107 Works

Data from: When outgroups fail; phylogenomics of rooting the emerging pathogen, Coxiella burnetii

Talima Pearson, Heidie M. Hornstra, Jason W. Sahl, Sarah Schaack, James M. Schupp, Stephen M. Beckstrom-Sternberg, Matthew W. O'Neill, Rachael A. Priestley, Mia D. Champion, James S. Beckstrom-Sternberg, Gilbert J. Kersh, James E. Samuel, Robert F. Massung & Paul Keim
Rooting phylogenies is critical for understanding evolution, yet the importance, intricacies and difficulties of rooting are often overlooked. For rooting, polymorphic characters among the group of interest (ingroup) must be compared to those of a relative (outgroup) that diverged before the last common ancestor (LCA) of the ingroup. Problems arise if an outgroup does not exist, is unknown, or is so distant that few characters are shared, in which case duplicated genes originating before the...

Data from: Cannibalism as an interacting phenotype: pre-cannibalistic aggression is influenced by social partners in the endangered Socorro isopod (Thermosphaeroma thermophilum)

Bronwyn H. Bleakley, Stephanie M. Welter, Karlline McCauley-Cole, Stephen M. Shuster & Allen J. Moore
Models for the evolution of cannibalism highlight the importance of asymmetries between individuals in initiating cannibalistic attacks. Studies may include measures of body size but typically group individuals into size/age classes or compare populations. Such broad comparisons may obscure the details of interactions that ultimately determine how socially contingent characteristics evolve. We propose that understanding cannibalism is facilitated by using an interacting phenotypes perspective that includes the influences of the phenotype of a social partner...

Predicting drought tolerance from slope aspect preference in restored plant communities

Sarah Kimball, Megan Lulow, Kathleen Balazs & Travis Huxman
Plants employ strategies of tolerance, endurance, and avoidance to cope witharidity in space and time, yet understanding the differential importance of suchstrategies in determining patterns of abundance across a heterogeneous landscapeis a challenge. Are the species abundant in drier microhabitats also better able tosurvive drought? Are there relationships among occupied sites and temporaldynamics that derive from physiological capacities to cope with stress or dormancyduring unfavorable periods? We used a restoration project conducted on twoslope aspects...

Ensemble model output of North American atmospheric CO2 simulation (full WRF-chem output)

S. Feng, T. Lauvaux, K.J. Davis, K. Keller, R. Rayner, T. Oda, K. Gurney, Y. Zhou, C. Williams, A.E. Schuh, J. Liu & I. Baker
The uncertainty in biospheric carbon dioxide (CO2) flux estimates drives divergent projections of future climate and uncertainty in prescriptions for climate mitigation. The terrestrial carbon sink can be inferred from atmospheric CO2 observations with transport models via inversion methods. Regional CO2 flux estimates remain uncertain due to the mixture of uncertainties caused by transport models, prior estimates of biospheric fluxes, large-scale CO2 boundary inflow, the assumptions in the inversion process, and the limited density of...

Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi in roots and soil respond differently to biotic and abiotic factors in the Serengeti

Bo Stevens
This study explores the relationships of AM fungal abundance and diversity with biotic (host plant, ungulate grazing) and abiotic (soil properties, precipitation) factors in the Serengeti National Park, Tanzania. Soil and root samples were collected from grazed and ungrazed plots at seven sites across steep soil fertility and precipitation gradients. AM fungal abundance in the soil was estimated from the density of spores and the concentration of a fatty acid biomarker. Diversity of AM fungi...

Data from: Substrate stoichiometry determines nitrogen fixation throughout succession in southern Chinese forests

Mianhai Zheng, Hao Chen, Dejun Li, Yiqi Luo & Jiangming Mo
The traditional view holds that biological nitrogen (N) fixation often peaks in early- or mid-successional ecosystems and declines throughout succession based on the hypothesis that soil N richness and/or phosphorus (P) depletion become disadvantageous to N fixers. This view, however, fails to support the observation that N fixers can remain active in many old-growth forests despite the presence of N-rich and/or P-limiting soils. Here, we found unexpected increases in N fixation rates in the soil,...

