109 Works

Data from: High stakes species delimitation in eyeless cave spiders (Cicurina, Dictynidae, Araneae) from central Texas

Marshal Hedin
A remarkable radiation of completely eyeless, cave-obligate spider species (Cicurina) has been described from limestone caves of Texas. This radiation includes over 50 described species, with a large number of hypothesized single-cave endemics, and four species listed as US Federally Endangered. Because of this conservation importance, species delimitation in the group is “high stakes” - it is imperative that species hypotheses are data-rich, objective, and robust. This paper focuses on a complex of four cave-dwelling...

Data from: Large-scale phylogeny of chameleons suggests African origins and Eocene diversification

Krystal A. Tolley, Ted M. Townsend & Miguel Vences
Oceanic dispersal has emerged as an important factor contributing to biogeographic patterns in numerous taxa. Chameleons are a clear example of this, as they are primarily found in Africa and Madagascar, but the age of the family is post-Gondwanan break-up. A Malagasy origin for the family has been suggested, yet this hypothesis has not been tested using modern biogeographic methods with a dated phylogeny. To examine competing hypotheses of African and Malagasy origins, we generated...

Data from: When one phenotype is not enough - divergent evolutionary trajectories govern venom variation in a widespread rattlesnake species

Giulia Zancolli, Juan J. Calvete, Michael D. Cardwell, Harry W. Greene, William K. Hayes, Matthew J. Hegarty, Hans-Werner Herrmann, Andrew T. Holycross, Dominic I. Lannutti, John F. Mulley, Libia Sanz, Zachary D. Travis, Joshua R. Whorley, Catharine E. Wüster & Wolfgang Wuster
Understanding the origin and maintenance of phenotypic variation, particularly across a continuous spatial distribution, represents a key challenge in evolutionary biology. For this, animal venoms represent ideal study systems: they are complex, variable, yet easily quantifiable molecular phenotypes with a clear function. Rattlesnakes display tremendous variation in their venom composition, mostly through strongly dichotomous venom strategies, which may even coexist within single species. Here, through dense, widespread population-level sampling of the Mojave rattlesnake, Crotalus scutulatus,...

Pairing functional connectivity with population dynamics to prioritize corridors for Southern California spotted owls

Erin Conlisk, Emily Haeuser, Alan Flint, Rebecca Lewison & Megan Jennings
Aim: Land use change, climate change, and shifts to disturbance regimes make successful wildlife management challenging, particularly when ongoing urbanization constrains habitat and movement. Preserving and maintaining landscape connectivity is a potential strategy to support wildlife responding to these stressors. Using a novel model framework, we determined the population-level benefit of a set of identified potential corridors for spotted owl population viability. Location: Southern California, United States. Methods: Combining habitat suitability and dynamic metapopulation models,...

Data from: Flowering plant composition shapes pathogen infection intensity and reproduction in bumble bee colonies

Nicholas Barber, Lynn Adler, Olivia Biller & Rebecca Irwin
Pathogens pose significant threats to pollinator health and food security. Pollinators can transmit diseases during foraging, but the consequences of plant species composition for infection is unknown. In agroecosystems, flowering strips or hedgerows are often used to augment pollinator habitat. We used canola as a focal crop in tents, and manipulated flowering strip composition using plant species we had previously shown to result in higher or lower bee infection in short-term trials. We also manipulated...

Pleistocene glacial cycles drove lineage diversification and fusion in the Yosemite toad (Anaxyrus canorus)

Paul A. Maier, Amy G. Vandergast, Steven M. Ostoja, Andres Aguilar & Andrew J. Bohonak
Pleistocene glacial cycles drove lineage diversification and fusion in the Yosemite toad (Anaxyrus canorus) Species endemic to alpine environments can evolve via steep ecological selection gradients between lowland and upland environments. Additionally, many alpine environments have faced repeated glacial episodes over the past two million years, fracturing these endemics into isolated populations. In this “glacial pulse” model of alpine diversification, cycles of allopatry and ecologically divergent glacial refugia play a role in generating biodiversity, including...

