32 Works

Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi in roots and soil respond differently to biotic and abiotic factors in the Serengeti

Bo Stevens
This study explores the relationships of AM fungal abundance and diversity with biotic (host plant, ungulate grazing) and abiotic (soil properties, precipitation) factors in the Serengeti National Park, Tanzania. Soil and root samples were collected from grazed and ungrazed plots at seven sites across steep soil fertility and precipitation gradients. AM fungal abundance in the soil was estimated from the density of spores and the concentration of a fatty acid biomarker. Diversity of AM fungi...

Allometric modelling of plant biomass from drone-acquired photographs: drone images, ground control marker coordinates and biomass data from 36 sites, 2016-2020

A. Cunliffe, K. Anderson, F. Boschetti, H. Graham, R. Brazier, I. Myers-Smith, T. Astor, M. Boer, L. Calvo, P. Clark, M. Cramer, M. Encinas-Lara, S. Escarzaga, J. Fernández-Guisuraga, A. Fisher, K. Gdulová, B. Gillespie, A. Griebel, N. Hanan, M. Hanggito, S. Haselberger, C. Havrilla, W. Ji, J. Karl, M. Kirchhoff … & R. Wojcikiewicz
This dataset contains RGB photographs acquired from drone surveys. There are 741 harvest plots from 38 surveys at 36 sites around the world. Each site was approximately 1 ha in area. Included with the photographic images are the coordinates of ground control markers, biomass, taxonomic and location data for harvest plots and ancillary metadata. The observations can be used to obtain allometric size-biomass models. This work was supported by the Natural Environment Research Council award...

Genetic data improves niche model discrimination and alters the direction and magnitude of climate change forecasts

Helen Bothwell, Luke Evans, Erika Hersch-Green, Scott Woolbright, Gerard Allan & Thomas Whitham
Ecological niche models (ENMs) have classically operated under the simplifying assumptions that there are no barriers to gene flow, species are genetically homogeneous (i.e., no population-specific local adaptation), and all individuals share the same niche. Yet, these assumptions are violated for most broadly distributed species. Here we incorporate genetic data from the widespread riparian tree species narrowleaf cottonwood (Populus angustifolia) to examine whether including intraspecific genetic variation can alter model performance and predictions of climate...

Data from: Drought mildly reduces plant dominance in a temperate prairie ecosystem across years

Karen Castillioni, Kevin Wilcox, Lifen Jiang, Chang Gyo Jung, Yiqi Luo & Lara Souza
1. Shifts in dominance and species reordering can occur in response to global change. However, it is not clear how altered precipitation and disturbance regimes interact to affect species composition and dominance. 2. We explored community-level diversity and compositional similarity responses, both across and within years, to a manipulated precipitation gradient and annual clipping in a mixed-grass prairie in Oklahoma, USA. We imposed seven precipitation treatments (five water exclusion levels [-20%, -40%, -60%, -80%, and...

Environmental drivers of Sphagnum growth in peatlands across the Holarctic region

Fia Bengtsson, Håkan Rydin, Jennifer Baltzer, Luca Bragazza, Zhao-Jun Bu, Simon Caporn, Ellen Dorrepaal, Kjell Ivar Flatberg, Olga Galanina, Mariusz Gałka, Anna Ganeva, Irina Goia, Nadezhda Goncharova, Michal Hajek, Akira Haraguchi, Lorna Harris, Elyn Humphreys, Martin Jiroušek, Katarzyna Kajukało, Edgar Karofeld, Natalia Koronatova, Natalia Kosykh, Anna Laine, Mariusz Lamentowicz, Elena Lapshina … & Richard J. Payne
The relative importance of global versus local environmental factors for growth and thus carbon uptake of the bryophyte genus Sphagnum – the main peat-former and ecosystem engineer in northern peatlands – remains unclear. 2) We measured length growth and net primary production (NPP) of two abundant Sphagnum species across 99 Holarctic peatlands. We tested the importance of previously proposed abiotic and biotic drivers for peatland carbon uptake (climate, N deposition, water table depth, and vascular...

Data from: The genetic architecture of plant defense tradeoffs in a common monkeyflower

Nicholas Kooyers, Benjamin Blackman, Abigail Donofrio & Liza Holeski
Determining how adaptive combinations of traits arose requires understanding the prevalence and scope of genetic constraints. Frequently observed phenotypic correlations between plant growth, defenses, and/or reproductive timing have led researchers to suggest that pleiotropy or strong genetic linkage between variants affecting independent traits is pervasive. Alternatively, these correlations could arise via independent mutations in different genes for each trait and extensive correlational selection. Here we evaluate these alternatives by conducting a QTL mapping experiment involving...

