Evolutionary divergences mirror Pleistocene paleodrainages in a rapidly-evolving complex of oasis-dwelling jumping spiders (Salticidae, Habronattus tarsalis)Marshal Hedin, Steven Foldi & Brendan Rajah-Boyer
We aimed to understand the diversification history of jumping spiders in the Habronattus tarsalis species complex, with particular emphasis on how history in this system might illuminate biogeographic patterns and processes in deserts of the western United States. Desert populations of H. tarsalis are now confined to highly discontinuous oasis-like habitats, but these habitats would have been periodically more connected during multiple pluvial periods of the Pleistocene. We estimated divergence times using relaxed molecular clock...
Data from: Black abalone (Haliotis cracherodii) population structure shifts through deep time: Management implications for southern California's northern Channel IslandsHannah Haas, Todd J. Braje, Matthew S. Edwards, Jon M. Erlandson & Steven G. Whitaker
For over 10,000 years, black abalone (Haliotis cracherodii) were an important resource in southern California, first for coastal Native Americans, then beginning in the nineteenth century, as one of the state's first commercial shellfisheries. By 1993, after years of heavy fishing, rising sea surface temperatures (SST), and the spread of withering syndrome (WS), black abalone populations declined dramatically, resulting in the closure of the Alta California fishery. After nearly 25 years of management and recovery...
1. The selection pressures that arise from capturing prey and avoiding predators are some of the strongest biotic forces shaping animal form and function. Examining how performance (i.e., athletic ability) affects the outcomes of encounters between free-ranging predators and prey is essential for understanding the factors that determine predation success rates and broad scale predator–prey dynamics, but quantifying these encounters in natural situations is logistically challenging. 2. The goal of our study was to examine...
Data from: Dynamic measurements of black oystercatcher (Haematopus bachmani) predation on mussels (Mytilus californianus)Luke P. Miller & William W. Dowd
Intertidal zone mussels can face threats from a variety of predatory species during high and low tides, and they must balance the threat of predation against other needs such as feeding and aerobic respiration. Black oystercatchers (Haematopus bachmani) on the Pacific coast of North America can depend on the mussel Mytilus californianus for a substantial portion of their diet. Observations suggest that oystercatchers tend to focus on mussels beginning to gape their valves during rising...
A comprehensive dataset of extreme hydrological events (EHEs) – floods and droughts, consisting of 2,171 occurrences worldwide, during 1960‐2014 was compiled, and then their economic losses were normalized using a price index in U.S. dollar. The dataset showed a significant increasing trend of EHEs before 2000, while a slight post‐2000 decline. Correspondingly, the EHEs‐caused economic losses increased obviously before 2000 followed by a slight decrease; the post‐2000 decline could be partially attributed to the decreases...
Bumble bee pollinators can be exposed to pathogens when foraging on flowers previously visited by infected individuals. Infectious cells may be deposited in floral nectar, providing a site for pathogens to interact with nectar secondary compounds prior to infecting bees. Some nectar secondary compounds can reduce pathogen counts in infected bumble bees, but we know less about how exposure to these compounds directly affects pathogens prior to being ingested by their host. We exposed the...
Men and women may use alcohol to regulate emotions differently, with corresponding differences in neural responses. We explored how the viewing of different types of emotionally salient stimuli impacted brain activity observed through functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) from 42 long-term abstinent alcoholic (25 women) and 46 nonalcoholic (24 women) participants. Analyses revealed blunted brain responsivity in alcoholic compared to nonalcoholic groups, as well as gender differences in those activation patterns. Brain activation in alcoholic...
Data from: When one phenotype is not enough - divergent evolutionary trajectories govern venom variation in a widespread rattlesnake speciesGiulia Zancolli, Juan J. Calvete, Michael D. Cardwell, Harry W. Greene, William K. Hayes, Matthew J. Hegarty, Hans-Werner Herrmann, Andrew T. Holycross, Dominic I. Lannutti, John F. Mulley, Libia Sanz, Zachary D. Travis, Joshua R. Whorley, Catharine E. Wüster & Wolfgang Wuster
Understanding the origin and maintenance of phenotypic variation, particularly across a continuous spatial distribution, represents a key challenge in evolutionary biology. For this, animal venoms represent ideal study systems: they are complex, variable, yet easily quantifiable molecular phenotypes with a clear function. Rattlesnakes display tremendous variation in their venom composition, mostly through strongly dichotomous venom strategies, which may even coexist within single species. Here, through dense, widespread population-level sampling of the Mojave rattlesnake, Crotalus scutulatus,...
Pleistocene glacial cycles drove lineage diversification and fusion in the Yosemite toad (Anaxyrus canorus)Paul A. Maier, Amy G. Vandergast, Steven M. Ostoja, Andres Aguilar & Andrew J. Bohonak
Pleistocene glacial cycles drove lineage diversification and fusion in the Yosemite toad (Anaxyrus canorus) Species endemic to alpine environments can evolve via steep ecological selection gradients between lowland and upland environments. Additionally, many alpine environments have faced repeated glacial episodes over the past two million years, fracturing these endemics into isolated populations. In this “glacial pulse” model of alpine diversification, cycles of allopatry and ecologically divergent glacial refugia play a role in generating biodiversity, including...
Data from: Tracing the footprints of a moving hybrid zone under a demographic history of speciation with gene flowMitra Menon, Erin Landguth, Alejandro Leal-Saenz, Justin Bagley, Anna Schoettle, Christian Wehenkel, Lluvia Flores-Renteria, Sam Cushman, Kristen Waring & Andrew Eckert
A lack of optimal gene combinations, as well as low levels of genetic diversity are often associated with the formation of species range margins. Conservation efforts rely on predictive modelling using abiotic variables and assessments of genetic diversity to determine target species and populations for controlled breeding, germplasm conservation and assisted migration. Biotic factors such as interspecific competition and hybridization, however, are largely ignored, despite their prevalence across diverse taxa and their role as key...
Urbanization reduces genetic connectivity in bobcats (Lynx rufus) at both intra- and inter-population spatial scalesChristopher P Kozakiewicz, Christopher Burridge, W. Chris Funk, Patricia E Salerno, Daryl R Trumbo, Roderick B Gagne, Erin E Boydston, Robert N Fisher, Lisa M Lyren, Megan K Jennings, Seth P D Riley, Laurel E K Serieys, Sue VandeWoude, Kevin R Crooks & Scott Carver
Urbanization is a major factor driving habitat fragmentation and connectivity loss in wildlife. However, the impacts of urbanization on connectivity can vary among species and even populations due to differences in local landscape characteristics, and our ability to detect these relationships may depend on the spatial scale at which they are measured. Bobcats (Lynx rufus) are relatively sensitive to urbanization and the status of bobcat populations is an important indicator of connectivity in urban coastal...
San Diego State University11
United States Geological Survey2
The University of Texas at El Paso2
Massachusetts General Hospital1
University of Massachusetts Amherst1
University of Montana1
Seattle Central College1
United States Department of Agriculture1