23 Works

Data from: Genotype-by-genotype interactions between an insect and its pathogen

Asher I. Hudson, Arietta E. Fleming-Davies, David J. Paez & Greg Dwyer
Genotype-by-genotype (G×G) interactions are an essential requirement for the coevolution of hosts and parasites, but have only been documented in a small number of animal model systems. G×G effects arise from interactions between host and pathogen genotypes, such that some pathogen strains are more infectious in certain hosts and some hosts are more susceptible to certain pathogen strains. We tested for G×G interactions in the gypsy moth (Lymantria dispar) and its baculovirus. We infected 21...

Data from: Historical baselines and the future of shell calcification for a foundation species in a changing ocean

Catherine A. Pfister, Kaustuv Roy, J. Timothy Wootton, Sophie J. McCoy, Robert T. Paine, Thomas H. Suchanek & Eric Sanford
Seawater pH and the availability of carbonate ions is decreasing due to anthropogenic carbon dioxide emissions, posing challenges for calcifying marine species. Marine mussels are of particular concern given their role as foundation species worldwide. Here, we document shell growth and calcification patterns in Mytilus californianus, the California mussel, over millennial and decadal scales. By comparing shell thickness across the largest modern shells, the largest mussels collected in the 1960s-1970s and shells from two Native...

Data from: DNA methylation mediates genetic variation for adaptive transgenerational plasticity

Jacob J. Herman & Sonia E. Sultan
Environmental stresses experienced by individual parents can influence offspring phenotypes in ways that enhance survival under similar conditions. Although such adaptive transgenerational plasticity is well documented, its transmission mechanisms are generally unknown. One possible mechanism is environmentally induced DNA methylation changes. We tested this hypothesis in the annual plant Polygonum persicaria, a species known to express adaptive transgenerational plasticity in response to parental drought stress. Replicate plants of 12 genetic lines (sampled from natural populations)...

Data from: Comparative genomics reveals convergent rates of evolution in ant-plant mutualisms

Benjamin E. R. Rubin & Corrie S. Moreau
Symbiosis—the close and often long-term interaction of species—is predicted to drive genome evolution in a variety of ways. For example, parasitic interactions have been shown to increase rates of molecular evolution, a trend generally attributed to the Red Queen Hypothesis. However, it is much less clear how mutualisms impact the genome, as both increased and reduced rates of change have been predicted. Here we sequence the genomes of seven species of ants, three that have...

Data from: Early and dynamic colonization of Central America drives speciation in Neotropical army ants

Max E. Winston, Daniel J. C. Kronauer & Corrie S. Moreau
The emergence of the Isthmus of Panama is one of the most important events in recent geological history, yet its timing and role in fundamental evolutionary processes remain controversial. While the formation of the isthmus was complete around 3 million years ago (Ma), recent studies have suggested prior intercontinental biotic exchange. In particular, the possibility of early intermittent land bridges facilitating colonization constitutes a potential mechanism for speciation and colonization before full closure of the...

Data from: Unifying latitudinal gradients in range size and richness across marine and terrestrial systems

Adam Tomasovych, Jonathan D. Kennedy, Tristan J. Betzner, Nicole Bitler Kuehnle, Stewart Edie, Sora Kim, K. Supriya, Alexander E. White, Carsten Rahbek, Shan Huang, Trevor D. Price & David Jablonski
Many marine and terrestrial clades show similar latitudinal gradients in species richness, but opposite gradients in range size—on land, ranges are the smallest in the tropics, whereas in the sea, ranges are the largest in the tropics. Therefore, richness gradients in marine and terrestrial systems do not arise from a shared latitudinal arrangement of species range sizes. Comparing terrestrial birds and marine bivalves, we find that gradients in range size are concordant at the level...

Data from: Posterior parietal cortex drives inferotemporal activations during three-dimensional object vision

Ilse C. Van Dromme, Elsie Premereur, Bram-Ernst Verhoef, Wim Vanduffel & Peter Janssen
The primate visual system consists of a ventral stream, specialized for object recognition, and a dorsal visual stream, which is crucial for spatial vision and actions. However, little is known about the interactions and information flow between these two streams. We investigated these interactions within the network processing three-dimensional (3D) object information, comprising both the dorsal and ventral stream. Reversible inactivation of the macaque caudal intraparietal area (CIP) during functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) reduced...

Data from: Defensive traits exhibit an evolutionary trade-off and drive diversification in ants

Benjamin D. Blanchard & Corrie S. Moreau
Evolutionary biologists have long predicted that evolutionary trade-offs among traits should constrain morphological divergence and species diversification. However, this prediction has yet to be tested in a broad evolutionary context in many diverse clades, including ants. Here, we reconstruct an expanded ant phylogeny representing 82% of ant genera, compile a new family-wide trait database, and conduct various trait-based analyses to show that defensive traits in ants do exhibit an evolutionary trade-off. In particular, the use...

