122 Works

Data from: Patterns of diversity and adaptation in Glomeromycota from three prairie grasslands

Baoming Ji, Catherine A. Gehring, Gail W. T. Wilson, R. M. Miller, Lluvia Flores-Rentería & Nancy Collins Johnson
Arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi are widespread root symbionts that often improve the fitness of their plant hosts. We tested whether local adaptation in mycorrhizal symbioses would shape the community structure of these root symbionts in a way that maximizes their symbiotic functioning. We grew a native prairie grass (Andropogon gerardii) with all possible combinations of soils and AM fungal inocula from three different prairies that varied in soil characteristics and disturbance history (two native prairie...

Data from: Mutations in global regulators lead to metabolic selection during adaptation to complex environments

Gerda Saxer, Michael D. Krepps, Eric D. Merkley, Charles Ansong, Brooke L. Deatherage Kaiser, Marie-Thérèse Valovska, Nikola Ristic, Ping T. Yeh, Vittal P. Prakash, Owen P. Leiser, Luay Nakhleh, Henry S. Gibbons, Helen W. Kreuzer & Yousif Shamoo
Adaptation to ecologically complex environments can provide insights into the evolutionary dynamics and functional constraints encountered by organisms during natural selection. Adaptation to a new environment with abundant and varied resources can be difficult to achieve by small incremental changes if many mutations are required to achieve even modest gains in fitness. Since changing complex environments are quite common in nature, we investigated how such an epistatic bottleneck can be avoided to allow rapid adaptation....

Data from: Do impacts of an invasive nitrogen-fixing shrub on Douglas-fir and its ectomycorrhizal mutualism change over time following invasion?

Sara Grove, Ingrid M. Parker & Karen A. Haubensak
1. Impacts of invasive species may change in magnitude and even direction with invasion age. Impacts could increase as the population increases, individuals grow in size, and ecological changes accumulate. 2. We used a chronosequence approach to characterize the development of soil impacts over time following the invasion of Cytisus scoparius, a widespread nitrogen-fixing shrub thought to limit reforestation success. In a greenhouse experiment, we evaluated how abundance of ectomycorrhizal fungi, Douglas-fir performance, and leaf...

Data from: The secret life of ground squirrels: accelerometry reveals sex-dependent plasticity in above-ground activity

Cory T. Williams, Kathryn Wilsterman, Victor Zhang, Jeanette Moore, Brian M. Barnes & C. Loren Buck
The sexes differ in how and when they allocate energy towards reproduction, but how this influences phenotypic plasticity in daily activity patterns is unclear. Here, we use collar-mounted light loggers and triaxial accelerometers to examine factors that affect time spent above ground and overall dynamic body acceleration (ODBA), an index of activity-specific energy expenditure, across the active season of free-living, semi-fossorial arctic ground squirrels (Urocitellus parryii). We found high day-to-day variability in time spent above...

Data from: Parasite metacommunities: evaluating the roles of host community composition and environmental gradients in structuring symbiont communities within amphibians

Joseph R. Mihaljevic, Bethany J. Hoye & Pieter T. J. Johnson
1. Ecologists increasingly report the structures of metacommunities for free-living species, yet far less is known about the composition of symbiont communities through space and time. Understanding the drivers of symbiont community patterns has implications ranging from emerging infectious disease to managing host microbiomes. 2. Using symbiont communities from amphibian hosts sampled from wetlands of California, USA, we quantified the effects of spatial, habitat filtering, and host community components on symbiont occupancy and overall metacommunity...

Data from: Matching seed to site by climate similarity: Techniques to prioritize plant materials development and use in restoration

Kyle D. Doherty, Bradley J. Butterfield & Troy E. Wood
Land management agencies are increasing the use of native plant materials for vegetation treatments to restore ecosystem function and maintain natural ecological integrity. This shift towards the use of natives has highlighted a need to increase the diversity of materials available. A key problem is agreeing on how many, and which, new accessions should be developed. Here we describe new methods that address this problem. Our methods use climate data to calculate a climate similarity...

Data from: Relative importance of competition and plant-soil feedback, their synergy, context dependency and implications for coexistence

Ylva Lekberg, James D. Bever, Rebecca A. Bunn, Ray M. Callaway, Miranda M. Hart, Stephanie N. Kivlin, John Klironomos, Beau G. Larkin, John L. Maron, Kurt O. Reinhart, Michael Remke, Wim H. Van Der Putten & Ragan M. Callaway
Plants interact simultaneously with each other and with soil biota, yet the relative importance of competition versus plant soil feedback (PSF) on plant performance is poorly understood. Using a meta-analysis of 38 published studies and 150 plant species, we show that effects of interspecific competition (either growing plants with a competitor or singly, or comparing inter- vs. intraspecific competition) and PSF (comparing home vs. away soil, live vs. sterile soil, or control vs. fungicide-treated soil)...

