270 Works

Data from: Genome-wide association study of behavioral, physiological and gene expression traits in outbred CFW mice

Clarissa C. Parker, Shyam Gopalakrishnan, Peter Carbonetto, Natalia M. Gonzales, Emily Leung, Yeonhee J. Park, Emmanuel Aryee, Joe Davis, David A. Blizard, Cheryl L. Ackert-Bicknell, Arimantas Lionikas, Jonathan K. Pritchard & Abraham A. Palmer
Although mice are the most widely used mammalian model organism, genetic studies have suffered from limited mapping resolution due to extensive linkage disequilibrium (LD) that is characteristic of crosses among inbred strains. Carworth Farms White (CFW) mice are a commercially available outbred mouse population that exhibit rapid LD decay in comparison to other available mouse populations. We performed a genome-wide association study (GWAS) of behavioral, physiological and gene expression phenotypes using 1,200 male CFW mice....

Data from: Ancient mechanisms for the evolution of the bicoid homeodomain's function in fly development

Qinwen Liu, Pinar Onal, Rhea R. Datta, Julia M. Rogers, Urs Schmidt-Ott, Martha L. Bulyk, Stephen Small & Joseph W. Thornton
The ancient mechanisms that caused developmental gene regulatory networks to diversify among distantly related taxa are not well understood. Here we use ancestral protein reconstruction, biochemical experiments, and developmental assays of transgenic animals carrying reconstructed ancestral genes to investigate how the transcription factor Bicoid (Bcd) evolved its central role in anterior-posterior patterning in flies. We show that most of Bcd's derived functions are attributable to evolutionary changes within its homeodomain (HD) during a phylogenetic interval...

Data from: Transformation of stimulus correlations by the retina

Kristina D. Simmons, Jason S. Prentice, Gašper Tkačik, Jan Homann, Heather K. Yee, Stephanie E. Palmer, Philip C. Nelson & Vijay Balasubramanian
Redundancies and correlations in the responses of sensory neurons may seem to waste neural resources, but they can also carry cues about structured stimuli and may help the brain to correct for response errors. To investigate the effect of stimulus structure on redundancy in retina, we measured simultaneous responses from populations of retinal ganglion cells presented with natural and artificial stimuli that varied greatly in correlation structure; these stimuli and recordings are publicly available online....

Data from: An early chondrichthyan and the evolutionary assembly of a shark body plan

Michael I. Coates, John A. Finarelli, Ivan J. Sansom, Plamen S. Andreev, Katharine E. Criswell, Kristen Tietjen, Mark L. Rivers & Patrick J. La Riviere
Although relationships among the major groups of living gnathostomes are well established, the relatedness of early jawed vertebrates to modern clades is intensely debated. Here, we provide a new description of Gladbachus, a Middle Devonian (Givetian ~385-million-year-old) stem chondrichthyan from Germany, and one of the very few early chondrichthyans in which substantial portions of the endoskeleton are preserved. Tomographic and histological techniques reveal new details of the gill skeleton, hyoid arch and jaws, neurocranium, cartilage,...

Data from: Fossils reveal the complex evolutionary history of the mammalian regionalized spine

Katrina Elizabeth Jones, K. D. Angielczyk, P. D. Polly, J. J. Head, V. Fernandez, J. K. Lungmus, S. Tulga & S. E. Pierce
A unique characteristic of mammals is a vertebral column with anatomically distinct regions, but when and how this trait evolved remains unknown. Here we reconstruct vertebral regions and their morphological disparity in the extinct forerunners of mammals, the non-mammalian synapsids, to elucidate the evolution of mammalian axial differentiation. Mapping patterns of regionalization and disparity (heterogeneity) across amniotes reveals that both traits increased during synapsid evolution. However, the onset of regionalization predates increased heterogeneity. Based on...

Data from: Serial founder effects and genetic differentiation during worldwide range expansion of monarch butterflies

Amanda A. Pierce, Myron P. Zalucki, Marie Bangura, Milan Udawatta, Marcus R. Kronforst, Sonia Altizer, Juan Fernández Haeger & Jacobus C. De Roode
Range expansions can result in founder effects, increasing genetic differentiation between expanding populations and reducing genetic diversity along the expansion front. However, few studies have addressed these effects in long-distance migratory species, for which high dispersal ability might counter the effects of genetic drift. Monarchs (Danaus plexippus) are best known for undertaking a long-distance annual migration in North America, but have also dispersed around the world to form populations that do not migrate or travel...

