32 Works

Data from: Adaptive and neutral markers both show continent-wide population structure of mountain pine beetle (Dendroctonus ponderosae)

Philip D. Batista, Jasmine K. Janes, Celia K. Boone, Brent W. Murray & Felix A. H. Sperling
Assessments of population genetic structure and demographic history have traditionally been based on neutral markers while explicitly excluding adaptive markers. In this study, we compared the utility of putatively adaptive and neutral single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) for inferring mountain pine beetle population structure across its geographic range. Both adaptive and neutral SNPs, and their combination, allowed range-wide structure to be distinguished and delimited a population that has recently undergone range expansion across northern British Columbia and...

Data from: Raising the bar: recovery ambition for species at risk in canada and the US

Kylee A. Pawluk, Caroline H. Fox, Christina N. Service, Eva H. Stredulinsky & Heather Bryan
Routinely crossing international borders and/or persisting in populations across multiple countries, species are commonly subject to a patchwork of endangered species legislation. Canada and the United States share numerous endangered species; their respective acts, the Species at Risk Act (SARA) and the Endangered Species Act (ESA), require documents that outline requirements for species recovery. Although there are many priorities for improving endangered species legislation effectiveness, species recovery goals are a crucial component. We compared recovery...

Reduced genetic diversity associated with the northern expansion of an amphibian species with high habitat-specialization, Ascaphus truei, resolved using two types of genetic markers

Cherie Mosher, Chris Johnson & Brent Murray
Reconstruction of historical relationships between geographic regions within a species' range can indicate dispersal patterns and help predict future responses to shifts in climate. Ascaphus truei (coastal tailed frog) is an indicator species of the health of forests and perennial streams in the Coastal and Cascade Mountains of the Pacific Northwest of North America. We used two genetic techniques — microsatellite and genotype-by-sequencing (GBS) — to compare the within region genetic diversity of populations near...

Black-capped and mountain chickadee range-wide condition

Kathryn Grabenstein, Scott Taylor, Ken Otter & Theresa Burg
Both abiotic and biotic drivers influence species distributions. Abiotic drivers, such as climate, have received considerable attention, even though biotic drivers, such as hybridization, often interact with abiotic drivers. We sought to explore the (1) costs of co-occurrence for ecologically similar species that hybridize and (2) associations between ecological factors and condition to understand how abiotic and biotic factors influence species distributions. For two closely related and ecologically similar songbirds, black-capped and mountain chickadees, we...

Global human influence maps reveal clear opportunities in conserving Earth’s remaining intact terrestrial ecosystems

Jason Riggio, Jonathan E. M. Baillie, Steven Brumby, Erle Ellis, Christina M. Kennedy, James R. Oakleaf, Alex Tait, Therese Tepe, David M. Theobald, Oscar Venter, James E.M. Watson & Andrew P. Jacobson
Leading up to the 2020 Convention on Biological Diversity there is momentum around setting bold conservation targets. Yet it remains unclear how much of Earth’s land area remains without significant human influence and where this land is located. We compare four recent global maps of human influences across Earth’s land, Anthromes, Global Human Modification, Human Footprint, and Low Impact Areas, to answer these questions. Despite using various methodologies and data, these different spatial assessments independently...

Data from: Intrinsic traits of woodland caribou Rangifer tarandus caribou calves depredated by black bears Ursus americanus and coyotes Canis latrans

Matthew A. Mumma, Guillaume Bastille-Rousseau, Steve E. Gullage, Colleen E. Soulliere, Shane P. Mahoney & Lisette P. Waits
Individuals in substandard physical condition are predicted to be more vulnerable to predation. Support for this prediction is inconsistent partly as a result of differences across systems in the life histories of predator and prey species. Our objective was to examine the physical condition of woodland caribou (Rangifer tarandus caribou) calves depredated by two predators with different life histories in Newfoundland, Canada. Black bears (Ursus americanus) are capable of chasing calves at high speeds over...

Data from: Temporally inter-comparable maps of terrestrial wilderness and the Last of the Wild

James Allan, Oscar Venter & James E. M. Watson
Wilderness areas, defined as areas free of industrial scale activities and other human pressures which result in significant biophysical disturbance, are important for biodiversity conservation and sustaining the key ecological processes underpinning planetary life-support systems. Despite their importance, wilderness areas are being rapidly eroded in extent and fragmented. Here we present the most up-to-date temporally inter-comparable maps of global terrestrial wilderness areas, which are essential for monitoring changes in their extent, and for proactively planning...

