138 Works

Ensemble model output of North American atmospheric CO2 simulation (full WRF-chem output)

S. Feng, T. Lauvaux, K.J. Davis, K. Keller, R. Rayner, T. Oda, K. Gurney, Y. Zhou, C. Williams, A.E. Schuh, J. Liu & I. Baker
The uncertainty in biospheric carbon dioxide (CO2) flux estimates drives divergent projections of future climate and uncertainty in prescriptions for climate mitigation. The terrestrial carbon sink can be inferred from atmospheric CO2 observations with transport models via inversion methods. Regional CO2 flux estimates remain uncertain due to the mixture of uncertainties caused by transport models, prior estimates of biospheric fluxes, large-scale CO2 boundary inflow, the assumptions in the inversion process, and the limited density of...

Allometric modelling of plant biomass from drone-acquired photographs: drone images, ground control marker coordinates and biomass data from 36 sites, 2016-2020

A. Cunliffe, K. Anderson, F. Boschetti, H. Graham, R. Brazier, I. Myers-Smith, T. Astor, M. Boer, L. Calvo, P. Clark, M. Cramer, M. Encinas-Lara, S. Escarzaga, J. Fernández-Guisuraga, A. Fisher, K. Gdulová, B. Gillespie, A. Griebel, N. Hanan, M. Hanggito, S. Haselberger, C. Havrilla, W. Ji, J. Karl, M. Kirchhoff … & R. Wojcikiewicz
This dataset contains RGB photographs acquired from drone surveys. There are 741 harvest plots from 38 surveys at 36 sites around the world. Each site was approximately 1 ha in area. Included with the photographic images are the coordinates of ground control markers, biomass, taxonomic and location data for harvest plots and ancillary metadata. The observations can be used to obtain allometric size-biomass models. This work was supported by the Natural Environment Research Council award...

Data from: Grasshopper mice employ distinct vocal production mechanisms in different social contexts

Bret Pasch, Isao T. Tokuda & Tobias Riede
Functional changes in vocal organ morphology and motor control facilitate the evolution of acoustic signal diversity. Although many rodents produce vocalizations in a variety of social contexts, few studies have explored the underlying production mechanisms. Here, we describe mechanisms of audible and ultrasonic vocalizations (USVs) produced by grasshopper mice (genus Onychomys). Grasshopper mice are predatory rodents of the desert that produce both loud, long-distance advertisement calls and USVs in close-distance mating contexts. Using live-animal recording...

Data from: Quantifying and reducing uncertainties in estimated soil CO2 fluxes with hierarchical data-model integration

Kiona Ogle, Edmund Ryan, Fieke A. Dijkstra, Elise Pendall & Feike A. Dijkstra
Non-steady state chambers are often employed to measure soil CO2 fluxes. CO2 concentrations (C) in the headspace are sampled at different times (t), and fluxes (f) are calculated from regressions of C versus t based a limited number of observations. Variability in the data can lead to poor fits and unreliable f estimates; groups with too few observations or poor fits are often discarded, resulting in “missing” f values. We solve these problems by fitting...

Data from: Leaf nutrients, not specific leaf area, are consistent indicators of elevated nutrient inputs

Jennifer Firn, James M. McGree, Eric Harvey, Habacuc Flores-Moreno, Martin Schütz, Yvonne M. Buckley, Elizabeth T. Borer, Eric W. Seabloom, Kimberly J. La Pierre, Andrew M. MacDougall, Suzanne M. Prober, Carly J. Stevens, Lauren L. Sullivan, Erica Porter, Emma Ladouceur, Charlotte Allen, Karine H. Moromizato, John W. Morgan, W. Stanley Harpole, Yann Hautier, Nico Eisenhauer, Justin P. Wright, Peter B. Adler, Carlos Alberto Arnillas, Jonathan D. Bakker … & Anita C. Risch
Leaf traits are frequently measured in ecology to provide a ‘common currency’ for predicting how anthropogenic pressures impact ecosystem function. Here, we test whether leaf traits consistently respond to experimental treatments across 27 globally distributed grassland sites across 4 continents. We find that specific leaf area (leaf area per unit mass)—a commonly measured morphological trait inferring shifts between plant growth strategies—did not respond to up to four years of soil nutrient additions. Leaf nitrogen, phosphorus...