Data from: Ecological network inference from long-term presence-absence data

Elizabeth L. Sander, J. Timothy Wootton & Stefano Allesina
Ecological communities are characterized by complex networks of trophic and nontrophic interactions, which shape the dy-namics of the community. Machine learning and correlational methods are increasingly popular for inferring networks from co-occurrence and time series data, particularly in microbial systems. In this study, we test the suitability of these methods for inferring ecological interactions by constructing networks using Dynamic Bayesian Networks, Lasso regression, and Pear-son’s correlation coefficient, then comparing the model networks to empirical trophic...

Data from: Cascading effects of induced terrestrial plant defenses on aquatic and terrestrial ecosystem function

Sara L. Jackrel & J. Timothy Wootton
Herbivores induce plants to undergo diverse processes that minimize costs to the plant, such as producing defences to deter herbivory or reallocating limited resources to inaccessible portions of the plant. Yet most plant tissue is consumed by decomposers, not herbivores, and these defensive processes aimed to deter herbivores may alter plant tissue even after detachment from the plant. All consumers value nutrients, but plants also require these nutrients for primary functions and defensive processes. We...

Data from: Variable post-zygotic isolation in Drosophila melanogaster/D. simulans hybrids

Daniel R. Matute, Jackie Gavin-Smyth & Geoffrey Liu
The study of hybrid inviability reveals cryptic divergence between the genetic interactions that maintain stable phenotypes in the pure species. We characterized the effects of natural variation on the penetrance of hybrid inviability phenotypes in crosses between Drosophila melanogaster and two species of the D. simulans subcomplex, D. simulans and D. sechellia. Using a panel of wild-caught lines, we studied the levels of genetic variance present in D. simulans and D. sechellia affecting prezygotic and...

Data from: MR1-restricted mucosal-associated invariant T (MAIT) cells respond to mycobacterial vaccination and infection in nonhuman primates

Justin M. Greene, Pradyot Dash, Sobhan Roy, Curtis McMurtrey, Walid Awad, Jason S. Reed, Katherine B. Hammond, Shaheed Abdulhaqq, Helen L. Wu, Benjamin J. Burwitz, Benjamin F. Roth, David W. Morrow, Julia C. Ford, Guangwu Xu, Joseph Y. Bae, Hugh Crank, Alfred W. Legasse, Thurston H. Dang, Hui Yee Greenaway, Monica Kurniawan, Marielle C. Gold, Melanie J. Harriff, Deborah A. Lewinsohn, Byung S. Park, Michael K. Axthelm … & Jonah B. Sacha
Studies on mucosal-associated invariant T cells (MAITs) in nonhuman primates (NHP), a physiologically relevant model of human immunity, are handicapped due to a lack of macaque MAIT-specific reagents. Here we show that while MR1 ligand-contact residues are conserved between human and multiple NHP species, three T-cell receptor contact-residue mutations in NHP MR1 diminish binding of human MR1 tetramers to macaque MAITs. Construction of naturally loaded macaque MR1 tetramers facilitated identification and characterization of macaque MR1-binding...

Data from: Heritable variation in host tolerance and resistance inferred from a wild host– parasite system

Elise Mazé-Guilmo, Géraldine Loot, David James Páez, Thierry Lefèvre, Simon Blanchet, T. Lefevre, D. J. Paez & E. Maze-Guilmo
Hosts have evolved two distinct defence strategies against parasites: resistance (which prevents infection or limit parasite growth) and tolerance (which alleviates the fitness consequences of infection). However, heritable variation in resistance and tolerance and the genetic correlation between these two traits have rarely been characterized in wild host populations. Here, we estimate these parameters for both traits in Leuciscus burdigalensis, a freshwater fish parasitized by Tracheliastes polycolpus. We used a genetic database to construct a...

Data from: The role of founder effects on the evolution of reproductive isolation

Daniel R. Matute
Several theories argue that large changes in allele frequencies through genetic drift after a small founding population becomes allopatrically isolated can lead to significant changes in reproductive isolation and thus trigger the origin of new species. For this reason, founder speciation has been proposed as a potent force in the generation of new species. Nonetheless, the relative importance of such “founder effects” remains largely untested. In this report, I used experimental evolution to create one...

