249 Works

Data from: Bioturbation determines the response of benthic ammonia oxidising microorganisms to ocean acidification

Bonnie Laverock, Vassilis Kitidis, Karen Tait, Jack A. Gilbert, A. Mark Osborn & Steve Widdicombe
Ocean acidification (OA), caused by the dissolution of increasing concentrations of atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2) in seawater, is projected to cause significant changes to marine ecology and biogeochemistry. Potential impacts on the microbially driven cycling of nitrogen are of particular concern. Specifically, under seawater pH levels approximating future OA scenarios, rates of ammonia oxidation (the rate-limiting first step of the nitrification pathway) have been shown to dramatically decrease in seawater, but not in underlying sediments....

Data from: A stochastic rate-calibrated method for time-scaling phylogenies of fossil taxa

David W. Bapst
1.) Applying phylogeny-based analyses of trait evolution and diversification in the fossil record generally involves transforming an unscaled cladogram into a phylogeny scaled to geologic time. Current methods produce single time-scaled phylogenies with artificial zero-length branches and no indication of the uncertainty in the temporal relationships. 2.) Here I present a stochastic algorithm for time-scaling phylogenies of fossil taxa by randomly sampling node ages from a constrained distribution, with the ultimate goal of producing large...

Data from: Identification of SNP markers for inferring phylogeny in temperate bamboos (Poaceae: Bambusoideae) using RAD sequencing

Xue Qin Wang, Lei Zhao, Deren A. R. Eaton, De Zhu Li & Zhen Hua Guo
Phylogenetic relationships among temperate species of bamboo are difficult to resolve, owing to both the challenge of detecting sufficiently variable markers and their polyploid history. Here, we use restriction site–associated DNA sequencing to identify candidate loci with fixed allelic differences segregating between and within two temperate species of bamboos: Arundinaria faberi and Yushania brevipaniculata. Approximately 27 million paired-end sequencing reads were generated across four samples. From pooled data, we assembled 67 685 and 70 668...

Data from: Inferring phylogeny and introgression using RADseq data: an example from flowering plants (Pedicularis: Orobanchaceae)

Deren A. R. Eaton & Richard H. Ree
Phylogenetic relationships among recently diverged species are often difficult to resolve due to insufficient phylogenetic signal in available markers and/or conflict among gene trees. Here we explore the use of reduced-representation genome sequencing, specifically in the form of restriction-site associated DNA (RAD), for phylogenetic inference and the detection of ancestral hybridization in non-model organisms. As a case study, we investigate Pedicularis section Cyathophora, a systematically recalcitrant clade of flowering plants in the broomrape family (Orobanchaceae)....

Data from: Variable post-zygotic isolation in Drosophila melanogaster/D. simulans hybrids

Daniel R. Matute, Jackie Gavin-Smyth & Geoffrey Liu
The study of hybrid inviability reveals cryptic divergence between the genetic interactions that maintain stable phenotypes in the pure species. We characterized the effects of natural variation on the penetrance of hybrid inviability phenotypes in crosses between Drosophila melanogaster and two species of the D. simulans subcomplex, D. simulans and D. sechellia. Using a panel of wild-caught lines, we studied the levels of genetic variance present in D. simulans and D. sechellia affecting prezygotic and...

Data from: The role of founder effects on the evolution of reproductive isolation

Daniel R. Matute
Several theories argue that large changes in allele frequencies through genetic drift after a small founding population becomes allopatrically isolated can lead to significant changes in reproductive isolation and thus trigger the origin of new species. For this reason, founder speciation has been proposed as a potent force in the generation of new species. Nonetheless, the relative importance of such “founder effects” remains largely untested. In this report, I used experimental evolution to create one...

Data from: Heritable variation in host tolerance and resistance inferred from a wild host– parasite system

Elise Mazé-Guilmo, Géraldine Loot, David James Páez, Thierry Lefèvre, Simon Blanchet, T. Lefevre, D. J. Paez & E. Maze-Guilmo
Hosts have evolved two distinct defence strategies against parasites: resistance (which prevents infection or limit parasite growth) and tolerance (which alleviates the fitness consequences of infection). However, heritable variation in resistance and tolerance and the genetic correlation between these two traits have rarely been characterized in wild host populations. Here, we estimate these parameters for both traits in Leuciscus burdigalensis, a freshwater fish parasitized by Tracheliastes polycolpus. We used a genetic database to construct a...

