85 Works

Variance in lifetime reproductive success of male polar bears

Evan Richardson, Corey Davis, Ian Stirling, Andrew Derocher, Nicholas Lunn & René Malenfant
Despite the important role that population density plays in ecological and evolutionary processes, studies of solitary species that occur at low densities remain scarce. In the context of mating systems, density is expected to influence the ability of males to find and monopolize mates, in turn influencing variance in lifetime mating/reproductive success and the opportunity for selection. Herein we investigate variance in male lifetime mating success, lifetime reproductive success, and the mating system of a...

Data from: Wintering bird communities are tracking climate change faster than breeding communities

Aleksi Lehikoinen, Åke Lindström, Andrea Santangeli, Päivi Sirkiä, Lluis Brotons, Vincent Devictor, Jaanus Elts, Ruud P. B. Fobben, Henning Heldbjerg, Sergi Herrando, Marc Herremans, Marie-Anne R. Hudson, Frederic Jiguet, Alison Johnston, Romain Lorrilliere, Emma-Liina Marjakangas, Nicole L. Michel, Charlotte M. Moshøj, Renno Nellis, Jean-Yves Paquet, Adam C. Smith, Tibor Szep & Chris Van Turnhout
1. Global climate change is driving species’ distributions towards the poles and mountain tops during both non-breeding and breeding seasons, leading to changes in the composition of natural communities. However, the degree of season differences in climate-driven community shifts has not been thoroughly investigated at large spatial scales. 2. We compared the rates of change in the community composition during both winter (non-breeding season) and summer (breeding) and their relation to temperature changes. 3. Based...

Map of reporting facilities – geodatabase

Costa Paulo &
The National Pollutant Release Inventory (NPRI) is Canada's public inventory of pollutant releases (to air, water and land), disposals and transfers for recycling. This file is a geodatabase (GDB) that shows the locations of all facilities that reported to the NPRI in the current reporting year. The data are also available in a virtual globe format : https://open.canada.ca/data/en/dataset/d9be6bec-47e5-4835-8d01-d2875a8d67ff Please consult the following resources to enhance your analysis: - Guide on using and Interpreting NPRI Data:...

Maps of reporting facilities – total releases to water

Costa Paulo &
The National Pollutant Release Inventory (NPRI) is Canada's public inventory of pollutant releases (to air, water and land), disposals and transfers for recycling. The files below contain a map of Canada showing the locations of all facilities that reported direct releases to surface waters to the NPRI. The data are for the most recent reporting year, by reported total quantities of these releases. The map is available in both ESRI REST (to use with ARC...

Active season body mass patterns of Little Brown Bats and Northern Myotis: Raw and fitted mass values, environmental conditions and inflection point estimates

Evan Balzer, Adam Grottoli, Lynne Burns & Hugh Broders
Animals are expected to adjust their behavioural patterns to improve fitness outcomes, such as fecundity or offspring survival. For long-lived hibernators, decisions made in each annual cycle may reflect considerations not just for concurrent survival and reproduction, but also the pressure to maximize overwinter survival and future reproductive success. We examined how these elements manifest themselves in the body mass variation patterns of North American northern latitude temperate bats, whose size and roosting habits present...

Data from: Local population collapse of Ross's and lesser snow geese driven by failing recruitment and diminished philopatry

Mitch Weegman, Ray Alisauskas, Dana Kellett, Qing Zhao, Scott Wilson & Tomas Telensky
We estimated survival and per capita production of young, as well as emigration and immigration, from 1997 to 2017 in Ross's goose Anser rossii and lesser snow goose Anser caerulescens caerulescens, which are sympatric species of migratory birds that nest in the central Canadian Arctic at one of the largest breeding colonies in North America. We formed age-structured integrated population models for each species that jointly analyzed live and dead encounter data as well as...

Data and code from: Opposite, but insufficient, phenological responses to climate in two circumpolar seabirds: relative roles of phenotypic plasticity and selection

Shannon Whelan, Scott A. Hatch, Anthony J. Gaston, H. Grant Gilchrist & Kyle H. Elliott
The magnitude of climate change has been greatest in the Arctic, accelerating climate-induced shifts in phenology, but wildlife responses vary. Variation may be due to the relative importance of phenotypic plasticity or phenotypic selection. Here, we examine and contrast the environmental drivers of plasticity in breeding phenology of two circumpolar seabirds at their receding summer range limit using unique datasets of marked individuals covering 25 and 30 years. Based on prior knowledge of the local...