Data from: Therian mammals experience an ecomorphological radiation during the Late Cretaceous and selective extinction at the K-Pg boundary

David M. Grossnickle & Elis Newham
It is often postulated that mammalian diversity was suppressed during the Mesozoic Era and increased rapidly after the Cretaceous–Palaeogene (K–Pg) extinction event. We test this hypothesis by examining macroevolutionary patterns in early therian mammals, the group that gave rise to modern placentals and marsupials. We assess morphological disparity and dietary trends using morphometric analyses of lower molars, and we evaluate generic level taxonomic diversity patterns using techniques that account for sampling biases. In contrast with...

Data from: Decoupling of latitudinal gradients in species and genus geographic range size: a signature of clade range expansion

Adam Tomašových & David Jablonski
Aim. Clade range size is a function of species range sizes but also depends on the geographic deployment of species; clade range expansion should therefore depend partly on a clade’s tendency to produce new species. Under high speciation pressure, species-rich clades can migrate outside its present distribution, and thus overcome niche conservatism. A simple probabilistic mechanism for an out-of-tropics dynamic (OTT) for clade range expansion can thus operate in the absence of species-level differences in...

Data from: Multivariate analysis of genotype-phenotype association

Philipp Mitteroecker, James M. Cheverud & Mihaela Pavlicev
With the advent of modern imaging and measurement technology, complex phenotypes are increasingly represented by large numbers of measurements, which may not bear biological meaning one by one. For such multivariate phenotypes, studying the pairwise associations between all measurements and all alleles is highly inefficient and prevents insight into the genetic pattern underlying the observed phenotypes. We present a new method for identifying patterns of allelic variation (genetic latent variables) that are maximally associated—in terms...

Data from: Phylogenomics at the tips: inferring lineages and their demographic history in a tropical lizard, Carlia amax

Sally Potter, Jason G. Bragg, Benjamin M. Peter, Ke Bi & Craig Moritz
High-throughput sequencing approaches offer opportunities to better understand the evolutionary processes driving diversification, particularly in nonmodel organisms. In particular, the 100–1000's of loci that can now be sequenced are providing unprecedented power in population, speciation and phylogenetic studies. Here, we apply an exon capture approach to generate >99% complete sequence and SNP data across >2000 loci from a tropical skink, Carlia amax, and exploit these data to identify divergent lineages and infer their relationships and...

Data from: Correlated evolution of male and female reproductive traits drive a cascading effect of reinforcement in Drosophila yakuba

Aaron A. Comeault, Aarti Venkat & Daniel R. Matute
Selection against maladaptive hybridization can drive the evolution of reproductive isolation in a process called reinforcement. While the importance of reinforcement in evolution has been historically debated, many examples now exist. Despite these examples, we typically lack a detailed understanding of the mechanisms limiting the spread of reinforced phenotypes throughout a species' range. Here we address this issue in the fruit fly Drosophila yakuba, a species that hybridizes with its sister species D. santomea and...

Data from: Touch sensation by pectoral fins of the catfish Pimelodus pictus

Adam R. Hardy, Bailey M. Steinworth & Melina E. Hale
Mechanosensation is fundamental to many tetrapod limb functions yet it remains largely uninvestigated in the paired fins of fishes, the limb homologs. Here we examine whether membranous fins may function as passive structures for touch sensation in the absence of extensive fin ray movement. We investigate the pectoral fins of the pictus catfish (Pimelodus pictus), a species that lives in close association with the benthic substrate and whose fins are positioned near its ventral margin....

Data from: Early diversification of sperm size in the evolutionary history of the old world leaf warblers (Phylloscopidae)

K. Supriya, Melissah Rowe, Terje Laskemoen, Dhananjai Mohan, Trevor Price, Jan Lifjeld, J. T. Lifjeld & T. D. Price
Sperm morphological traits are highly variable among species and are commonly thought to evolve by post-copulatory sexual selection. However, little is known about the evolutionary dynamics of sperm morphology, and whether rates of evolutionary change are variable over time and among taxonomic groups. Here, we examine sperm morphology from 21 species of Old World leaf warblers (Phylloscopidae), a group of generally dull, sexually monochromatic birds, which are known to have high levels of extra-pair paternity....

Data from: TP53 copy number expansion is associated with the evolution of increased body size and an enhanced DNA damage response in elephants

Michael Sulak, Lindsey Fong, Katelyn Mika, Sravanthi Chigurupati, Lisa Yon, Nigel P. Mongan, Richard D. Emes & Vincent J. Lynch
A major constraint on the evolution of large body sizes in animals is an increased risk of developing cancer. There is no correlation, however, between body size and cancer risk. This lack of correlation is often referred to as 'Peto's Paradox'. Here we show that the elephant genome encodes 20 copies of the tumor suppressor gene TP53 and that the increase in TP53 copy number occurred coincident with the evolution of large body sizes, the...