Data from: The effects of temperature on the defensive strikes of rattlesnakes

Malachi D. Whitford, Grace A. Freymiller, Timothy E. Higham & Rulon W. Clark
Movements of ectotherms are constrained by their body temperature owing to the effects of temperature on muscle physiology. As physical performance often affects the outcome of predator–prey interactions, environmental temperature can influence the ability of ectotherms to capture prey and/or defend themselves against predators. However, previous research on the kinematics of ectotherms suggests that some species may use elastic storage mechanisms when attacking or defending, thereby mitigating the effects of sub-optimal temperature. Rattlesnakes (Crotalus spp.)...

Data from: Sierra Nevada mountain lake microbial communities are structured by temperature, resources, and geographic location

Marika Schulhof, Andrew Allen, Eric Allen, Natalie Mladenov, John McCrow, Natalie Jones, Jessica Blanton, Hamanda Badona Cavalheri, Drishti Kaul, Celia Symons & Jonathan Shurin
Warming, eutrophication (nutrient fertilization) and brownification (increased loading of allochthonous organic matter) are three global trends impacting lake ecosystems. However, the independent and synergistic effects of resource addition and warming on autotrophic and heterotrophic microorganisms are largely unknown. In this study, we investigate the independent and interactive effects of temperature, dissolved organic carbon (DOC, both allochthonous and autochthonous), and nitrogen (N) supply, in addition to the effect of spatial variables, on the composition, richness, and...

Data matrices for: Phylogenomics of peacock spiders and their kin (Salticidae, Maratus), with implications for the evolution of male courtship displays

Damian Elias & Marshal Hedin
Understanding diversity has been a pursuit in evolutionary biology since its inception. A challenge arises when sexual selection has played a role in diversification. Questions of what constitutes a “species”, homoplasy versus synapomorphy, and whether sexually-selected traits show phylogenetic signal have hampered work on many systems. Peacock spiders are famous for sexually selected male courtship dances and peacock-like abdominal ornamentation. This lineage of jumping spiders currently includes over 90 species classified into two genera, Maratus...

Neurovascular evidence for a co-occurrence of teeth and baleen in an Oligocene mysticete and the transition to filter-feeding in baleen whales

Eric Ekdale & Thomas Deméré
Extant baleen whales (Mysticeti) have a deciduous foetal dentition, but are edentulous at birth. Fossils reveal that the earliest mysticetes possessed an adult dentition. Aetiocetids, a diverse clade of Oligocene toothed mysticetes, have a series of small palatal foramina and associated sulci medial to the postcanine dentition. The openings have been homologized with lateral palatal foramina that transmit neurovascular structures to baleen in extant mysticetes, thereby implying a co-occurrence of teeth and baleen in aetiocetids....

An Exploratory Study of the Experiences of Gay, Lesbian and Bisexual Fraternity and Sorority Members Revisited

Douglas N. Case, Grahaeme A. Hesp & Charles G. Eberly

Data from: Tracing the footprints of a moving hybrid zone under a demographic history of speciation with gene flow

Mitra Menon, Erin Landguth, Alejandro Leal-Saenz, Justin Bagley, Anna Schoettle, Christian Wehenkel, Lluvia Flores-Renteria, Sam Cushman, Kristen Waring & Andrew Eckert
A lack of optimal gene combinations, as well as low levels of genetic diversity are often associated with the formation of species range margins. Conservation efforts rely on predictive modelling using abiotic variables and assessments of genetic diversity to determine target species and populations for controlled breeding, germplasm conservation and assisted migration. Biotic factors such as interspecific competition and hybridization, however, are largely ignored, despite their prevalence across diverse taxa and their role as key...

Data from: Population genomic evidence for multiple Pliocene refugia in a montane-restricted harvestman (Arachnida, Opiliones, Sclerobunus robustus) from the southwestern United States

Shahan Derkarabetian, Mercedes Burns, James Starrett & Marshal Hedin
The integration of ecological niche modelling into phylogeographic analyses has allowed for the identification and testing of potential refugia under a hypothesis-based framework, where the expected patterns of higher genetic diversity in refugial populations and evidence of range expansion of nonrefugial populations are corroborated with empirical data. In this study, we focus on a montane-restricted cryophilic harvestman, Sclerobunus robustus, distributed throughout the heterogeneous Southern Rocky Mountains and Intermontane Plateau of southwestern North America. We identified...