Additional file 1 of Behavioural flexibility in an Arctic seabird using two distinct marine habitats to survive the energetic constraints of winter

Allison Patterson, H. Grant Gilchrist, Gregory J. Robertson, April Hedd, David A. Fifield & Kyle H. Elliott
Additional file 1. Supplementary tables and figures.

Behavioural flexibility in an Arctic seabird using two distinct marine habitats to survive the energetic constraints of winter

Allison Patterson, H. Grant Gilchrist, Gregory J. Robertson, April Hedd, David A. Fifield & Kyle H. Elliott
Abstract Background Homeothermic marine animals in Polar Regions face an energetic bottleneck in winter. The challenges of short days and cold temperatures are exacerbated for flying seabirds with small body size and limited fat stores. We use biologging approaches to examine how habitat, weather, and moon illumination influence behaviour and energetics of a marine bird species, thick-billed murres (Uria lomvia). Methods We used temperature-depth-light recorders to examine strategies murres use to survive winter in the...

Development of a tiered analytical method for forensic investigation of mixed lubricating oil samples

Candice C. Chua, Honoria Kwok, Jeffrey Yan, Daniel Cuthbertson, Graham van Aggelen, Pamela Brunswick & Dayue Shang
Oil spill forensic investigations are often challenging due to many confounding variables such as sample weathering, oil composition complexities, and the quality or quantity of collected materials, but the difficulty is further compounded when dealing with mixed oils. In this case, well-established oil fingerprinting techniques become inadequate, including gas chromatography-flame ionization detection (GC/FID) and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC/MS) diagnostic ratio analysis. In dealing with mixtures of highly refined lubricating (lube) oils, GC/FID analysis often yields...

Development of a tiered analytical method for forensic investigation of mixed lubricating oil samples

Candice C. Chua, Honoria Kwok, Jeffrey Yan, Daniel Cuthbertson, Graham van Aggelen, Pamela Brunswick & Dayue Shang
Oil spill forensic investigations are often challenging due to many confounding variables such as sample weathering, oil composition complexities, and the quality or quantity of collected materials, but the difficulty is further compounded when dealing with mixed oils. In this case, well-established oil fingerprinting techniques become inadequate, including gas chromatography-flame ionization detection (GC/FID) and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC/MS) diagnostic ratio analysis. In dealing with mixtures of highly refined lubricating (lube) oils, GC/FID analysis often yields...

Drivers of polar bear behavior and the possible effects of prey availability on foraging strategy

Ron R. Togunov, Andrew E. Derocher, Nicholas J. Lunn & Marie Auger-Méthé
Abstract Background Change in behavior is one of the earliest responses to variation in habitat suitability. It is therefore important to understand the conditions that promote different behaviors, particularly in areas undergoing environmental change. Animal movement is tightly linked to behavior and remote tracking can be used to study ethology when direct observation is not possible. Methods We used movement data from 14 polar bears (Ursus maritimus) in Hudson Bay, Canada, during the foraging season...

Data from: Do seaducks minimise the flightless period?: inter- and intra-specific comparisons of remigial moult

Anouck Viain, Jean-Pierre L. Savard, Scott Gilliland, Matthew C. Perry & Magella Guillemette
Remigial moult is one of the crucial events in the annual life cycle of waterfowl as it is energetically costly, lasts several weeks, and is a period of high vulnerability due to flightlessness. In waterfowl, remigial moult can be considered as an energy-predation trade-off, meaning that heavier individuals would minimise the flightless period by increasing feather growth rate and energy expenditure. Alternatively, they could reduce body mass at the end of this period, thereby reducing...