Vascular plant community data for Northwest Territories, Canada

Jennifer Baltzer, Nicola Day, Alison White, Kirsten Reid, Geneviève Degré-Timmons, Steve Cumming, Michelle Mack, Merritt Turetsky, Xanthe Walker & Jill Johnstone
Climate change is altering disturbance regimes outside of historical norms, which can impact biodiversity by selecting for plants with particular traits. The relative impact of disturbance characteristics on plant traits and community structure may be mediated by environmental gradients. We aimed to understand how wildfire impacted understory plant communities and plant regeneration strategies along gradients of environmental conditions and wildfire characteristics in boreal forests. We established 207 plots (60m2) in recently burned stands and 133...

Data from: Local adaptation and rapid evolution of aphids in response to genetic interactions with their cottonwood hosts

David Smith, Stuart Wooley, Eric Lonsdorf, Sarah Brown, Thomas Whitham, Stephen Shuster & Richard Lindroth
Several studies have demonstrated the ecological consequences of genetic variation within a single plant species. For example, these studies show that individual plant genotypes support unique composition of the plants’ associated arthropod community. By contrast, fewer studies have explored how plant genetic variation may influence evolutionary dynamics in the plant’s associated species. Here, we examine how aphids respond evolutionarily to genetic variation in their host plant. We conducted two experiments to examine local adaptation and...

Predicting tropical tree mortality with leaf spectroscopy

Chris Doughty, Alexander Cheesman, Terhi Ruitta & Andrew Nottingham
Do tropical trees close to death have a distinct change to their leaf spectral signature? Tree mortality rates have been increasing in tropical forests globally, reducing the global carbon sink. Upcoming hyperspectral satellites could be used to predict regions close to experiencing extensive tree mortality during periods of stress, such as drought. Here we show, for a tropical rainforest in Borneo, how imminent tropical tree mortality impacts leaf physiological traits and reflectance. We measured leaf...

Data from: A unified framework for quantifying land carbon sequestration

Yiqi Luo, Yuanyuan Huang, Carlos Sierra & Jianyang Xia
Land ecosystems offer an effective nature-based solution to climate change mitigation by absorbing approximately 30% of anthropically emitted carbon. This absorption is primarily based on constraints from atmospheric and oceanic measurements while quantification from direct studies of the land carbon cycle itself displays great uncertainty. The latter hinders prediction of the future fate of the land carbon sink. Here, we show a unified framework for quantifying land carbon sequestration. The framework unifies all carbon cycle...

Hyperspectral imagery of Pinus strobiformis infected with fungal pathogen

Marja Haagsma, Gerald F. M. Page & Jeremy S. Johnson
Hyperspectral images were taken from March till October, 2018, of southwestern white pine (Pinus strobiformis), SWWP, seedlings of ten different seed-source families. Half of the seedlings were inoculated with white pine blister rust (Cronartium ribicola). Visual assessments of vigor coincided with hyperspectral data acquisition. The aim of the experiment was to use hyperspectral data to automaticaly and objectively identify infection and degree of infection in SWWP seedlings. Moreover, we developed and evaluated a feature importance...

The last pteraspids (Agnatha, Heterostraci): New material from the Middle Devonian of Alberta and Idaho

David Elliott, Linda Sue Lassiter & Kathryn Geyer
This report documents the last pteraspids, (armored, jawless members of the Heterostraci), which are otherwise only known from the Early Devonian of the Old Red Sandstone Continent. Tuberculate pteraspid heterostracans are described from the Middle Devonian beds of two formations in western North America. The late Givetian Yahatinda Formation of Alberta and British Columbia consists of channels cut into lower Paleozoic rocks and represents deposition in marine to littoral environments. Clavulaspis finis new genus new...

Data from: Megafauna decline have reduced pathogen dispersal which may have increased emergent infectious diseases

Chris Doughty, Tomos Prys-Jones, Soren Faurby, Crystal Hepp, Viacheslav Fofanov, Andrew Abraham, Victor Leshyk, Nathan Nieto, Jens-Christian Svenning & Mauro Galetti
The Late Quaternary extinctions of megafauna (defined as animal species > 44.5 kg) reduced the dispersal of seeds and nutrients, and likely also microbes and parasites. Here we use body-mass based scaling and range maps for extinct and extant mammal species to show that these extinctions led to an almost seven-fold reduction in the movement of gut-transported microbes, such as Escherichia coli (3.3–0.5 km 2 d − 1 ). Similarly, the extinctions led to a...