Data from: Discovery of a relict lineage and monotypic family of passerine birds

Per Alström, Daniel M. Hooper, Yang Liu, Urban Olsson, Dhananjai Mohan, Magnus Gelang, Hung Le Manh, Jian Zhao, Fumin Lei, Trevor D. Price & P. Alstrom
Analysis of one of the most comprehensive datasets to date of the largest passerine bird clade, Passerida, identified 10 primary well-supported lineages corresponding to Sylvioidea, Muscicapoidea, Certhioidea, Passeroidea, the ‘bombycillids’ (here proposed to be recognized as Bombycilloidea), Paridae/Remizidae (proposed to be recognized as Paroidea), Stenostiridae, Hyliotidae, Regulidae (proposed to be recognized as Reguloidea) and spotted wren-babbler Spelaeornis formosus. The latter was found on a single branch in a strongly supported clade with Muscicapoidea, Certhioidea and...

Data from: An early chondrichthyan and the evolutionary assembly of a shark body plan

Michael I. Coates, John A. Finarelli, Ivan J. Sansom, Plamen S. Andreev, Katharine E. Criswell, Kristen Tietjen, Mark L. Rivers & Patrick J. La Riviere
Although relationships among the major groups of living gnathostomes are well established, the relatedness of early jawed vertebrates to modern clades is intensely debated. Here, we provide a new description of Gladbachus, a Middle Devonian (Givetian ~385-million-year-old) stem chondrichthyan from Germany, and one of the very few early chondrichthyans in which substantial portions of the endoskeleton are preserved. Tomographic and histological techniques reveal new details of the gill skeleton, hyoid arch and jaws, neurocranium, cartilage,...

Data from: Serial founder effects and genetic differentiation during worldwide range expansion of monarch butterflies

Amanda A. Pierce, Myron P. Zalucki, Marie Bangura, Milan Udawatta, Marcus R. Kronforst, Sonia Altizer, Juan Fernández Haeger & Jacobus C. De Roode
Range expansions can result in founder effects, increasing genetic differentiation between expanding populations and reducing genetic diversity along the expansion front. However, few studies have addressed these effects in long-distance migratory species, for which high dispersal ability might counter the effects of genetic drift. Monarchs (Danaus plexippus) are best known for undertaking a long-distance annual migration in North America, but have also dispersed around the world to form populations that do not migrate or travel...

Data from: Female mate choice is a reproductive isolating barrier in Heliconius butterflies

Laura Southcott & Marcus R. Kronforst
In sexually reproducing organisms, speciation involves the evolution of reproductive isolating mechanisms that decrease gene flow. Premating reproductive isolation, often the result of mate choice, is a major obstacle to gene flow between species because it acts earlier in the life cycle than other isolating barriers. While female choice is often considered the default mode in animal species, research in the butterfly genus Heliconius, a frequent subject of speciation studies, has focused on male mate...

Data from: Fossils reveal the complex evolutionary history of the mammalian regionalized spine

Katrina Elizabeth Jones, K. D. Angielczyk, P. D. Polly, J. J. Head, V. Fernandez, J. K. Lungmus, S. Tulga & S. E. Pierce
A unique characteristic of mammals is a vertebral column with anatomically distinct regions, but when and how this trait evolved remains unknown. Here we reconstruct vertebral regions and their morphological disparity in the extinct forerunners of mammals, the non-mammalian synapsids, to elucidate the evolution of mammalian axial differentiation. Mapping patterns of regionalization and disparity (heterogeneity) across amniotes reveals that both traits increased during synapsid evolution. However, the onset of regionalization predates increased heterogeneity. Based on...

Data from: Extinction risk in extant marine species integrating paleontological and biodistributional data

Katie S. Collins, Stewart M. Edie, Gene Hunt, Kaustuv Roy & David Jablonski
Extinction risk assessments of marine invertebrate species remain scarce, which hinders effective management of marine biodiversity in the face of anthropogenic impacts. In order to close this information gap, we developed a metric of relative extinction risk that combines paleontological data, in the form of extinction rates calculated from the fossil record, with two known correlates of risk in the modern day: geographic range size and realized thermal niche. We test the performance of this...

Data from: Coevolution-based inference of amino acid interactions underlying protein function

Victor H Salinas & Rama Ranganathan
Protein function arises from a poorly understood pattern of energetic interactions between amino acid residues. Sequence-based strategies for deducing this pattern have been proposed, but lack of benchmark data has limited experimental verification. Here, we extend deep-mutation technologies to enable measurement of many thousands of pairwise amino acid couplings in several homologs of a protein family – a deep coupling scan (DCS). The data show that cooperative interactions between residues are loaded in a sparse,...