Data from: Multi-decadal time series of remotely sensed vegetation improves prediction of soil carbon in a subtropical grassland

Chris H. Wilson, T. Trevor Caughlin, Sami W. Rifai, Elizabeth H. Boughton, Michelle C. Mack & S. Luke Flory
Soil carbon sequestration in agroecosystems could play a key role in climate change mitigation but will require accurate predictions of soil organic carbon (SOC) stocks over spatial scales relevant to land management. Spatial variation in underlying drivers of SOC, such as plant productivity and soil mineralogy, complicates these predictions. Recent advances in the availability of remotely sensed data make it practical to generate multidecadal time series of vegetation indices with high spatial resolution and coverage....

Data from: What controls variation in carbon use efficiency among Amazonian tropical forests?

Christopher E. Doughty, Gregory R. Goldsmith, Nicolas Raab, Cecile A. J. Girardin, Filio Farfan-Amezquita, Walter Huaraca Huasco, Javier E. Silva-Espejo, Alejandro Araujo-Murakami, Antonio C. L. Da Costa, Wanderley Rocha, David Galbraith, Patrick Meir, Dan B. Metcalfe, Yadvinder Malhi & Walter Huaraca-Huasco
Why do some forests produce biomass more efficiently than others? Variations in Carbon Use Efficiency (CUE: total Net Primary Production (NPP)/ Gross Primary Production (GPP)) may be due to changes in wood residence time (Biomass/NPPwood), temperature, or soil nutrient status. We tested these hypotheses in 14, one ha plots across Amazonian and Andean forests where we measured most key components of net primary production (NPP: wood, fine roots, and leaves) and autotrophic respiration (Ra; wood,...

Data from: No selection on immunological markers in response to a highly virulent pathogen in an Arctic breeding bird

Pierre Legagneux, Lisha L. Berzins, Mark Forbes, Naomi Jane Harms, Holly L. Hennin, H. G. Gilchrist, Sophie Bourgeon, Joël Bêty, Catherine Soos, Oliver P. Love, Jeffrey T. Foster, Sébastien Descamps & Gary Burness
In natural populations, epidemics provide opportunities to look for intense natural selection on genes coding for life history and immune or other physiological traits. If the populations being considered are of management or conservation concern, then identifying the traits under selection (or ‘markers’) might provide insights into possible intervention strategies during epidemics. We assessed potential for selection on multiple immune and life history traits of Arctic breeding common eiders (Somateria mollissima) during annual avian cholera...

Data from: Woodland resilience to regional drought: Dominant controls on tree regeneration following overstorey mortality

Miranda D. Redmond, Peter J. Weisberg, Neil S. Cobb & Michael J. Clifford
Drought events occurring under warmer temperatures (i.e. “hotter droughts”) have resulted in widespread tree mortality across the globe, and may result in biome-level vegetation shifts to alternate vegetation types if there is a failure of trees to regenerate. We investigated how overstorey trees, understorey vegetation, and local climatic and edaphic conditions interact to influence tree regeneration, a key prerequisite for resilience, in a region that has experienced severe overstorey tree mortality due to hotter droughts...

Data from: Linking plant genes to insect communities: identifying the genetic bases of plant traits and community composition

Hilary L. Barker, Jennifer F. Riehl, Carolina Bernhardsson, Kennedy Rubert-Nason, Liza Holeski, Pär K. Ingvarsson & Richard L. Lindroth
Community genetics aims to understand the effects of intraspecific genetic variation on community composition and diversity, thereby connecting community ecology with evolutionary biology. Thus far, research has shown that plant genetics can underlie variation in the composition of associated communities (e.g., insects, lichen, endophytes), and those communities can therefore be considered as extended phenotypes. This work, however, has been conducted primarily at the plant genotype level and has not identified the key underlying genes. To...

Data from: Ectomycorrhizas and tree seedling establishment are strongly influenced by forest edge proximity but not soil inoculum

Sara Grove, Norah P. Saarman, Gregory S. Gilbert, Brant Faircloth, Karen A. Haubensak & Ingrid M. Parker
Reforestation is challenging when timber harvested areas have been degraded, invaded by non-native species, or are of marginal suitability to begin with. Conifers form mutualistic partnerships with ectomycorrhizal fungi (EMF) to obtain greater access to soil resources, and these partnerships may be especially important in degraded areas. However, timber harvest can impact mycorrhizal fungi by removing or compacting topsoil, removing host plants, and warming and drying the soil. We used a field experiment to evaluate...

Data from: A decline in molluscan carbonate production driven by the loss of vegetated habitats encoded in the Holocene sedimentary record of the Gulf of Trieste

Adam Tomasovych, Ivo Gallmetzer, Alexandra Haselmair, Darrell S. Kaufman, Borut Mavric & Martin Zuschin
Carbonate sediments in non-vegetated habitats on the NE Adriatic shelf are dominated by shells of molluscs. However, the rate of carbonate molluscan production prior to the 20th century eutrophication and overfishing on this and other shelves remains unknown because (1) monitoring of ecosystems prior to the 20th century was scarce and (2) ecosystem history inferred from cores is masked by condensation and mixing. Here, based on geochronological dating of four bivalve species, carbonate production during...