Cross-continental comparison of parasite communities in a wide-ranging carnivore suggests associations with prey diversity and host density

Astrid Stronen, Barbara Molnar, Paolo Ciucci, Chris Darimont, Lorenza Grottoli, Paul Paquet, Tim Sallows, Judit Smits & Heather Bryan
Parasites are integral to ecosystem functioning yet often overlooked. Improved understanding of host-parasite associations is important, particularly for wide-ranging species for which host range shifts and climate change could alter host-parasite interactions and their effects on ecosystem function. Among the most widely distributed mammals with diverse diets, grey wolves (Canis lupus) host parasites that are transmitted among canids and via prey species. Grey wolf-parasite associations may therefore influence the population dynamics and ecological functions of...

Data from: Assessing costs of carrying geolocators using feather corticosterone in two species of aerial insectivore

Graham D. Fairhurst, Lisha L. Berzins, David W. Bradley, Andrew J. Laughlin, Andrea Romano, Maria Romano, Chiara Scandolara, Roberto Ambrosini, Russell D. Dawson, Peter O. Dunn, Keith A. Hobson, Felix Liechti, Tracy A. Marchant, D. Ryan Norris, Diego Rubolini, Nicola Saino, Caz M. Taylor, Linda A. Whittingham & Robert G. Clark
Despite benefits of using light-sensitive geolocators to track animal movements and describe patterns of migratory connectivity, concerns have been raised about negative effects of these devices, particularly in small species of aerial insectivore. Geolocators may act as handicaps that increase energetic expenditure, which could explain reported effects of geolocators on survival. We tested this ‘Energetic Expenditure Hypothesis’ in 12 populations of tree swallows (Tachycineta bicolor) and barn swallows (Hirundo rustica) from North America and Europe,...

Data from: Assessing cumulative impacts of forest development on the distribution of furbearers using expert-based habitat modeling

M. C. Bridger, C. J. Johnson & M. P. Gillingham
Cumulative impacts of anthropogenic landscape change must be considered when managing and conserving wildlife habitat. Across the central-interior of British Columbia, Canada, industrial activities are altering the habitat of furbearer species. This region has witnessed unprecedented levels of anthropogenic landscape change following rapid development in a number of resource sectors, particularly forestry. Our objective was to create expert-based habitat models for three furbearer species: fisher (Pekania pennanti), Canada lynx (Lynx canadensis), and American marten (Martes...

Data from: Refuge or predation risk? Alternate ways to perceive hiker disturbance based on maternal state of female caribou

Frederic Lesmerises, Chris J. Johnson & Martin-Hugues St-Laurent
Human presence in natural environments is often a source of stress that is perceived by large ungulates as an increased risk of predation. Alternatively, disturbance induced by hikers creates a relatively predator-free space that may serve as a refuge. We measured the behavioral responses of female caribou to disturbance associated with the presence of hikers during summer in the Gaspésie National Park. We used those data to determine whether caribou responded negatively to human activity...

Data from: Apex predators and the facilitation of resource partitioning among mesopredators

Kelly J. Sivy, Casey B. Pozzanghera, Kassidy E. Colson, Matthew A. Mumma & Laura R. Prugh
Apex predators may influence carnivore communities through the suppression of competitively dominant mesopredators, however they also provide carrion subsidies that could influence foraging and competition among sympatric mesopredators when small prey is scarce. We assessed coyote Canis latrans and red fox Vulpes vulpes winter diet overlap and composition from scats collected in two study areas with >3-fold difference in grey wolf Canis lupus density due to a wolf control program. We hypothesized that differences in...

Do phylogeny and habitat influence admixture among four North American chickadee (family: Paridae) species

Brendan Graham, Gazeley Ian, Otter Ken & Burg Theresa
Hybridization is an important aspect of speciation, yet questions remain about the ecological and environmental factors that influence hybridization among wild populations. We used microsatellite genotyping data and collected land cover and environmental data for four North American chickadee species: black-capped Poecile atricapillus, mountain P. gambeli, chestnut-backed P. rufescens and boreal P. hudsonicus chickadees. Combining these datasets, we sought to examine whether there is evidence of admixture between four widely distributed North American chickadee species;...

