24 Works

Data from: The social cost of lobbying over climate policy

Kyle C. Meng & Ashwin Rode
Domestic political processes shape climate policy. In particular, there is increasing concern regarding the role of political lobbying over climate policy. This paper examines how lobbying spending on the Waxman-Markey bill, the most prominent and promising U.S. climate regulation to date, altered its likelihood of being implemented. We combine data from comprehensive U.S. lobbying records together with an empirical method for forecasting the policy’s effect on the value of publicly-listed firms. Our statistical analysis suggests...

Data from: Palaeoproteomics resolves sloth phylogeny

Samantha Presslee, Graham J. Slater, Francois Pujos, Analia M. Forasiepi, Roman Fischer, Kelly Molloy, Meaghan Mackie, Jesper V. Olsen, Alejandro Kramarz, Matias Taglioretti, Fernando Scaglia, Maximiliano Lezcano, José Luis Lanata, John Southon, Robert Feranec, Jonathan Bloch, Adam Hajduk, Fabiana M. Martin, Rodolfo Salas Gismondi, Marcelo Reguero, Christian De Muizon, Alex Greenwood, Brian T. Chait, Kirsty Penkman, Matthew Collins … & Ross D. E. MacPhee
The living tree sloths Choloepus and Bradypus are the only remaining members of Folivora, a major xenarthran radiation that occupied a wide range of habitats in many parts of the western hemisphere during the Cenozoic, including both continents and the West Indies. Ancient DNA evidence has played only a minor role in folivoran systematics, as most sloths lived in places not conducive to genomic preservation. Here we utilize collagen sequence information, both separately and in...

Data from: Comparative transcriptomics provides insights into reticulate and adaptive evolution of a butterfly radiation

Wei Zhang, Brian X. Leon-Ricardo, Bas Van Schooten, Steven Van Belleghem, Brian Counterman, W. Owen McMillan, Marcus R. Kronforst & Riccardo Papa
Butterfly eyes are complex organs that are composed of a diversity of proteins and they play a central role in visual signaling and ultimately, speciation and adaptation. Here, we utilized the whole eye transcriptome to obtain a more holistic view of the evolution of the butterfly eye while accounting for speciation events that co-occur with ancient hybridization. We sequenced and assembled transcriptomes from adult female eyes of eight species representing all major clades of the...

Comparative skeletal anatomy of neonatal ursids and the extreme altriciality of the giant panda

Peishu Li & Kathleen Smith
Vertebrate neonates are born with a wide range of maturity at birth. Altricial newborns are born with limited sensory agency and require significant parental care, while precocial neonates are relatively mature physically and often capable of independent function. In extant mammals, placental newborns span this range, while marsupials and monotremes are all extremely altricial at birth. Bears (family Ursidae) have one of the lowest neonatal-maternal mass ratios in placental mammals and are considered to have...

Clinical and Molecular Analysis in Two Families with Novel Compound Heterozygous SBP2 (SECISBP2) Mutations

Alexandra Dumitrescu
Context: Selenocysteine insertion sequence binding protein 2 (SECISBP2, SBP2) is an essential factor for selenoprotein synthesis. Individuals with SBP2 defects have characteristic thyroid function tests (TFT) abnormalities due to deficiencies in the selenoenzymes deiodinases. Eight families with recessive SBP2 gene mutations have been reported to date. We report two families with inherited defect in thyroid hormone metabolism caused by four novel compound heterozygous mutations in the SBP2 gene. Case Descriptions: Proband 1 and 2 presented...

Coping with impostor feelings: evidence-based recommendations from a mixed methods study

Jill Barr-Walker, Debra A. Werner, Liz Kellermeyer & Michelle B. Bass
The negative effects of impostor phenomenon, also called impostor syndrome, include burnout and decreased job satisfaction and have led to an increased interest in addressing this issue in libraries in recent years. While previous research has shown that many librarians experience impostor phenomenon, the experience of coping with these feelings has not been widely studied. Our study’s aim was to understand how health sciences librarians cope with impostor phenomenon in the workplace, using a quantitative...