Data from: Positive relationships between association strength and phenotypic similarity characterize the assembly of mixed-species bird flocks worldwide

Hari Sridhar, Umesh Srinivasan, Robert A. Askins, Julio Cesar Canales Delgadillo, Chao-Chieh Chen, David N. Ewert, George A. Gale, Eben Goodale, Wendy K. Gram, Patrick J. Hart, Keith A. Hobson, Richard L. Hutto, Sarath W. Kotagama, Jessie L. Knowlton, Tien Ming Lee, Charles A. Munn, Somchai Nimnuan, B. Z. Nizam, Guillaume Péron, V. V. Robin, Amanda D. Rodewald, Paul G. Rodewald, Robert L. Thomson, Pranav Trivedi, Steven L. Van Wilgenburg … & Kartik Shanker
Competition theory predicts that communities at small spatial scales should consist of species more dissimilar than expected by chance. We find a strikingly different pattern in a multi-continent dataset (55 presence-absence matrices from 24 locations) on the composition of mixed-species bird flocks, important subunits of local bird communities the world over. Using null models and randomization tests followed by meta-analysis, we find the association strength of species in flocks to be strongly related to similarity...

Data from: Latitudinal variation in ecological opportunity and intraspecific competition indicates differences in niche variability and diet specialization of Arctic marine predators

David J. Yurkowski, Steve Ferguson, Emily S. Choy, Lisa L. Loseto, Tanya M. Brown, Derek C. G. Muir, Christina A. D. Semeniuk & Aaron T. Fisk
Individual specialization (IS), where individuals within populations irrespective of age, sex, and body size are either specialized or generalized in terms of resource use, has implications on ecological niches and food web structure. Niche size and degree of IS of near-top trophic-level marine predators have been little studied in polar regions or with latitude. We quantified the large-scale latitudinal variation of population- and individual-level niche size and IS in ringed seals (Pusa hispida) and beluga...

Data from: Large-scale biomonitoring of remote and threatened ecosystems via high-throughput sequencing

Joel F. Gibson, Shadi Shokralla, Colin Curry, Donald J. Baird, Wendy A. Monk, Ian King & Mehrdad Hajibabaei
Biodiversity metrics are critical for assessment and monitoring of ecosystems threatened by anthropogenic stressors. Existing sorting and identification methods are too expensive and labour-intensive to be scaled up to meet management needs. Alternately, a high-throughput DNA sequencing approach could be used to determine biodiversity metrics from bulk environmental samples collected as part of a large-scale biomonitoring program. Here we show that both morphological and DNA sequence-based analyses are suitable for recovery of individual taxonomic richness,...

Data from: Differences in spatial synchrony and interspecific concordance inform guild-level population trends for aerial insectivorous birds

Nicole L. Michel, Adam C. Smith, Robert G. Clark, Christy A. Morrissey & Keith A. Hobson
Many animal species exhibit spatiotemporal synchrony in population fluctuations, which may provide crucial information about ecological processes driving population change. We examined spatial synchrony and concordance among population trajectories of five aerial insectivorous bird species: chimney swift Chaetura pelagica, purple martin Progne subis, barn swallow Hirundo rustica, tree swallow Tachycineta bicolor, and northern rough-winged swallow Stelgidopteryx serripennis. Aerial insectivores have undergone severe guild-wide declines that were considered more prevalent in northeastern North America. Here, we...

Data from: Tracking the history and ecological changes of rising double-crested cormorant populations using pond sediments from islands in eastern Lake Ontario

Emily M. Stewart, Neal Michelutti, Sarah Shenstone-Harris, Christopher Grooms, Chip Weseloh, Linda E. Kimpe, Jules M. Blais & John P. Smol
In the Laurentian Great Lakes region, the double-crested cormorant (Phalacrocorax auritus) has seen a thousand-fold population increase in recent decades. These large colonies of birds now often conflict with socioeconomic interests, particularly due to perceived competition with fisheries and the destruction of terrestrial vegetation in nesting habitats. Here we use dated sediment cores from ponds on islands in eastern Lake Ontario that receive waste inputs from dense colonies of cormorants and ring-billed gulls (Larus delawarensis)...

Data from: Linking isotopes and panmixia: high within-colony variation in feather δ2H, δ13C, and δ15N across the range of the American white pelican

Matthew W. Reudink, Christopher J. Kyle, Ann E. McKellar, Christopher M. Somers, Robyn L.F. Reudink, T. Kurt Kyser, Samantha E. Franks & Joseph J. Nocera
Complete panmixia across the entire range of a species is a relatively rare phenomenon; however, this pattern may be found in species that have limited philopatry and frequent dispersal. American white pelicans (Pelecanus erythrorhyncos) provide a unique opportunity to examine the role of long-distance dispersal in facilitating gene flow in a species recently reported as panmictic across its broad breeding range. This species is also undergoing a range expansion, with new colonies arising hundreds of...