Data from: Discovery of a relict lineage and monotypic family of passerine birds

Per Alström, Daniel M. Hooper, Yang Liu, Urban Olsson, Dhananjai Mohan, Magnus Gelang, Hung Le Manh, Jian Zhao, Fumin Lei, Trevor D. Price & P. Alstrom
Analysis of one of the most comprehensive datasets to date of the largest passerine bird clade, Passerida, identified 10 primary well-supported lineages corresponding to Sylvioidea, Muscicapoidea, Certhioidea, Passeroidea, the ‘bombycillids’ (here proposed to be recognized as Bombycilloidea), Paridae/Remizidae (proposed to be recognized as Paroidea), Stenostiridae, Hyliotidae, Regulidae (proposed to be recognized as Reguloidea) and spotted wren-babbler Spelaeornis formosus. The latter was found on a single branch in a strongly supported clade with Muscicapoidea, Certhioidea and...

Data from: Inferring phylogeny and introgression using RADseq data: an example from flowering plants (Pedicularis: Orobanchaceae)

Deren A. R. Eaton & Richard H. Ree
Phylogenetic relationships among recently diverged species are often difficult to resolve due to insufficient phylogenetic signal in available markers and/or conflict among gene trees. Here we explore the use of reduced-representation genome sequencing, specifically in the form of restriction-site associated DNA (RAD), for phylogenetic inference and the detection of ancestral hybridization in non-model organisms. As a case study, we investigate Pedicularis section Cyathophora, a systematically recalcitrant clade of flowering plants in the broomrape family (Orobanchaceae)....

Data from: A stochastic rate-calibrated method for time-scaling phylogenies of fossil taxa

David W. Bapst
1.) Applying phylogeny-based analyses of trait evolution and diversification in the fossil record generally involves transforming an unscaled cladogram into a phylogeny scaled to geologic time. Current methods produce single time-scaled phylogenies with artificial zero-length branches and no indication of the uncertainty in the temporal relationships. 2.) Here I present a stochastic algorithm for time-scaling phylogenies of fossil taxa by randomly sampling node ages from a constrained distribution, with the ultimate goal of producing large...

Data from: Testing for unequal rates of morphological diversification in the absence of a detailed phylogeny: case study from characiform fishes

Brian Sidlauskas
This study develops the random phylogenies rate test (RAPRATE), a likelihood method that simulates morphological evolution along randomly generated phylogenies, and uses it to determine whether a considerable difference in morphological diversity between two sister clades of South American fishes should be taken as evidence of differing rates of morphological change or lineage turnover. Despite identical ages of origin, similar species richness, and sympatric geographic distributions, the morphological and ecological diversity of the superfamily Anostomoidea...

Data from: Coevolution-based inference of amino acid interactions underlying protein function

Victor H Salinas & Rama Ranganathan
Protein function arises from a poorly understood pattern of energetic interactions between amino acid residues. Sequence-based strategies for deducing this pattern have been proposed, but lack of benchmark data has limited experimental verification. Here, we extend deep-mutation technologies to enable measurement of many thousands of pairwise amino acid couplings in several homologs of a protein family – a deep coupling scan (DCS). The data show that cooperative interactions between residues are loaded in a sparse,...

Data from: Extinction risk in extant marine species integrating paleontological and biodistributional data

Katie S. Collins, Stewart M. Edie, Gene Hunt, Kaustuv Roy & David Jablonski
Extinction risk assessments of marine invertebrate species remain scarce, which hinders effective management of marine biodiversity in the face of anthropogenic impacts. In order to close this information gap, we developed a metric of relative extinction risk that combines paleontological data, in the form of extinction rates calculated from the fossil record, with two known correlates of risk in the modern day: geographic range size and realized thermal niche. We test the performance of this...