Data from: Fin ray patterns at the fin to limb transition

Thomas Stewart, Justin Lemberhg, Natalia Taft, Ihna Yoo, Edward Daeschler & Neil Shubin
The fin-to-limb transition was marked by the origin of digits and the loss of dermal fin rays. Paleontological research into this transformation has focused on the evolution of the endoskeleton with little attention paid to fin ray structure and function. To address this knowledge gap, we study the dermal rays of the pectoral fins of three key tetrapodomorph taxa—Sauripterus taylori (Rhizodontida), Eusthenopteron foordi (Tristichopteridae), and Tiktaalik roseae (Elpistostegalia)—using computed tomography. These data show several trends...

Hinge and ecomorphology of Legumen Conrad, 1858 (Bivalvia, Veneridae), and the contraction of venerid morphospace following the end-Cretaceous extinction

Katie S. Collins, Stewart M. Edie & David Jablonski
The Veneridae are the most speciose modern family of bivalves, and one of the most morphologically conservative and homoplastic, making subfamilial and sometimes even genus-level classification difficult. The widespread Cretaceous genus Legumen Conrad, 1858 is currently placed in the subfamily Tapetinae of the Veneridae although it more closely resembles the Solenoida (razor clams, Pharidae and Solenidae) in general shell form. Here we provide high-resolution images of the Legumen hinge for the first time. We confirm...

Data from: Computational 3D histological phenotyping of whole zebrafish by X-ray histotomography

Yifu Ding, Daniel J Vanselow, Maksim A Yakovlev, Spencer R Katz, Alex Y Lin, Darin P Clark, Phillip Vargas, Xuying Xin, Jean E Copper, Victor A Canfield, Khai C Ang, Yuxin Wang, Xianghui Xiao, Francesco De Carlo, Damian B Van Rossum, Patrick La Riviere & Keith Cheng
Organismal phenotypes frequently involve multiple organ systems. Histology is a powerful way to detect cellular and tissue phenotypes, but is largely descriptive and subjective. To determine how synchrotron-based X-ray micro-tomography (micro-CT) can yield 3-dimensional whole-organism images suitable for quantitative histological phenotyping, we scanned whole zebrafish, a small vertebrate model with diverse tissues, at ~1 micron voxel resolutions. Using micro-CT optimized for cellular characterization (histo-tomography), brain nuclei can be computationally segmented and assigned to brain regions....

Data from: SK2 channels in cerebellar Purkinje cells contribute to excitability modulation in motor learning-specific memory traces

Giorgio Grasselli, Henk-Jan Boele, Heather K. Titley, Nora Bradford, Lisa Van Beers, Lindsey Jay, Chris I. De Zeeuw, Martijn Schonewille, Christian Hansel, Gerco Beekhof & Silas Busch
Neurons store information by changing synaptic input weights. In addition, they can adjust their membrane excitability to alter spike output. Here, we demonstrate a role of such ‘intrinsic plasticity’ in behavioral learning in a mouse model that allows us to detect consequences of absent excitability modulation, without alterations in synaptic plasticity. SK2-type, calcium-dependent K+ conductances are involved in excitability control as they contribute to the afterhyperpolarization (AHP) following spike bursts. SK2 channels are downregulated in...

Data from: Hierarchy in adaptive radiation: a case study using the Carnivora (Mammalia)

Graham J Slater & Anthony R Friscia
Simpson’s “early burst” model of adaptive radiation was intended to explain the early proliferation of morphological and functional variation in diversifying clades. Yet, despite much empirical testing, questions remain regarding its frequency across the tree of life. Here, we evaluate the support for an early burst adaptive radiation in 14 ecomorphological traits plus body mass for the extant mammalian order Carnivora and its constituent families. We find strong support for an early burst of evolution...

Data from: Biodiversity and thermal ecological function: the influence of freshwater algal diversity on local thermal environments

Anouch Missirian, Eyal G. Frank, Jess T. Gersony, Jason C.Y. Wong & Shahid Naeem
The influence of temperature on diversity and ecosystem functioning is well studied; the converse however, i.e. how biodiversity influences temperature, much less so. We manipulated freshwater algal species diversity in microbial microcosms to uncover how diversity influenced primary production, which is well documented in biodiversity research. We then also explored how visible-spectrum absorbance and the local thermal environment responded to biodiversity change. Variations in the local thermal environment, that is, in the temperature of the...