Data from: Leaf nutrients, not specific leaf area, are consistent indicators of elevated nutrient inputs

Jennifer Firn, James M. McGree, Eric Harvey, Habacuc Flores-Moreno, Martin Schütz, Yvonne M. Buckley, Elizabeth T. Borer, Eric W. Seabloom, Kimberly J. La Pierre, Andrew M. MacDougall, Suzanne M. Prober, Carly J. Stevens, Lauren L. Sullivan, Erica Porter, Emma Ladouceur, Charlotte Allen, Karine H. Moromizato, John W. Morgan, W. Stanley Harpole, Yann Hautier, Nico Eisenhauer, Justin P. Wright, Peter B. Adler, Carlos Alberto Arnillas, Jonathan D. Bakker … & Anita C. Risch
Leaf traits are frequently measured in ecology to provide a ‘common currency’ for predicting how anthropogenic pressures impact ecosystem function. Here, we test whether leaf traits consistently respond to experimental treatments across 27 globally distributed grassland sites across 4 continents. We find that specific leaf area (leaf area per unit mass)—a commonly measured morphological trait inferring shifts between plant growth strategies—did not respond to up to four years of soil nutrient additions. Leaf nitrogen, phosphorus...

Data from: Potential limits to the benefits of admixture during biological invasion

Brittany S. Barker, Janelle E. Cocio, Samantha R. Anderson, Joseph E. Braasch, F. Alice Cang, Heather D. Gillette & Katrina M. Dlugosch
Species introductions often bring together genetically divergent source populations, resulting in genetic admixture. This geographic reshuffling of diversity has the potential to generate favorable new genetic combinations, facilitating the establishment and invasive spread of introduced populations. Observational support for the superior performance of admixed introductions has been mixed, however, and the broad importance of admixture to invasion questioned. Under most underlying mechanisms, admixture’s benefits should be expected to increase with greater divergence among and lower...

Data from: Quantifying and reducing uncertainties in estimated soil CO2 fluxes with hierarchical data-model integration

Kiona Ogle, Edmund Ryan, Fieke A. Dijkstra, Elise Pendall & Feike A. Dijkstra
Non-steady state chambers are often employed to measure soil CO2 fluxes. CO2 concentrations (C) in the headspace are sampled at different times (t), and fluxes (f) are calculated from regressions of C versus t based a limited number of observations. Variability in the data can lead to poor fits and unreliable f estimates; groups with too few observations or poor fits are often discarded, resulting in “missing” f values. We solve these problems by fitting...

Data from: Agonistic character displacement in social cognition of advertisement signals

Bret Pasch, Rachel Sanford & Steven M. Phelps
Interspecific aggression between sibling species may enhance discrimination of competitors when recognition errors are costly, but proximate mechanisms mediating increased discriminative ability are unclear. We studied behavioral and neural mechanisms underlying responses to conspecific and heterospecific vocalizations in Alston’s singing mouse (Scotinomys teguina), a species in which males sing to repel rivals. We performed playback experiments using males in allopatry and sympatry with a dominant heterospecific (Scotinomys xerampelinus) and examined song-evoked induction of egr-1 in...

Genetic data improves niche model discrimination and alters the direction and magnitude of climate change forecasts

Helen Bothwell, Luke Evans, Erika Hersch-Green, Scott Woolbright, Gerard Allan & Thomas Whitham
Ecological niche models (ENMs) have classically operated under the simplifying assumptions that there are no barriers to gene flow, species are genetically homogeneous (i.e., no population-specific local adaptation), and all individuals share the same niche. Yet, these assumptions are violated for most broadly distributed species. Here we incorporate genetic data from the widespread riparian tree species narrowleaf cottonwood (Populus angustifolia) to examine whether including intraspecific genetic variation can alter model performance and predictions of climate...

Data from: Grasshopper mice employ distinct vocal production mechanisms in different social contexts

Bret Pasch, Isao T. Tokuda & Tobias Riede
Functional changes in vocal organ morphology and motor control facilitate the evolution of acoustic signal diversity. Although many rodents produce vocalizations in a variety of social contexts, few studies have explored the underlying production mechanisms. Here, we describe mechanisms of audible and ultrasonic vocalizations (USVs) produced by grasshopper mice (genus Onychomys). Grasshopper mice are predatory rodents of the desert that produce both loud, long-distance advertisement calls and USVs in close-distance mating contexts. Using live-animal recording...

Data from: Energy conserving thermoregulatory patterns and lower disease severity in a bat resistant to the impacts of white-nose syndrome

Marianne S. Moore, Kenneth A. Field, Melissa J. Behr, Gregory G. Turner, Morgan E. Furze, Daniel W. F. Stern, Paul R. Allegra, Sarah A. Bouboulis, Chelsey D. Musante, Megan E. Vodzak, Matthew E. Biron, Melissa B. Meierhofer, Winifred F. Frick, Jeffrey T. Foster, Daryl Howell, Joseph A. Kath, Allen Kurta, Gerda Nordquist, Joseph S. Johnson, Thomas M. Lilley, Benjamin W. Barrett & DeeAnn M. Reeder
The devastating bat fungal disease, white-nose syndrome (WNS), does not appear to affect all species equally. To experimentally determine susceptibility differences between species, we exposed hibernating naïve little brown myotis (Myotis lucifugus) and big brown bats (Eptesicus fuscus) to the fungus that causes WNS, Pseudogymnoascus destructans (Pd). After hibernating under identical conditions, Pd lesions were significantly more prevalent and more severe in little brown myotis. This species difference in pathology correlates with susceptibility to WNS...