Data from: Cannibalism as an interacting phenotype: pre-cannibalistic aggression is influenced by social partners in the endangered Socorro isopod (Thermosphaeroma thermophilum)

Bronwyn H. Bleakley, Stephanie M. Welter, Karlline McCauley-Cole, Stephen M. Shuster & Allen J. Moore
Models for the evolution of cannibalism highlight the importance of asymmetries between individuals in initiating cannibalistic attacks. Studies may include measures of body size but typically group individuals into size/age classes or compare populations. Such broad comparisons may obscure the details of interactions that ultimately determine how socially contingent characteristics evolve. We propose that understanding cannibalism is facilitated by using an interacting phenotypes perspective that includes the influences of the phenotype of a social partner...

Data from: Potential limits to the benefits of admixture during biological invasion

Brittany S. Barker, Janelle E. Cocio, Samantha R. Anderson, Joseph E. Braasch, F. Alice Cang, Heather D. Gillette & Katrina M. Dlugosch
Species introductions often bring together genetically divergent source populations, resulting in genetic admixture. This geographic reshuffling of diversity has the potential to generate favorable new genetic combinations, facilitating the establishment and invasive spread of introduced populations. Observational support for the superior performance of admixed introductions has been mixed, however, and the broad importance of admixture to invasion questioned. Under most underlying mechanisms, admixture’s benefits should be expected to increase with greater divergence among and lower...

Data from: Bud phenology and growth are subject to divergent selection across a latitudinal gradient in Populus angustifolia and impact adaptation across the distributional range and associated arthropods

Luke M. Evans, Sobadini Kaluthota, David W. Pearce, Gerard J. Allan, Kevin Floate, Stewart B. Rood & Thomas G. Whitham
Temperate forest tree species that span large geographical areas and climatic gradients often have high levels of genetic variation. Such species are ideal for testing how neutral demographic factors and climate-driven selection structure genetic variation within species, and how this genetic variation can affect ecological communities. Here, we quantified genetic variation in vegetative phenology and growth traits in narrowleaf cottonwood, Populus angustifolia, using three common gardens planted with genotypes originating from source populations spanning the...

Data from: Energy conserving thermoregulatory patterns and lower disease severity in a bat resistant to the impacts of white-nose syndrome

Marianne S. Moore, Kenneth A. Field, Melissa J. Behr, Gregory G. Turner, Morgan E. Furze, Daniel W. F. Stern, Paul R. Allegra, Sarah A. Bouboulis, Chelsey D. Musante, Megan E. Vodzak, Matthew E. Biron, Melissa B. Meierhofer, Winifred F. Frick, Jeffrey T. Foster, Daryl Howell, Joseph A. Kath, Allen Kurta, Gerda Nordquist, Joseph S. Johnson, Thomas M. Lilley, Benjamin W. Barrett & DeeAnn M. Reeder
The devastating bat fungal disease, white-nose syndrome (WNS), does not appear to affect all species equally. To experimentally determine susceptibility differences between species, we exposed hibernating naïve little brown myotis (Myotis lucifugus) and big brown bats (Eptesicus fuscus) to the fungus that causes WNS, Pseudogymnoascus destructans (Pd). After hibernating under identical conditions, Pd lesions were significantly more prevalent and more severe in little brown myotis. This species difference in pathology correlates with susceptibility to WNS...

Data from: Agonistic character displacement in social cognition of advertisement signals

Bret Pasch, Rachel Sanford & Steven M. Phelps
Interspecific aggression between sibling species may enhance discrimination of competitors when recognition errors are costly, but proximate mechanisms mediating increased discriminative ability are unclear. We studied behavioral and neural mechanisms underlying responses to conspecific and heterospecific vocalizations in Alston’s singing mouse (Scotinomys teguina), a species in which males sing to repel rivals. We performed playback experiments using males in allopatry and sympatry with a dominant heterospecific (Scotinomys xerampelinus) and examined song-evoked induction of egr-1 in...

Data from: Efficacy of visual surveys for white-nose syndrome at bat hibernacula

Amanda F. Janicki, Winifred F. Frick, A. Marm Kilpatrick, Katy L. Parise, Jeffrey T. Foster & Gary F. McCracken
White-Nose Syndrome (WNS) is an epizootic disease in hibernating bats caused by the fungus Pseudogymnoascus destructans. Surveillance for P. destructans at bat hibernacula consists primarily of visual surveys of bats, collection of potentially infected bats, and submission of these bats for laboratory testing. Cryptic infections (bats that are infected but display no visual signs of fungus) could lead to the mischaracterization of the infection status of a site and the inadvertent spread of P. destructans....

