Data from: Phylogenomic reclassification of the world’s most venomous spiders (Mygalomorphae, Atracinae), with implications for venom evolutionMarshal Hedin, Shahan Derkarabetian, Martín J. Ramírez, Cor Vink & Jason E. Bond
Here we show that the most venomous spiders in the world are phylogenetically misplaced. Australian atracine spiders (family Hexathelidae), including the notorious Sydney funnel-web spider Atrax robustus, produce venom peptides that can kill people. Intriguingly, eastern Australian mouse spiders (family Actinopodidae) are also medically dangerous, possessing venom peptides strikingly similar to Atrax hexatoxins. Based on the standing morphology-based classification, mouse spiders are hypothesized distant relatives of atracines, having diverged over 200 million years ago. Using...
A major goal of ecosystem-based fisheries management is to prevent fishery-induced shifts in community states. This requires an understanding of ecological resilience: the ability of an ecosystem to return to the same state following a perturbation, which can strongly depend on species interactions across trophic levels. We use a structured model of a temperate rocky reef to explore how multi-trophic level fisheries impact ecological resilience. Increasing fishing mortality of prey (urchins) has a minor effect...
Data from: Form–function relationships in a marine foundation species depend on scale: a shoot to global perspective from a distributed ecological experimentJennifer L. Ruesink, John J. Stachowicz, Pamela L. Reynolds, Christoffer Boström, Mathieu Cusson, James Douglass, Johan Eklöf, Aschwin H. Engelen, Masakazu Hori, Kevin Hovel, Katrin Iken, Per-Olav Moksnes, Masahiro Nakaoka, Mary I. O'Connor, Jeanine L. Olsen, Erik E. Sotka, Matthew A. Whalen & Emmett J. Duffy
Form-function relationships in plants underlie their ecosystem roles in supporting higher trophic levels through primary production, detrital pathways, and habitat provision. For widespread, phenotypically-variable plants, productivity may differ not only across abiotic conditions, but also from distinct morphological or demographic traits. A single foundation species, eelgrass (Zostera marina), typically dominates north temperate seagrass meadows, which we studied across 14 sites spanning 32-61° N latitude and two ocean basins. Body size varied by nearly two orders...
Data from: The role of sexual and natural selection in shaping patterns of sexual dichromatism in the largest family of songbirds (Aves: Thraupidae)Allison J. Shultz & Kevin J. Burns
Males and females can be under different evolutionary pressures if sexual and natural selection is differentially operating in each sex. As a result, many species have evolved sexual dichromatism, or differences in coloration between sexes. Although sexual dichromatism is often used as an index of the magnitude of sexual selection, sexual dichromatism is a composite trait. Here, we examine the evolution of sexual dichromatism in one of the largest and most ecologically diverse families of...
Data from: Biogeographical evidence for common vicariance and rare dispersal in a southern Appalachian harvestman (Sabaconidae, Sabacon cavicolens)Marshal Hedin & Maureen McCormack
Aim: Species or higher taxa that are obviously dispersal-limited, but which occupy large geographical distributions, represent a biogeographical paradox. Dispersal must have happened, likely under special and infrequent environmental conditions, but details have been lost to history. The overarching goal of our research is to understand the details of a ‘common vicariance, rare dispersal’ biogeographical history in a widespread but habitat-specialized harvestman species (Sabacon cavicolens) with a southern Appalachian centre of distribution. Location: Eastern North...
Data from: Soil gross N ammonification and nitrification from tropical to temperate forests in eastern ChinaChanghui Wang, Nannan Wang, Jianxing Zhu, Yuan Liu, Xiaofeng Xu, Shuli Niu, Guirui Yu, Xingguo Han & Nianpeng He
1. Nitrogen (N) ammonification and nitrification are two primary microbial processes controlling the availability of soil ammonium (NH4+), a key nutrient for vegetative growth. The large-scale patterns of gross ammonification (GA) and gross nitrification (GN) rates represent soil microbial adaptations to different vegetative and environmental conditions. In this study, we investigated GA and GN rates in nine forest soils along a 3500-km north-south transect in eastern China (NSTEC). 2. We used 15N-labeling techniques, along with...