Data from: Ancient mechanisms for the evolution of the bicoid homeodomain's function in fly development

Qinwen Liu, Pinar Onal, Rhea R. Datta, Julia M. Rogers, Urs Schmidt-Ott, Martha L. Bulyk, Stephen Small & Joseph W. Thornton
The ancient mechanisms that caused developmental gene regulatory networks to diversify among distantly related taxa are not well understood. Here we use ancestral protein reconstruction, biochemical experiments, and developmental assays of transgenic animals carrying reconstructed ancestral genes to investigate how the transcription factor Bicoid (Bcd) evolved its central role in anterior-posterior patterning in flies. We show that most of Bcd's derived functions are attributable to evolutionary changes within its homeodomain (HD) during a phylogenetic interval...

Data from: Shared extremes by ectotherms and endotherms: body elongation in mustelids is associated with small size and reduced limbs

Chris J. Law, Graham J. Slater & Rita S. Mehta
An elongate body with reduced or absent limbs has evolved independently in many ectothermic vertebrate lineages. While much effort has been spent examining the morphological pathways to elongation in these clades, quantitative investigations into the evolution of elongation in endothermic clades are lacking. We quantified body shape in 61 musteloid mammals (red panda, skunks, raccoons, and weasels) using the head-body elongation ratio. We also examined the morphological changes that may underlie the evolution towards more...

Lit - A Collection of Literature Extracted Small Molecules to Speed Identification of COVID-19 Therapeutics

Yadu Babuji, Ben Blaiszik, Kyle Chard, Ryan Chard, Ian Foster, India Gordon, Zhi Hong, Kasia Karbarz, Zhuozhao Li, Linda Novak, Susan Sarvey, Marcus Schwarting, Julie Smagacz, Logan Ward & Monica Orozco White

Data from: Testing for unequal rates of morphological diversification in the absence of a detailed phylogeny: case study from characiform fishes

Brian Sidlauskas
This study develops the random phylogenies rate test (RAPRATE), a likelihood method that simulates morphological evolution along randomly generated phylogenies, and uses it to determine whether a considerable difference in morphological diversity between two sister clades of South American fishes should be taken as evidence of differing rates of morphological change or lineage turnover. Despite identical ages of origin, similar species richness, and sympatric geographic distributions, the morphological and ecological diversity of the superfamily Anostomoidea...

Data from: 'Escaping' the X chromosome leads to increased gene expression in the male germline of Drosophila melanogaster

Claus Kemkemer, Ana Catalán & John Parsch
Genomic analyses of Drosophila species suggest that the X chromosome presents an unfavourable environment for the expression of genes in the male germline. A previous study in D. melanogaster used a reporter gene driven by a testis-specific promoter to show that expression was greatly reduced when the gene was inserted onto the X chromosome as compared with the autosomes. However, a limitation of this study was that only the expression regulated by a single, autosomal-derived...

Origin of complexity in hemoglobin evolution

Arvind Pillai
Most proteins associate into multimeric complexes with specific architectures, which often have functional properties like cooperative ligand binding, allosteric regulation, or the capacity to perform mechanical work. We have no detailed knowledge of how any multimer and its functions arose during historical evolution. Here we use ancestral protein reconstruction and biophysical assays to dissect the evolutionary origins of vertebrate hemoglobin (Hb), a heterotetramer of paralogous α and β subunits, which mediates oxygen transport and exchange...

Thomas T. Allsen (1940–2019)

Bruce D. Craig

The Role of Information Theory in Gap-Filler Dependencies

Gregory Kobele, Linyang He & Ming Xiang

Preface: SCiL 2021 Editors' Note

Allyson Ettinger, Ellie Pavlich & Brandon Prickett

Mamlūk Studies Review Volume 23 (full volume)

Implementation of a learning healthcare system for Sickle Cell disease: List of smart data elements contained in the Epic Smartform and their SmartData types

Robin Miller, Erin Coyne, Erin Crowgey, Dan Eckrich, Jeffrey Myers, Raymond Villanueva, Jean Wadman, Sidnie Jacobs-Allen, Renee Gresh, Samuel Volchenboum & E Anders Kolb
Objective: Using Sickle Cell Disease (SCD) as a model, the objective of this study was to create a comprehensive learning healthcare system to support disease management and research. A multidisciplinary team developed a SCD clinical data dictionary to standardize bedside data entry and inform a scalable environment capable of converting complex electronic healthcare records (EHR) into knowledge accessible in real-time. Materials and Methods: Clinicians expert in SCD care developed a data dictionary to describe important...

Registration Year

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Resource Types

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Affiliations

  • University of Chicago
    249
  • Field Museum of Natural History
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