Data from: When outgroups fail; phylogenomics of rooting the emerging pathogen, Coxiella burnetii

Talima Pearson, Heidie M. Hornstra, Jason W. Sahl, Sarah Schaack, James M. Schupp, Stephen M. Beckstrom-Sternberg, Matthew W. O'Neill, Rachael A. Priestley, Mia D. Champion, James S. Beckstrom-Sternberg, Gilbert J. Kersh, James E. Samuel, Robert F. Massung & Paul Keim
Rooting phylogenies is critical for understanding evolution, yet the importance, intricacies and difficulties of rooting are often overlooked. For rooting, polymorphic characters among the group of interest (ingroup) must be compared to those of a relative (outgroup) that diverged before the last common ancestor (LCA) of the ingroup. Problems arise if an outgroup does not exist, is unknown, or is so distant that few characters are shared, in which case duplicated genes originating before the...

Predicting drought tolerance from slope aspect preference in restored plant communities

Sarah Kimball, Megan Lulow, Kathleen Balazs & Travis Huxman
Plants employ strategies of tolerance, endurance, and avoidance to cope witharidity in space and time, yet understanding the differential importance of suchstrategies in determining patterns of abundance across a heterogeneous landscapeis a challenge. Are the species abundant in drier microhabitats also better able tosurvive drought? Are there relationships among occupied sites and temporaldynamics that derive from physiological capacities to cope with stress or dormancyduring unfavorable periods? We used a restoration project conducted on twoslope aspects...

Data from: Substrate stoichiometry determines nitrogen fixation throughout succession in southern Chinese forests

Mianhai Zheng, Hao Chen, Dejun Li, Yiqi Luo & Jiangming Mo
The traditional view holds that biological nitrogen (N) fixation often peaks in early- or mid-successional ecosystems and declines throughout succession based on the hypothesis that soil N richness and/or phosphorus (P) depletion become disadvantageous to N fixers. This view, however, fails to support the observation that N fixers can remain active in many old-growth forests despite the presence of N-rich and/or P-limiting soils. Here, we found unexpected increases in N fixation rates in the soil,...

Dataset from: Warming effects on grassland productivity depend on plant diversity

Junjiong Shao, Xuhui Zhou, Kees Van Groenigen, Guiyao Zhou, Huimin Zhou, Lingyan Zhou, Meng Lu, Jianyang Xia, Lin Jiang, Bruce Hungate, Yiqi Luo, Fangliang He & Madhav Thakur
Aim: Climate warming and biodiversity loss both alter plant productivity, yet we lack an understanding of how biodiversity regulates the responses of ecosystems to warming. In this study, we examine how plant diversity regulates the responses of grassland productivity to experimental warming using meta-analytic techniques. Location: Global Major taxa studied: Grassland ecosystems Methods: Our meta-analysis is based on warming responses of 40 different plant communities obtained from 20 independent studies on grasslands across five continents....

Hypothalamic remodeling of thyroid hormone signaling during hibernation in the arctic ground squirrel

Helen Chmura, Cassie Duncan, Ben Saer, Jeanette Moore, Brian Barnes, C. Loren Buck, Helen Christian, Andrew Loudon & Cory Williams
These data were collected from arctic ground squirrels (Urocitellus parryii) between Summer 2016 and Spring 2019 on a collaborative NSF-funded project examining the neuroendocrine regulation of the transition between hibernation and reproduction. The three experiments consist of (1) a repeated cross-sectional study conducted in both males and females hibernating in constant darkness and constant temperature (2) an extreme mid-winter warming study conducted in males only and (3) an end of hibernation warming study conducted in...

Spenders versus savers: climate-induced carbon allocation tradeoffs in a recently introduced woody plant

Randall Long, Tom Dudley, Carla D'Antonio, Kevin Grady, Susan Bush & Kevin Hultine
Non-structural carbohydrate(NSC) storage may be under strong selection in woody plant species that occur across strong environmental gradients. We therefore investigated carbon allocation strategies in a widely distributed, introduced woody plant. We predicted genotypes from cold climates with exposure to episodic freeze events, would have elevated NSC concentrations with the tradeoff of reduced growth and reproduction relative to warm-adapted genotypes. We established an experimental common garden using genotypes of Tamarix spp., sourced across a large...

Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi in roots and soil respond differently to biotic and abiotic factors in the Serengeti

Bo Stevens
This study explores the relationships of AM fungal abundance and diversity with biotic (host plant, ungulate grazing) and abiotic (soil properties, precipitation) factors in the Serengeti National Park, Tanzania. Soil and root samples were collected from grazed and ungrazed plots at seven sites across steep soil fertility and precipitation gradients. AM fungal abundance in the soil was estimated from the density of spores and the concentration of a fatty acid biomarker. Diversity of AM fungi...

Genetic data improves niche model discrimination and alters the direction and magnitude of climate change forecasts

Helen Bothwell, Luke Evans, Erika Hersch-Green, Scott Woolbright, Gerard Allan & Thomas Whitham
Ecological niche models (ENMs) have classically operated under the simplifying assumptions that there are no barriers to gene flow, species are genetically homogeneous (i.e., no population-specific local adaptation), and all individuals share the same niche. Yet, these assumptions are violated for most broadly distributed species. Here we incorporate genetic data from the widespread riparian tree species narrowleaf cottonwood (Populus angustifolia) to examine whether including intraspecific genetic variation can alter model performance and predictions of climate...

Residual force enhancement is reduced in permeabilized fiber bundles from mdm muscles

Kiisa Nishikawa, Dhruv Mishra & Kiisa C Nishikawa
Residual force enhancement (RFE) is the increase in steady-state force after active stretch relative to the force after isometric contraction at the same final length. The mdm mutation in mice, characterized by a small deletion in N2A titin, has been proposed to prevent N2A titin-actin interactions so that active mdm muscles are more compliant than WT. This decrease in active muscle stiffness should be associated with reduced RFE. We investigated RFE in permeabilized soleus (SOL)...

Data from: Kinematic trajectories in response to speed perturbations in walking suggest modular task-level control of leg angle and length

M. Janneke Schwaner, Kiisa Nishikawa & Monica Daley
Abstract Navigating complex terrains requires dynamic interactions between the substrate, musculoskeletal and sensorimotor systems. Current perturbation studies have mostly used visible terrain height perturbations, which do not allow us to distinguish among the neuromechanical contributions of feedforward control, feedback-mediated and mechanical perturbation responses. Here, we use treadmill belt speed perturbations to induce a targeted perturbation to foot speed only, and without terrain-induced changes in joint posture and leg loading at stance onset. Based on previous...

Evidence of climate-driven selection on tree traits and trait plasticity across the climatic range of a riparian foundation species

Hillary Cooper
Selection on quantitative traits by heterogeneous climatic conditions can lead to substantial trait variation across a species range. In the context of rapidly changing environments, however, it is equally important to understand selection on trait plasticity. To evaluate the role of selection in driving divergences in traits and their associated plasticities within a widespread species, we compared molecular and quantitative trait variation in Populus fremontii (Fremont cottonwood), a foundation riparian distributed throughout Arizona. Using SNP...

FEWSION for Community Resilience

Sean M. Ryan

Data from: Non-native insects dominate daytime pollination in a high-elevation Hawaiian dryland ecosystem

Clare E. Aslan, Aaron B. Shiels, William Haines & Christina T. Liang
PREMISE OF THE STUDY: Over one-third of the native flowering plant species in the Hawaiian Islands are listed as federally Threatened or Endangered. Lack of sufficient pollination could contribute to reductions in populations, reproduction, and genetic diversity among these species, but has been little studied. METHODS: We used systematic observations and manual flower treatments to quantify flower visitation and outcrossing dependency of eight native (including four Endangered) plant species in a dryland ecosystem in Hawaii:...

Data from: Within-species patterns challenge our understanding of the Leaf Economics Spectrum

Leander D.L. Anderegg, Logan T. Berner, Grayson Badgley, Meera L. Sethi, Beverly E. Law, Janneke HilleRisLambers & Leander D. L. Anderegg
The utility of plant functional traits for predictive ecology relies on our ability to interpret trait variation across multiple taxonomic and ecological scales. Using extensive datasets of trait variation within species, across species, and across communities, we analyzed whether and at what scales ‘leaf economics spectrum’ (LES) traits show predicted trait-trait covariation. We found that most variation in LES traits is often, but not universally, at high taxonomic levels (between families, between genera in a...

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