Data from: Nuptial gift chemistry reveals convergent evolution correlated with antagonism in mating systems of harvestmen (Arachnida, Opiliones)

Penelope C. Kahn, Dennis D. Cao, Mercedes Burns & Sarah L. Boyer
Nuptial gifts are material donations given from male to female before or during copulation, and are subject to sexual selection in a wide variety of taxa. The harvestman genus Leiobunum has emerged as a model system for understanding the evolution of reproductive morphology and behavior, as transitions between solicitous and antagonistic modes of courtship have occurred multiple times within the lineage and are correlated with convergence in genital morphology. We analyzed the free amino acid...

Data from: Soil gross N ammonification and nitrification from tropical to temperate forests in eastern China

Changhui Wang, Nannan Wang, Jianxing Zhu, Yuan Liu, Xiaofeng Xu, Shuli Niu, Guirui Yu, Xingguo Han & Nianpeng He
1. Nitrogen (N) ammonification and nitrification are two primary microbial processes controlling the availability of soil ammonium (NH4+), a key nutrient for vegetative growth. The large-scale patterns of gross ammonification (GA) and gross nitrification (GN) rates represent soil microbial adaptations to different vegetative and environmental conditions. In this study, we investigated GA and GN rates in nine forest soils along a 3500-km north-south transect in eastern China (NSTEC). 2. We used 15N-labeling techniques, along with...

Data from: The role of sexual and natural selection in shaping patterns of sexual dichromatism in the largest family of songbirds (Aves: Thraupidae)

Allison J. Shultz & Kevin J. Burns
Males and females can be under different evolutionary pressures if sexual and natural selection is differentially operating in each sex. As a result, many species have evolved sexual dichromatism, or differences in coloration between sexes. Although sexual dichromatism is often used as an index of the magnitude of sexual selection, sexual dichromatism is a composite trait. Here, we examine the evolution of sexual dichromatism in one of the largest and most ecologically diverse families of...

Data from: Population genomics and geographical parthenogenesis in Japanese harvestmen (Opiliones, Sclerosomatidae, Leiobunum)

Mercedes Burns, Marshal Hedin & Nobuo Tsurusaki
Naturally-occurring population variation in reproductive mode presents an opportunity for researchers to test hypotheses regarding the evolution of sex. Such populations frequently assume a geographical pattern, in which parthenogenesis-dominated populations are widely dispersed, with narrowly distributed sexual populations. We evaluate the geographic distribution of genomic signatures associated with parthenogenesis using nuclear and mitochondrial DNA sequence data from two Japanese harvestman sister taxa, Leiobunum manubriatum and L. globosum. Asexual reproduction is putatively facultative in these species,...

Data from: Sequence capture phylogenomics of eyeless Cicurina spiders from Texas caves, with emphasis on US federally-endangered species from Bexar County (Araneae, Hahniidae)

Marshal Hedin, Shahan Derkarabetian, Jennifer Blair & Pierre Paquin
We combined morphological, mitochondrial, and nuclear phylogenomic data to address phylogenetic and species delimitation questions in cave-limited Cicurina spiders from central Texas. We focused special effort on specimens and cave locations in the San Antonio region (Bexar County), home to four eyeless species listed as US Federally Endangered. Our sequence capture experiments resulted in the recovery of ~ 200-400 homologous ultra-conserved element (UCE) nuclear loci across taxa, and nearly complete COI mitochondrial DNA sequences from...

Data from: Resolving the phylogeny of lizards and snakes (Squamata) with extensive sampling of genes and species

John J. Wiens, Carl R. Hutter, Daniel G. Mulcahy, Brice P. Noonan, Ted M. Townsend, , Tod W. Reeder & J. W. Sites
Squamate reptiles (lizards and snakes) are one of the most diverse groups of terrestrial vertebrates. Recent molecular analyses have suggested a very different squamate phylogeny relative to morphological hypotheses, but many aspects remain uncertain from molecular data. Here, we analyse higher-level squamate phylogeny with a molecular dataset of unprecedented size, including 161 squamate species for up to 44 nuclear genes each (33,717 base pairs), using both concatenated and species-tree methods for the first time. Our...