Data from: Genome-wide association study of behavioral, physiological and gene expression traits in outbred CFW mice

Clarissa C. Parker, Shyam Gopalakrishnan, Peter Carbonetto, Natalia M. Gonzales, Emily Leung, Yeonhee J. Park, Emmanuel Aryee, Joe Davis, David A. Blizard, Cheryl L. Ackert-Bicknell, Arimantas Lionikas, Jonathan K. Pritchard & Abraham A. Palmer
Although mice are the most widely used mammalian model organism, genetic studies have suffered from limited mapping resolution due to extensive linkage disequilibrium (LD) that is characteristic of crosses among inbred strains. Carworth Farms White (CFW) mice are a commercially available outbred mouse population that exhibit rapid LD decay in comparison to other available mouse populations. We performed a genome-wide association study (GWAS) of behavioral, physiological and gene expression phenotypes using 1,200 male CFW mice....

Data from: MR1-restricted mucosal-associated invariant T (MAIT) cells respond to mycobacterial vaccination and infection in nonhuman primates

Justin M. Greene, Pradyot Dash, Sobhan Roy, Curtis McMurtrey, Walid Awad, Jason S. Reed, Katherine B. Hammond, Shaheed Abdulhaqq, Helen L. Wu, Benjamin J. Burwitz, Benjamin F. Roth, David W. Morrow, Julia C. Ford, Guangwu Xu, Joseph Y. Bae, Hugh Crank, Alfred W. Legasse, Thurston H. Dang, Hui Yee Greenaway, Monica Kurniawan, Marielle C. Gold, Melanie J. Harriff, Deborah A. Lewinsohn, Byung S. Park, Michael K. Axthelm … & Jonah B. Sacha
Studies on mucosal-associated invariant T cells (MAITs) in nonhuman primates (NHP), a physiologically relevant model of human immunity, are handicapped due to a lack of macaque MAIT-specific reagents. Here we show that while MR1 ligand-contact residues are conserved between human and multiple NHP species, three T-cell receptor contact-residue mutations in NHP MR1 diminish binding of human MR1 tetramers to macaque MAITs. Construction of naturally loaded macaque MR1 tetramers facilitated identification and characterization of macaque MR1-binding...

Data from: On the measurement of occupancy in ecology and paleontology

Michael Foote
Occupancy statistics in ecology and paleontology are biased upward by the fact that we generally do not have solid data on species that exist but are not found. The magnitude of this bias increases as the average occupancy probability decreases and as the number of sites sampled decreases. A maximum-likelihood method is developed to estimate the underlying distribution of occupancy probabilities of all species based only on the sample of observed species with nonzero occupancy....

Data from: Acquisition of conditioning between methamphetamine and cues in healthy humans

Joel S. Cavallo, Leah M. Mayo & Harriet De Wit
Environmental stimuli repeatedly paired with drugs of abuse can elicit conditioned responses that are thought to promote future drug seeking. We recently showed that healthy volunteers acquired conditioned responses to auditory and visual stimuli after just two pairings with methamphetamine (MA, 20 mg, oral). This study extended these findings by systematically varying the number of drug-stimuli pairings. We expected that more pairings would result in stronger conditioning. Three groups of healthy adults were randomly assigned...

Data from: Functional traits for carbon access in macrophytes

Courtney C. Stepien, Catherine A. Pfister & J. Timothy Wootton
Understanding functional trait distributions among organisms can inform impacts on and responses to environmental change. In marine systems, only 1% of dissolved inorganic carbon in seawater exists as CO2. Thus the majority of marine macrophytes not only passively access CO2 for photosynthesis, but also actively transport CO2 and the more common bicarbonate (HCO3-, 92% of seawater dissolved inorganic carbon) into their cells. Because species with these carbon concentrating mechanisms (CCMs) are non-randomly distributed in ecosystems,...

Data from: Seed to seedling transitions in successional habitats across a tropical landscape

Marinés De La Peña-Domene, Henry F. Howe, Emiliano Cruz-León, Rita Jiménez-Rolland, Cesar Lozano-Huerta & Cristina Martínez-Garza
Recognition that tree recruitment depends on the balance between seed arrival and seedling survival has led to a surge of interest in seed-dispersal limitation and seedling-establishment limitation in primary forests. Virtually unaddressed are comparisons of this balance in mature and early successional habitats. We assessed seed rain and seedling recruitment dynamics of tree species in primary forest, secondary forest and pasture released from grazing in a tropical agricultural landscape. Seed to seedling ratios (seed effectiveness;...

Data from: Convergent evolution in social swallows (Aves: Hirundinidae)

Allison E. Johnson, Jonathan S. Mitchell & Mary Bomberger Brown
Behavioral shifts can initiate morphological evolution by pushing lineages into new adaptive zones. This has primarily been examined in ecological behaviors, such as foraging, but social behaviors may also alter morphology. Swallows and martins (Hirundinidae) are aerial insectivores that exhibit a range of social behaviors, from solitary to colonial breeding and foraging. Using a well-resolved phylogenetic tree, a database of social behaviors, and morphological measurements, we ask how shifts from solitary to social breeding and...

Registration Year

  • 2016

Resource Types

  • Dataset


  • University of Chicago
  • Field Museum of Natural History
  • Oregon Health & Science University
  • University of Washington
  • Stanford University
  • University of Michigan-Ann Arbor
  • University of California System
  • University of North Carolina
  • University of Aberdeen
  • Australian National University