Data from: Insulin-insensitivity of male genitals maintains reproductive success in Drosophila

Austin P. Dreyer & Alexander W. Shingleton
For most arthropod species, male genital size is relatively implastic in response to variation in developmental nutrition, such that the genitals in large well-fed males are similar in size to those in small poorly-fed males. In Drosophila melanogaster, reduced nutritional plasticity of the male genitalia is a consequence of low insulin sensitivity through a tissue-specific reduction in expression of FOXO, a negative growth regulator. Despite an understanding of the proximate developmental mechanisms regulating organ size,...

Data from: Sperm competitive advantage of a rare mitochondrial haplogroup linked to differential expression of mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation genes

Jeanne Zeh, Maya Zawlodzki, Melvin Bonilla, Eleanor Su-Keene, Michael Padua & David Zeh
Maternal inheritance of mitochondria creates a sex-specific selective sieve through which mitochondrial mutations harmful to males but not females accumulate and contribute to sexual differences in longevity and disease susceptibility. Because eggs and sperm are under disruptive selection, sperm are predicted to be particularly vulnerable to the genetic load generated by maternal inheritance, yet evidence for mitochondrial involvement in male fertility is limited and controversial. Here, we exploit the coexistence of two divergent mitochondrial haplogroups...

Digest: Does sexual conflict complicate a trade‐off between fecundity and survival?

Zachary Miller
Why do some species exhibit apparently suboptimal combinations of life history traits? In a comparative study of lizard species, Reedy et al. (2019) test the idea that variation in the trade‐off between fecundity and survival can be explained by sexual conflict. Their results show that degree of sexual conflict alone cannot explain this variation, and they found a positive correlation between trade‐off optimality and the size of males relative to females. These findings suggest a...

Rapid and predictable evolution of admixed populations between two Drosophila species pairs

Daniel Matute, Aaron Comeault, Eric Earley, Antonio Serrato-Capuchina, David Peede, Anaïs Monroy-Eklund, Wen Huang, Corbin Jones, Trudy Mackay & Jerry Coyne
The consequences of hybridization are varied, ranging from the origin of new lineages, introgression of some genes between species, to the extinction of one of the hybridizing species. We generated replicate admixed populations between two pairs of sister species of Drosophila: D. simulans and D. mauritiana; and D. yakuba and D. santomea. Each pair consisted of a continental species and an island endemic. The admixed populations were maintained by random mating in discrete generations for...

Data from: Richness of plant communities plays a larger role than climate in determining responses of species richness to climate change

Qi Wang, Zhenhua Zhang, Rui Du, Shiping Wang, Jichuang Duan, Amy Iler, Shilong Piao, Luo Caiyun, Jiang Lili, Lv Wangwang, Zhang Lirong, Meng Fandong, Suonan Ji, Li Yaoming, Li Bowen, Liu Peipei, Tsechoe Dorji, Wang Zhezhen, Li Yinnnian, Du Mingyuan, Zhou Huakun, Zhao Xinquan & Wang Yanfen
1. Experimental warming in situ suggests that warming could lead to a loss of biodiversity. However, species that remain in situ and experience climate change will interact with species tracking climate change, which could also affect patterns of biodiversity. The relative contribution of species gains and losses to net changes in species richness is still unclear. 2. We use transplanted plant communities to test the hypothesis that both the change in climate and ecological communities...

Code and data from: Evolution of sexual cooperation from sexual conflict

Maria R Servedio, John M Powers, Russell Lande & Trevor D Price
This C code conducts deterministic iterations of the exact recursion equations presented in the Model section of "Evolution of sexual cooperation from sexual conflict" by Servedio, Powers, Lande and Price. The code produces a two-dimensional grid with any parameters of choice on the x and y axis. Examples can be found in Figures 2c, 3c and 4 of the main text as well as many similar figures in the Supplementary Material. A sample parameter file...