Change in terrestrial human footprint drives continued loss of intact ecosystems

Brooke Williams, Oscar Venter, James Allan, Scott Atkinson, Jose Rehbein, Michelle Ward, Moreno Di Marco, Hedley Grantham, Jamison Ervin, Scott Goetz, Andrew Hansen, Patrick Jantz, Rajeev Pillay, Susana Rodríguez-Buriticá, Christina Supples, Anne Virnig & James Watson
Human pressure mapping is important for understanding humanity's role in shaping Earth’s patterns and processes. Our ability to map this influence has evolved, thanks to powerful computing, earth observing satellites, and new bottom-up census and crowd-sourced data. Here, we provide the latest temporally inter-comparable maps of the terrestrial human footprint, and assessment of change in human pressure at global, biome, and ecoregional scales. In 2013, 42% of terrestrial Earth could be considered relatively free of...

Dataset for: Spatial and environmental effects on Coho Salmon life-history trait variation

Kim Tuor, Daniel Heath & Mark Shrimpton
Adult size, egg mass, fecundity and mass of gonads are affected by trade-offs between reproductive investment and environmental conditions shaping the evolution of life-history traits among populations for widely distributed species. Coho salmon Oncorhynchus kisutch have a large geographic distribution and different environmental conditions are experienced by populations throughout their range. We examined the effect of environmental variables on female size, egg size, fecundity, and reproductive investment of populations of Coho Salmon from across British...

Data from: Latitudinal limit not a cold limit: Cold temperatures do not constrain an endangered tree species at its northern edge

Alana J. Clason, Eliot J. B. McIntire & Philip J. Burton
Aim A strong influence of climate on species’ range is often assumed, and forms the basis for projecting many future range shifts with changing climate. Particularly at poleward latitudinal or elevational edges, abiotic conditions are thought to play a major role in limiting distributions. We estimated the roles of climate and landscape features in shaping habitat at the northern distributional edge of a critically threatened mountain tree species. Location British Columbia and Alberta, Canada. Taxon...

Data from: Benefits of an anti-parasite treatment are influenced by within-brood size variation in Tree Swallows (Tachycineta bicolor)

Ilsa Griebel & Russell Dawson
In all animals, susceptibility to parasites can differ among individuals. Young, nest-bound birds are exposed to a diversity of nest-dwelling ectoparasites that typically feed on their blood. Within broods, hatching asynchrony creates size hierarchies that result in morphological and physiological variation among nest mates, and susceptibility to parasites also may vary predictably with this size hierarchy. Our objective was to use a broad-spectrum, anti-parasite drug, ivermectin (IVM), to treat individual nestling Tree Swallows (Tachycineta bicolor)...

A deglacial hazard cascade exemplified by the landslide, tsunami and outburst flood at Elliot Creek, Southern Coast Mountains, British Columbia, Canada

Marten Geertsema, Brian Menounos, Gemma Bullard, Jonathan Carrivick, John Clague, Chunli Dai, Davide Donati, Goran Ekstrom, Jennifer Jackson, Patrick Lynett, Manuele Pichierri, Andy Pon, Dan Shugar, Doug Stead, Justin Del Bel Belluz, Pierre Friele, Ian Giesbrecht, Derek Heathfield, Tom Millard, Sasha Nasonova, Andrew Schaeffer, Brent Ward, Darren Blaney, Erik Blaney, Camille Brillon … & Meghan Sharp
We describe and model the evolution of a recent landslide and outburst flood in the southern Coast Mountains, British Columbia, Canada. About 18 Mm3 of rock descended 1000 m from a steep valley wall and traveled across the toe of a glacier before entering a 0.6 km2 glacier lake and producing a >100-m high wave. Water overtopped the lake outlet and scoured a 10-km long channel before depositing debris on a 2 km2 fan below...

Can diet composition estimates using stable isotope analysis of feathers predict growth and condition in nestling mountain bluebirds (Sialia currucoides)

Aija White & Russell Dawson
Insectivorous birds breeding in seasonal environments provision their dependent young during periods when prey diversity and abundance vary. Consequently, the composition and nutritional value of diets parents feed to their offspring may differ within and among broods, potentially affecting the condition of nestlings. In a population of mountain bluebirds (Sialia currucoides), we used two methods to estimate diet composition for individual nestlings: direct observation of provisioning using video recordings at 5 and 9 days post-hatch,...