Data from: Population genomics and geographical parthenogenesis in Japanese harvestmen (Opiliones, Sclerosomatidae, Leiobunum)Mercedes Burns, Marshal Hedin & Nobuo Tsurusaki
Naturally-occurring population variation in reproductive mode presents an opportunity for researchers to test hypotheses regarding the evolution of sex. Such populations frequently assume a geographical pattern, in which parthenogenesis-dominated populations are widely dispersed, with narrowly distributed sexual populations. We evaluate the geographic distribution of genomic signatures associated with parthenogenesis using nuclear and mitochondrial DNA sequence data from two Japanese harvestman sister taxa, Leiobunum manubriatum and L. globosum. Asexual reproduction is putatively facultative in these species,...
Data from: Comparative transcriptomics of Entelegyne spiders (Araneae, Entelegynae), with emphasis on molecular evolution of orphan genesDavid E. Carlson & Marshal Hedin
Next-generation sequencing technology is rapidly transforming the landscape of evolutionary biology, and has become a cost-effective and efficient means of collecting exome information for non-model organisms. Due to their taxonomic diversity, production of interesting venom and silk proteins, and the relative scarcity of existing genomic resources, spiders in particular are excellent targets for next-generation sequencing (NGS) methods. In this study, the transcriptomes of six entelegyne spider species from three genera (Cicurina travisae, C. vibora, Habronattus...
Data from: Robust inference on large-scale species habitat use with interview data: the status of jaguars outside protected areas in Central AmericaLisanne S. Petracca, Jacqueline L. Frair, Jonathan B. Cohen, Ana Patricia Calderón, Javier Carazo-Salazar, Franklin Castañeda, Daniel Corrales-Gutiérrez, Rebecca J. Foster, Bart Harmsen, Sandra Hernández-Potosme, Luis Herrera, Melva Olmos, Sandy Pereira, Hugh S. Robinson, Nathaniel Robinson, Roberto Salom-Pérez, Yahaira Urbina, Kathy A. Zeller & Howard Quigley
Evaluating range-wide habitat use by a target species requires information on species occurrence over broad geographic regions, a process made difficult by species rarity, large spatiotemporal sampling domains, and imperfect detection. We address these challenges in an assessment of habitat use for jaguars (Panthera onca) outside protected areas in Central America. Occurrence records were acquired within 12 putative corridors using interviews with knowledgeable corridor residents. We developed a Bayesian hierarchical occupancy model to gain robust...
The complex processes involved with animal migration have long been a subject of biological interest and broad-scale movement patterns of many marine turtle populations still remain unresolved. While it is widely accepted that once marine turtles reach sexual maturity they home to natal areas for nesting or reproduction, the role of philopatry to natal areas during other life stages has received less scrutiny, despite widespread evidence across the taxa. Here we report on genetic research...
Data from: Pleistocene climatic fluctuations drive isolation and secondary contact in the red diamond rattlesnake (Crotalus ruber) in Baja CaliforniaSean M. Harrington, Bradford D. Hollingsworth, Timothy E. Higham & Tod W. Reeder
Aim: Many studies have investigated the phylogeographic history of species on the Baja California Peninsula, and they often show one or more genetic breaks that are spatially concordant among many taxa. These phylogeographic breaks are commonly attributed to vicariance as a result of geological or climatic changes, followed by secondary contact when barriers are no longer present. We use restriction-site associated DNA sequence data and a phylogeographic model selection approach to explicitly test the secondary...
San Diego State University11
University of California, Davis2
College of Charleston1
University of Montana1
University of Washington1
San Diego Natural History Museum1
University of California System1
SUNY College of Environmental Science and Forestry1
University of Groningen1
University of Algarve1