Data from: Seabird species vary in behavioural response to drone census

Émile Brisson-Curadeau, David Bird, Chantelle Burke, David A. Fifield, Paul Pace, Richard B. Sherley & Kyle H. Elliott
Unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) provide an opportunity to rapidly census wildlife in remote areas while removing some of the hazards. However, wildlife may respond negatively to the UAVs, thereby skewing counts. We surveyed four species of Arctic cliff-nesting seabirds (glaucous gull Larus hyperboreus, Iceland gull Larus glaucoides, common murre Uria aalge and thick-billed murre Uria lomvia) using a UAV and compared censusing techniques to ground photography. An average of 8.5% of murres flew off in...

Five-year data tables by province, industry and substance – releases

Paulo Costa &
The National Pollutant Release Inventory (NPRI) is Canada's public inventory of pollutant releases (to air, water and land), disposals and transfers for recycling. These files contain NPRI release data for the past five years in CSV format, aggregated by Province, Industry Type and Substance, and disaggregated by media (air, water and land). The number of reporting facilities represented by each aggregated data point is included*. The results can be further broken down using the pre-defined...

Data from: Tracking data and retrospective analyses of diet reveal the consequences of loss of marine subsidies for an obligate scavenger, the Andean condor

Sergio A. Lambertucci, Joan Navarro, Jose Antonio Sánchez-Zapata, Keith A. Hobson, Pablo A.E. Alarcón, Guillermo Wiemeyer, Guillermo Blanco, Fernando Hiraldo & Jose Antonio Donazar
Over the last century, marine mammals have been dramatically reduced in the world’s oceans. We examined evidence that this change caused dietary and foraging pattern shifts of the Andean condor (Vultur gryphus) in Patagonia. We hypothesized that, after the decrease in marine mammals and the increase in human use of coastlines, condor diet changed to a more terrestrial diet which, in turn, influenced their foraging patterns. We evaluated the diet by means of stable isotope...

Data from: Identifying management actions to increase foraging opportunities for shorebirds at semi-intensive shrimp farms

Juan G. Navedo, Guillermo Fernández, Nelson Valdivia, Mark C. Drever & Jose A. Masero
The expansion of aquaculture has resulted in widespread habitat conversion throughout the world. Identifying beneficial management measures may dramatically reduce negative impacts of aquaculture for migratory birds. We studied how densities of foraging shorebirds varied at ponds within a semi-intensive shrimp aquaculture farm on the north-western coast of Mexico, as related to timing of harvest and tidal cycles. Further, we estimated the total daily available area for each shorebird species throughout two entire harvesting seasons...

Data from: The ecology of avian influenza viruses in wild dabbling ducks (Anas spp.) in Canada

Zsuzsanna Papp, Robert G. Clark, E. Jane Parmley, Frederick A. Leighton, Cheryl Waldner & Catherine Soos
Avian influenza virus (AIV) occurrence and transmission remain important wildlife and human health issues in much of the world, including in North America. Through Canada's Inter-Agency Wild Bird Influenza Survey, close to 20,000 apparently healthy, wild dabbling ducks (of seven species) were tested for AIV between 2005 and 2011. We used these data to identify and evaluate ecological and demographic correlates of infection with low pathogenic AIVs in wild dabbling ducks (Anas spp.) across Canada....

Science to inform policy: linking population dynamics to habitat for a threatened species in Canada

Cheryl Johnson, Glenn Sutherland, Erin Neave, Mathieu Leblond, Patrick Kirby, Clara Superbie & Philip McLoughlin
Abstract 1. Boreal forests provide numerous ecological services, including the ability to store large amounts of carbon, and are of significance to global biodiversity. Increases in industrial activities in boreal landscapes since the mid-20th century have added to concerns over biodiversity loss and climate change. Boreal forests are home to dwindling populations of boreal caribou (Rangifer tarandus caribou) in Canada, a species at risk that requires large, undisturbed landscapes for persistence. In 2012, the Canadian...

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