Data from: Effects of organism and substrate size on burial mechanics of English sole, Parophrys vetulus

Katherine A. Corn, Stacy C. Farina, Adam P. Summers & Alice C Gibb
Flatfishes use cyclic body undulations to force water into the sediment and fluidize substrate particles, displacing them into the water column. When water velocity decreases, suspended particles settle back onto the fish, hiding it from view. Burial may become more challenging as flatfishes grow because the area to be covered increases exponentially with the second power of length. In addition, particle size is not uniform in naturally occurring substrates, and larger particles require higher water...

Data from: Gene exchange between two divergent species of the fungal human pathogen, Coccidioides

Colin Scott Maxwell, Kathleen Mattox, David A. Turissini, Marcus M. Teixeira, Bridget M. Barker & Daniel Ricardo Matute
The fungal genus Coccidioides is composed of two species, Coccidioides immitis and C. posadasii. These two species are the causal agents of coccidioidomycosis, a pulmonary disease also known as valley fever. The two species are thought to have shared genetic material due to gene exchange in spite of their long divergence. To quantify the magnitude of shared ancestry between them, we analyzed the genomes of a population sample from each species. Next, we inferred what...

Data from: Tracing the footprints of a moving hybrid zone under a demographic history of speciation with gene flow

Mitra Menon, Erin Landguth, Alejandro Leal-Saenz, Justin Bagley, Anna Schoettle, Christian Wehenkel, Lluvia Flores-Renteria, Sam Cushman, Kristen Waring & Andrew Eckert
A lack of optimal gene combinations, as well as low levels of genetic diversity are often associated with the formation of species range margins. Conservation efforts rely on predictive modelling using abiotic variables and assessments of genetic diversity to determine target species and populations for controlled breeding, germplasm conservation and assisted migration. Biotic factors such as interspecific competition and hybridization, however, are largely ignored, despite their prevalence across diverse taxa and their role as key...

Maximum carboxylation rate estimation with chlorophyll content as a proxy of rubisco content

Xuehe Lu, Weimin Ju, Jing Li, Holly Croft, Jing M. Chen, Yiqi Luo, Hua Yu & Haijing Hu
The maximum carboxylation rate (Vcmax) is a key parameter in determining the plant photosynthesis rate per unit leaf area. However, most terrestrial biosphere models currently treat Vcmax as constants changing only with plant functional types, leading to large uncertainties in modelled carbon fluxes. Vcmax is tightly linked with Ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase (Rubisco). Here we investigated the relationship between leaf chlorophyll content and Rubisco (Chl-Rub) within a winter wheat paddock. With chlorophyll as a proxy of Rubisco,...

Frequent burning causes large losses of carbon from deep soil layers in a temperate savanna

Adam Francis Pellegrini, Kendra K. McLauchlan, Sarah E. Hobbie, Michelle C. Mack, Abbey L. Marcotte, David M. Nelson, Steven Perakis, Peter B. Reich & Kyle Whittinghill
1. Fire activity is changing dramatically across the globe, with uncertain effects on ecosystem processes, especially belowground. Fire‐driven losses of soil carbon (C) are often assumed to occur primarily in the upper soil layers because the repeated combustion of aboveground biomass limits organic matter inputs into surface soil. However, C losses from deeper soil may occur if frequent burning reduces root biomass inputs of C into deep soil layers or stimulates losses of C via...

Bedrock weathering controls on terrestrial carbon-nitrogen-climate interactions

Pawlok Dass, Benjamin Houlton, Yingping Wang, David Warlind & Scott Morford
Anthropogenic nitrogen deposition is widely considered to increase CO2 sequestration by land plant communities on a global scale. Here, we suggest that bedrock nitrogen weathering contributes significantly more to nitrogen-carbon interactions than anthropogenic nitrogen deposition. This working hypothesis is based on the application of empirical results into a global biogeochemical simulation model from the mid-1800s to the end of the 21st century. We demonstrate that rock nitrogen inputs have contributed roughly 2 to 11 times...

A revised classification of Glossopetalon (Crossosomataceae) based on restriction site-associated DNA sequencing

Maya Allen & Tina Ayers
Glossopetalon inhabits arid regions in the American west and northern Mexico on limestone substrates. The genus comprises four species: G. clokeyi ; G. pungens ; G. texense ; and G. spinescens . Three of the species are narrow endemics. The fourth, G. spinescens , is a widespread species with six recognized varieties. All six varieties are intricately branched shrubs that have been difficult to identify due to a lack of clearly delineating morphological characters. Characters...

Precipitation manipulation and terrestrial carbon cycle: the roles of treatment magnitude, experimental duration, and background climate

Jinsong Wang, Dashuan Tian, Alan K. Knapp, Han Y. H. Chen, Yiqi Luo, Zhaolei Li, Enqing Hou, Xinzhao Huang, Lifen Jiang & Shuli Niu
Aim: Precipitation manipulation experiments have shown diverse terrestrial carbon (C) cycling responses when the ecosystem is subjected to different magnitudes of altered precipitation, various experimental durations, or heterogeneity in local climates. However, how these factors combine to affect C cycle responses to changes in precipitation remains unclear. Location: Global. Time period: 1990–2019. Major taxa studied: Terrestrial ecosystems. Methods: Using observations from 230 published studies in which precipitation was manipulated and terrestrial C cycling variables were...

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