Data from: A new monster from southwest Oregon forests: Cryptomaster behemoth sp. n. (Opiliones, Laniatores, Travunioidea)

James Starrett, Shahan Derkarabetian, Casey H. Richart, Allan Cabrero & Marshal Hedin
The monotypic genus Cryptomaster Briggs, 1969 was described based on individuals from a single locality in southwestern Oregon. The described species C. leviathan Briggs, 1969 was named for its large body size compared to most travunioid Laniatores. However, as the generic name suggests, Cryptomaster are notoriously difficult to find, and few subsequent collections have been recorded for this genus. Here, we increase sampling of Cryptomaster to 15 localities, extending their known range from the Coast...

Data from: Experiments reveal limited top-down control of key herbivores in southern California kelp forests

Robert P. Dunn & Kevin A. Hovel
Predator responses to gradients in prey density have important implications for population regulation and are a potential structuring force for subtidal marine communities, particularly on rocky reefs where herbivorous sea urchins can drive community state shifts. On rocky reefs in southern California where predatory sea otters have been extirpated, top-down control of sea urchins by alternative predators has been hypothesized but rarely tested experimentally. In laboratory feeding assays, predatory spiny lobsters (Panulirus interruptus) demonstrated a...

Data from: Introduced garden plants are strong competitors of native and alien residents under simulated climate change

Emily Haeuser, Wayne Dawson & Mark Van Kleunen
1) Most invasive plants have been originally introduced for horticultural purposes. Still, most alien garden plants have not naturalized yet, probably due in part to inadequate climatic conditions. Climate change may alter this, but few experimental studies have addressed this for non-naturalized alien garden plants, and those that have, addressed only singular aspects of climate change. 2) In a greenhouse experiment, we examined the performance of nine non-naturalized alien herbaceous garden plants of varying climatic...

Nocturnal dissolved organic matter release by turf algae and its role in the microbialization of reefs

Mueller Benjamin, Hannah Brocke, Forest Rohwer, Thorsten Dittmar, Jef Huisman, Mark Vermeij & Jasper De Goeij
The increased release of dissolved organic matter (DOM) by algae has been associated with the fast but inefficient growth of opportunistic microbial pathogens and the ongoing degradation of coral reefs. Turf algae (consortia of micro- and macroalgae commonly including cyanobacteria) dominate benthic communities on many reefs worldwide. Opposite to other reef algae that predominantly release DOM during the day, turf algae containing cyanobacteria may additionally release large amounts of DOM at night. However, this night-DOM...

Pulmonary function with expiratory resistive loading in healthy volunteers

Daniel Cannon, Jyotika Erram, Monica Bari & Antoinette Domingo
Expiratory flow limitation is a key characteristic in obstructive pulmonary diseases. To study abnormal lung mechanics isolated from heterogeneities of obstructive disease, we measured pulmonary function in healthy adults with expiratory loading. Thirty-seven volunteers (25±5 yr) completed spirometry and body plethysmography under control and threshold expiratory loading of 7, 11 cmH2O, and a subset at 20 cmH2O (n=11). We analyzed the shape of the flow-volume relationship with rectangular area ratio (RAR; Ma et al., Respir...

Major biogeographic barriers in eastern Australia have shaped population structure of widely distributed Eucalyptus moluccana and its four putative subspecies

Lluvia Flores-Renteria
We have investigated the impact of recognized biogeographic barriers on genetic differentiation of grey box (Eucalyptus moluccana), a common and widespread tree species of the family Myrtaceae in eastern Australian woodlands, and its previously proposed four subspecies moluccana, pedicellata, queenslandica and crassifolia. A range of phylogeographic analyses were conducted to examine the population genetic differentiation and subspecies genetic structure in E. moluccana in relation to biogeographic barriers. Slow evolving markers uncovering long term processes (chloroplast...

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