Data from: Efficacy of visual surveys for white-nose syndrome at bat hibernacula

Amanda F. Janicki, Winifred F. Frick, A. Marm Kilpatrick, Katy L. Parise, Jeffrey T. Foster & Gary F. McCracken
White-Nose Syndrome (WNS) is an epizootic disease in hibernating bats caused by the fungus Pseudogymnoascus destructans. Surveillance for P. destructans at bat hibernacula consists primarily of visual surveys of bats, collection of potentially infected bats, and submission of these bats for laboratory testing. Cryptic infections (bats that are infected but display no visual signs of fungus) could lead to the mischaracterization of the infection status of a site and the inadvertent spread of P. destructans....

Data from: Bud phenology and growth are subject to divergent selection across a latitudinal gradient in Populus angustifolia and impact adaptation across the distributional range and associated arthropods

Luke M. Evans, Sobadini Kaluthota, David W. Pearce, Gerard J. Allan, Kevin Floate, Stewart B. Rood & Thomas G. Whitham
Temperate forest tree species that span large geographical areas and climatic gradients often have high levels of genetic variation. Such species are ideal for testing how neutral demographic factors and climate-driven selection structure genetic variation within species, and how this genetic variation can affect ecological communities. Here, we quantified genetic variation in vegetative phenology and growth traits in narrowleaf cottonwood, Populus angustifolia, using three common gardens planted with genotypes originating from source populations spanning the...

Allometric modelling of plant biomass from drone-acquired photographs: drone images, ground control marker coordinates and biomass data from 36 sites, 2016-2020

A. Cunliffe, K. Anderson, F. Boschetti, H. Graham, R. Brazier, I. Myers-Smith, T. Astor, M. Boer, L. Calvo, P. Clark, M. Cramer, M. Encinas-Lara, S. Escarzaga, J. Fernández-Guisuraga, A. Fisher, K. Gdulová, B. Gillespie, A. Griebel, N. Hanan, M. Hanggito, S. Haselberger, C. Havrilla, W. Ji, J. Karl, M. Kirchhoff … & R. Wojcikiewicz
This dataset contains RGB photographs acquired from drone surveys. There are 741 harvest plots from 38 surveys at 36 sites around the world. Each site was approximately 1 ha in area. Included with the photographic images are the coordinates of ground control markers, biomass, taxonomic and location data for harvest plots and ancillary metadata. The observations can be used to obtain allometric size-biomass models. This work was supported by the Natural Environment Research Council award...

Spenders versus savers: climate-induced carbon allocation tradeoffs in a recently introduced woody plant

Randall Long, Tom Dudley, Carla D'Antonio, Kevin Grady, Susan Bush & Kevin Hultine
Non-structural carbohydrate(NSC) storage may be under strong selection in woody plant species that occur across strong environmental gradients. We therefore investigated carbon allocation strategies in a widely distributed, introduced woody plant. We predicted genotypes from cold climates with exposure to episodic freeze events, would have elevated NSC concentrations with the tradeoff of reduced growth and reproduction relative to warm-adapted genotypes. We established an experimental common garden using genotypes of Tamarix spp., sourced across a large...

Data from: Warming reduces the growth and diversity of biological soil crusts in a semi-arid environment: implications for ecosystem structure and functioning

Cristina Escolar, Isabel Martínez, Matthew A. Bowker, Fernando T. Maestre & I. Martinez
Biological soil crusts (BSCs) are key biotic components of dryland ecosystems worldwide that control many functional processes, including carbon and nitrogen cycling, soil stabilization, and infiltration. Regardless of their ecological importance and prevalence in drylands, very few studies have explicitly evaluated how climate change will affect the structure and composition of BSCs, and the functioning of their constituents. Using a manipulative experiment conducted over three years in a semi-arid site from central Spain, we evaluated...

Data from: Plant genetics and interspecific competitive interactions determine ectomycorrhizal fungal community responses to climate change

Catherine A. Gehring, Dulce Flores-Rentería, Christopher M. Sthultz, Tierra M. Leonard, Lluvia Flores-Rentería, Amy V. Whipple, Thomas G. Whitham & Catherine Gehring
Although the importance of plant-associated microbes is increasingly recognized, little is known about the biotic and abiotic factors that determine the composition of that microbiome. We examined the influence of plant genetic variation, and two stressors, one biotic and one abiotic, on the ectomycorrhizal (EM) fungal community of a dominant tree species, Pinus edulis. During three periods across 16 years that varied in drought severity, we sampled the EM fungal communities of a wild stand...

