N-cycling functional guilds. The abundance of bacterial genes representing different N-cycling guilds displayed different temporal...

Data from: Does batrachotoxin autoresistance co-evolve with toxicity in Phyllobates poison-dart frogs?

Roberto Márquez, Valeria Ramírez-Castañeda & Adolfo Amézquita
Toxicity is widespread among living organisms, and evolves as a multimodal phenotype. Part of this phenotype is the ability to avoid self-intoxication (autoresistance). Evolving toxin resistance can involve fitness tradeoffs, so autoresistance is often expected to evolve gradually and in tandem with toxicity, resulting in a correlation between the degrees of toxicity and autoresistance among toxic populations. We investigate this correlation in Phyllobates poison frogs, notorious for secreting batrachotoxin (BTX), a potent neurotoxin that targets...

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