Supporting Evidence-Based Home Visitation Programs to Prevent Child Maltreatment (EBHV)

Kimberly Boller, Deborah Daro, Patricia Del Grasso, Russell Cole, Diane Paulsell, Bonnie Hart, Brandon Coffee-Borden, Debra Strong & Margaret Hargreaves
In 2008, the Children’s Bureau (CB) within the Administration for Children and Families (ACF) at the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services funded 17 cooperative agreements (subcontractors) to support the development of infrastructure needed for the high quality implementation of grantee-selected evidence-based home visitation programs to prevent child maltreatment. CB/ACF funded Mathematica Policy Research and Chapin Hall at the University of Chicago to design and conduct a participatory and utilization-focused cross-site evaluation of the...

Data from: Leaf shape tracks transitions across forest-grassland boundaries in the grass family (Poaceae)

Timothy Jay Gallaher, Dean C. Adams, Lakshmi Attigala, Sean V. Burke, Joseph M. Craine, Melvin R. Duvall, Phillip C. Klahs, Emma Sherratt, William P. Wysocki & Lynn G. Clark
Grass leaf shape is a strong indicator of their habitat. Linear leaves predominate in open areas and more ovate leaves distinguish forest-associated grasses. This pattern among extant species suggests that ancestral shifts between forest and open habitats may have coincided with changes in leaf shape or size. We tested relationships between habitat, climate, photosynthetic pathway and leaf shape and size in a phylogenetic framework to evaluate drivers of leaf shape and size variation over the...

Data from: Why is Amazonia a ‘source’ of biodiversity? climate-mediated dispersal and synchronous speciation across the Andes in an avian group (Tityrinae)

Lukas J. Musher, Mateus Ferreira, Anya L. Auerbach, Jessica McKay & Joel Cracraft
Amazonia is a ‘source’ of biodiversity for other Neotropical ecosystems, but which conditions trigger in situ speciation and emigration is contentious. Three hypotheses for how communities have assembled include (1) a stochastic model wherein chance dispersal events lead to gradual emigration and species accumulation, (2) diversity-dependence wherein successful dispersal events decline through time due to ecological limits, and (3) barrier displacement wherein environmental change facilitates dispersal to other biomes via transient habitat corridors. We sequenced...

Ecological limits as the driver of bird species richness patterns along the east Himalayan elevational gradient

Trevor Price, Matthew Schumm, Alex White & K Supriya
Variation in species richness across environmental gradients results from a combination of historical non-equilibrium processes (time, speciation, extinction) and present-day differences in environmental carrying capacities (i.e., ecological limits, affected by species interactions and the abundance and diversity of resources). In a study of bird richness along the sub-tropical east Himalayan elevational gradient, we test the prediction that species richness patterns are consistent with ecological limits using data on morphology, phylogeny, elevational distribution, and arthropod resources....

Supplemental figures from: Role of the thyroid gland in expression of the thyroid phenotype of SBP2 deficient mice

Alexandra Dumitrescu
Selenocysteine insertion sequence binding protein 2, SBP2 (SECISBP2), is required for selenoprotein synthesis. Partial SBP2 deficiency syndrome manifests characteristic thyroid function tests. The Sbp2 deficiency mouse model, Sbp2 iCKO, replicates this thyroid phenotype and was used for pathophysiologic investigations. As selenoproteins have antioxidative role in thyroid gland function, their deficiencies have potential to affect thyroid hormone (TH) synthesis. Sbp2 iCKO mice had larger thyroids relative to body weight and increased thyroidal T4 and T3 content...

Data from: Shared extremes by ectotherms and endotherms: body elongation in mustelids is associated with small size and reduced limbs

Chris J. Law, Graham J. Slater & Rita S. Mehta
An elongate body with reduced or absent limbs has evolved independently in many ectothermic vertebrate lineages. While much effort has been spent examining the morphological pathways to elongation in these clades, quantitative investigations into the evolution of elongation in endothermic clades are lacking. We quantified body shape in 61 musteloid mammals (red panda, skunks, raccoons, and weasels) using the head-body elongation ratio. We also examined the morphological changes that may underlie the evolution towards more...

Registration Year

  • 2019

Resource Types

  • Dataset


  • University of Chicago
  • Duke University
  • American Museum of Natural History
  • Harvard University
  • University of California, Irvine
  • Bernardino Rivadavia Natural Sciences Museum
  • Bangor University
  • University of Adelaide
  • University of Washington
  • Columbia University