Data from: Network ecology in dynamic landscapes

Marie-Josee Fortin, Mark Dale & Chris Brimacombe
Network ecology is an emerging field that allows researchers to conceptualize and analyze ecological networks and their dynamics. Here, we focus on the dynamics of ecological networks in response to environmental changes. Specifically, we formalize how network topologies constrain the dynamics of ecological systems into a unifying framework in network ecology that we refer to as the “ecological network dynamics framework”. This framework stresses that the interplay between species interaction networks and the spatial layout...

Data from: Genetic and genomic evidence of niche partitioning and adaptive radiation in mountain pine beetle fungal symbionts

Dario I. Ojeda Alayon, Clement K. M. Tsui, Nicolas Feau, Arnaud Capron, Braham Dhillon, Zhang Yiyuan, Sepideh Massoumi Alamouti, Celia K. Boone, Allan L. Carroll, Janice E.K. Cooke, Amanda D. Roe, Felix A. H. Sperling, Richard C. Hamelin, Janice E. K. Cooke & Yiyuan Zhang
Bark beetles form multipartite symbiotic associations with blue stain fungi (Ophiostomatales, Ascomycota). These fungal symbionts play an important role during the beetle's life cycle by providing nutritional supplementation, overcoming tree defences and modifying host tissues to favour brood development. The maintenance of stable multipartite symbioses with seemingly less competitive symbionts in similar habitats is of fundamental interest to ecology and evolution. We tested the hypothesis that the coexistence of three fungal species associated with the...

Data from: A range-wide domino effect and resetting of the annual cycle in a migratory songbird

Elizabeth A. Gow, Lauren Burke, David W. Winkler, Samantha M. Knight, Robert G. Clark, Marc Bélisle, Lisha L. Berzins, Tricia Blake, Eli S. Bridge, Russell D. Dawson, Peter O. Dunn, Dany Garant, Geoff Holroyd, Andrew G. Horn, David J.T. Hussell, Olga Lansdorp, Andrew J. Laughlin, Marty L. Leonard, Fanie Pelletier, Dave Shutler, Lynn Siefferman, Caz M. Taylor, Helen Trefry, Carol M. Vleck, David Vleck … & D. Ryan Norris
Latitudinal differences in timing of breeding are well documented but how such differences carry over to influence timing of events in the annual cycle of migratory birds is not well understood. We examined geographic variation in timing of events throughout the year using light-level geolocator tracking data from 133 migratory tree swallows (Tachycineta bicolor) originating from 12 North American breeding populations. A swallow’s breeding latitude influenced timing of breeding, which then carried over to affect...

Exploring the Potential of Halal Tourism Through Institutional Analysis of Halal Certifiers in the Philippines

Steven Von Cuevas, Cristopher Allen Franco, Robert Charles Capistrano & Junnell Guia

Data from: Influence of landscape features on the microgeographic genetic structure of a resident songbird.

Rachael V. Adams, Stefanie E. LaZerte, Ken A. Otter & Theresa M. Burg
Landscape features influence individual dispersal and as a result can affect both gene flow and genetic variation within and between populations. The landscape of British Columbia, Canada, is already highly heterogeneous due to natural ecological and geological transitions, but disturbance from human-mediated processes has further fragmented continuous habitat, particularly in the central plateau region. In this study, we evaluated the effects of landscape heterogeneity on the genetic structure of a common resident songbird, the black-capped...

Data from: Global terrestrial Human Footprint maps for 1993 and 2009

Oscar Venter, Eric W. Sanderson, Ainhoa Magrach, James R. Allan, Jutta Beher, Kendall R. Jones, Hugh P. Possingham, William F. Laurance, Peter Wood, Balázs M. Fekete, Marc A. Levy & James E.M. Watson
Remotely-sensed and bottom-up survey information were compiled on eight variables measuring the direct and indirect human pressures on the environment globally in 1993 and 2009. This represents not only the most current information of its type, but also the first temporally-consistent set of Human Footprint maps. Data on human pressures were acquired or developed for: 1) built environments, 2) population density, 3) electric infrastructure, 4) crop lands, 5) pasture lands, 6) roads, 7) railways, and...

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