Change in terrestrial human footprint drives continued loss of intact ecosystems

Brooke Williams, Oscar Venter, James Allan, Scott Atkinson, Jose Rehbein, Michelle Ward, Moreno Di Marco, Hedley Grantham, Jamison Ervin, Scott Goetz, Andrew Hansen, Patrick Jantz, Rajeev Pillay, Susana Rodríguez-Buriticá, Christina Supples, Anne Virnig & James Watson
Human pressure mapping is important for understanding humanity's role in shaping Earth’s patterns and processes. Our ability to map this influence has evolved, thanks to powerful computing, earth observing satellites, and new bottom-up census and crowd-sourced data. Here, we provide the latest temporally inter-comparable maps of the terrestrial human footprint, and assessment of change in human pressure at global, biome, and ecoregional scales. In 2013, 42% of terrestrial Earth could be considered relatively free of...

Gross primary production responses to warming, elevated CO2 , and irrigation: quantifying the drivers of ecosystem physiology in a semiarid grassland

Elise Pendall, Edmund M. Ryan, Kiona Ogle, Drew Peltier, David G. Williams, Anthony P. Walker, Martin G. De Kauwe, Belinda E. Medlyn, William Parton, Shinichi Asao, Bertrand Guenet, Anna B. Harper, Xingjie Lu, Kristina A. Luus, Sönke Zaehle, Shijie Shu, Christian Werner & Jianyang Xia
Determining whether the terrestrial biosphere will be a source or sink of carbon (C) under a future climate of elevated CO2 (eCO2) and warming requires accurate quantification of gross primary production (GPP), the largest flux of C in the global C cycle. We evaluated 6 years (2007–2012) of flux‐derived GPP data from the Prairie Heating and CO2 Enrichment (PHACE) experiment, situated in a grassland in Wyoming, USA. The GPP data were used to calibrate a...

Data from: Comparing traditional and Bayesian approaches to ecological meta-analysis

Paula Pappalardo, Kiona Ogle, Elizabeth Hamman, James Bence, Bruce Hungate & Craig Osenberg
1. Despite the wide application of meta-analysis in ecology, some of the traditional methods used for meta-analysis may not perform well given the type of data characteristic of ecological meta-analyses. 2. We reviewed published meta-analyses on the ecological impacts of global climate change, evaluating the number of replicates used in the primary studies (ni) and the number of studies or records (k) that were aggregated to calculate a mean effect size. We used the results...

Native biodiversity collapse in the Eastern Mediterranean

Paolo G. Albano, Jan Steger, Marija Bošnjak, Beata Dunne, Zara Guifarro, Elina Turapova, Quan Hua, Darrell Kaufman, Gil Rilov & Martin Zuschin
Global warming causes the poleward shift of the trailing edges of marine ectotherm species distributions. In the semi-enclosed Mediterranean Sea, continental masses and oceanographic barriers do not allow natural connectivity with thermophilic species pools: as trailing edges retreat, a net diversity loss occurs. We quantify this loss on the Israeli shelf, among the warmest areas in the Mediterranean, by comparing current native molluscan richness with the historical one obtained from surficial death assemblages. We recorded...

Data from: A changing climate is snuffing out post-fire recovery in montane forests

Kyle Rodman, Thomas Veblen, Mike Battaglia, Marin Chambers, Paula Fornwalt, Zachary Holden, Thomas Kolb, Jessica Ouzts & Monica Rother
Aim: Climate warming is increasing fire activity in many of Earth’s forested ecosystems. Because fire is an important catalyst for change, investigation of post-fire vegetation response is crucial for understanding the potential for future conversions from forest to non-forest vegetation types. To better understand effects of wildfire and climate warming on forest recovery, we assessed the extent to which climate and terrain influence spatiotemporal variation in past and future post-fire tree regeneration. Location: Montane forests,...

Estimating social-ecological resilience: fire management futures in the Sonoran Desert

Clare Aslan, Manette Sandor, Martha Sample, Sasha Stortz, Sara Souther, Carrie Levine, Leah Samberg, Miranda Gray & Brett Dickson
Resilience quantifies the ability of a system to remain in or return to its current state following disturbance. Due to inconsistent terminology and usage of resilience frameworks, quantitative resilience studies are challenging, and resilience is often treated as an abstract concept rather than a measurable system characteristic. We used a novel, spatially-explicit stakeholder engagement process to quantify social-ecological resilience to fire, in light of modeled social-ecological fire risk, across the non-fire-adapted Sonoran Desert Ecosystem in...

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