Data from: Ethnically Tibetan women in Nepal with low hemoglobin concentration have better reproductive outcomes

Jang Ik Cho, Buddha Basnyat, Choongwon Jeong, Anna Di Rienzo, Geoff Childs, Sienna Craig, Jiayang Sun, Cynthia Beall & Cynthia M. Beall
Abstract Background and objectives: Tibetans have distinctively low hemoglobin concentrations at high altitudes compared with visitors and Andean highlanders. This study hypothesized that natural selection favors an unelevated hemoglobin concentration among Tibetans. It considered nonheritable sociocultural factors affecting reproductive success and tested the hypotheses that a higher percent of oxygen saturation of hemoglobin (indicating less stress) or lower hemoglobin concentration (indicating dampened response) associated with higher lifetime reproductive success. Methodology: We sampled 1006 post-reproductive ethnically...

Data from: Chironomus riparius (Diptera) genome sequencing reveals the impact of minisatellite transposable elements on population divergence

Ann-Marie Oppold, Hanno Schmidt, Marcel Rose, Sören Lukas Hellman, Florian Dolze, Fabian Ripp, Bettina Weich, Urs Schmidt-Ott, Erwin Schmidt, Robert Kofler, Thomas Hankeln & Markus Pfenninger
Active transposable elements (TEs) may result in divergent genomic insertion and abundance patterns among conspecific populations. Upon secondary contact, such divergent genetic backgrounds can theoretically give rise to classical Dobzhansky-Muller incompatibilities (DMI), thus contributing to the evolution of endogenous genetic barriers and eventually cause population divergence. We investigated differential TE abundance among conspecific populations of the non-biting midge Chironomus riparius and evaluated their potential role in causing endogenous genetic incompatibilities between these populations. We focussed...

Data from: Female mate choice is a reproductive isolating barrier in Heliconius butterflies

Laura Southcott & Marcus R. Kronforst
In sexually reproducing organisms, speciation involves the evolution of reproductive isolating mechanisms that decrease gene flow. Premating reproductive isolation, often the result of mate choice, is a major obstacle to gene flow between species because it acts earlier in the life cycle than other isolating barriers. While female choice is often considered the default mode in animal species, research in the butterfly genus Heliconius, a frequent subject of speciation studies, has focused on male mate...

Data from: On the measurement of occupancy in ecology and paleontology

Michael Foote
Occupancy statistics in ecology and paleontology are biased upward by the fact that we generally do not have solid data on species that exist but are not found. The magnitude of this bias increases as the average occupancy probability decreases and as the number of sites sampled decreases. A maximum-likelihood method is developed to estimate the underlying distribution of occupancy probabilities of all species based only on the sample of observed species with nonzero occupancy....

Data from: A nutrient-driven tRNA modification alters translational fidelity and genome-wide protein coding across an animal genus

John M. Zaborske, Vanessa L. Bauer-DuMont, Edward W. J. Wallace, Tao Pan, Charles F. Aquadro, David Allan Drummond & Vanessa L. Bauer DuMont
Natural selection favors efficient expression of encoded proteins, but the causes, mechanisms, and fitness consequences of evolved coding changes remain an area of aggressive inquiry. We report a large-scale reversal in the relative translational accuracy of codons across 12 fly species in the Drosophila/Sophophora genus. Because the reversal involves pairs of codons that are read by the same genomically encoded tRNAs, we hypothesize, and show by direct measurement, that a tRNA anticodon modification from guanosine...

Data from: 'Escaping' the X chromosome leads to increased gene expression in the male germline of Drosophila melanogaster

Claus Kemkemer, Ana Catalán & John Parsch
Genomic analyses of Drosophila species suggest that the X chromosome presents an unfavourable environment for the expression of genes in the male germline. A previous study in D. melanogaster used a reporter gene driven by a testis-specific promoter to show that expression was greatly reduced when the gene was inserted onto the X chromosome as compared with the autosomes. However, a limitation of this study was that only the expression regulated by a single, autosomal-derived...

Data from: Differential drivers of benthic foraminiferal and molluscan community composition from a multivariate record of Early Miocene environmental change

Christina L. Belanger & Marites Villarosa Garcia
Climate changes are multivariate in nature, and disentangling the proximal drivers of biotic responses to paleoclimate events requires time series of multiple environmental proxies. We reconstruct a multivariate time series of local environmental change for the early Miocene Newport Member of the Astoria Formation (20.26–18 Ma), using proxies for temperature (δ18O), productivity (δ13C), organic carbon flux (Δδ13C), oxygenation (δ15N), and sedimentary grain size (% mud). Our data suggest increases in productivity and declines in oxygenation...

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