Identifying functional impacts of heat-resistant fungi on boreal forest recovery after wildfire

Nicola Day, Steve Cumming, Kari Dunfield, Jill Johnstone, Michelle Mack, Kirsten Reid, Merritt Turetsky, Xanthe Walker & Jennifer Baltzer
Fungi play key roles in carbon (C) dynamics of ecosystems: saprotrophs decompose organic material and return C in the nutrient cycle, and mycorrhizal species support plants that accumulate C through photosynthesis. The identities and functions of extremophile fungi present after fire can influence C dynamics, particularly because plant-fungal relationships are often species-specific. However, little is known about the function and distribution of fungi that survive fires. We aim to assess the distribution of heat-resistant soil...

Rainfall continentality, via the winter GAMS angle, provides a new dimension to biogeographical distributions in the Western United States

Richard Michalet, Philippe Choler, Ragan M. Callaway & Thomas G. Whitham
Aim: Drought stress, and its effects on the biogeography of vegetation, has focused primarily on water availability during the growing season, thus focusing primarly on summer. However, variation in rainfall continentality (i.e., the continental interior being insulated from oceanic influences) can produce striking vegetation differences. We aim to disentangle summer water balance from the influence of rainfall continentality on winter rainfall, to better understand how climate regulated the distributions of woody plants in the Western...

Microbial community structure across grazing treatments and environmental gradients in the Serengeti

Bo Stevens, Derek Sonderegger & Nancy Johnson
Field-based observational research is the first step in understanding the factors that structure microbial communities and generate biogeography of soil microbes. As one of the last remaining naturally grazed ecosystems on Earth, the Serengeti National Park in Tanzania is an ideal location to study the influence of large migratory mammals on microbial communities. Also, active volcanoes generate strong environmental gradients due to ash deposition and a rain shadow. We used 16S rRNA amplicons to characterize...

Data from: Climate and vegetation structure shape ant communities along elevational gradients on the Colorado Plateau

Derek Uhey & Richard Hofstetter
Aim: Terrestrial animal communities are largely shaped by vegetation and climate. With climate also shaping vegetation, can we attribute animal patterns solely to climate? To understand this, we compare the relative and interactive effects of climate and vegetation on an animal community. Our study observes ant community changes along climatic gradients (i.e. elevational gradients) within different habitat types (i.e. open and forest). We compare the explanatory powers and effect sizes of climate and vegetation variables...

Andreanoff Active-Source OBS Experiment

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This is an active-source experiment support by OBSIC. Short-period OBS will be deployed along one strike-line just north of the Aleutians, and two dip lines that cross the Aleutian Arc. The shooting ship will be the R/V Marcus Langseth. The majority of OBS will be equipped with a 3-component geophone (4.5 Hz resonant frequency) and a hydrophone. Some stations deployed in the Aleutians Trench where water depths exceed ~5000 m will be moored above the...

Priority determines tribolium competitive outcome in a food-limited environment

Aaron Smith & Zane Holditch
Flour beetles are a classic model system for studying competitive dynamics between species occupying the same ecological niche. Competitive performance is often interpreted in terms of biological species traits such as fecundity, resource use, and predation. However, many studies only measure competitive ability when species enter an environment simultaneously, and thus do not consider how the relative timing of species’ arrival may determine competitive outcome (i.e., priority effects). Whether priority effects may influence competition in...

Adaptive trait syndromes along multiple economic spectra define cold and warm adapted ecotypes in a widely distributed foundation tree species

Davis Blasini, Dan Koepke, Kevin Grady, Gerard Allan, Catherine Gehring, Samuel A. Cushman, Thomas Whitham & Kevin Hultine
1. The coordination of traits from individual organs to whole plants is under strong selection because of environmental constraints on resource acquisition and use. However, the tight coordination of traits may provide underlying mechanisms of how locally adapted plant populations can become maladapted because of climate change. 2. To better understand local adaptation in intraspecific trait coordination, we studied trait variability in the widely distributed foundation tree species, Populus fremontii using a common garden near...

Data from: Addition of nitrogen to canopy versus understory has different effects on leaf traits of understory plants in a subtropical evergreen broad–leaved forest

Songbo Tang, Lingling Zhang, Hans Lambers, Wendan Ren, Xiaofei Lu, Enqing Hou, Shenglei Fu & Yuanwen Kuang
Atmospheric nitrogen (N) deposition has substantial effects on forest ecosystems. The effects of N deposition on understory plants have been simulated by spraying N on the forest floor. Such understory addition of N (UAN) might simulate atmospheric N deposition in a biased manner, because it bypasses the canopy. We compared the effects of UAN and canopy addition of N (CAN) at 0, 25, and 50 kg N ha–1 year–1 on specific leaf area (SLA), leaf...

Thoracic gas compression during forced expiration is greater in men than women

Elizabeth Gideon, Troy Cross, Brooke Cayo, Aaron Betts, Dallin Merrell, Catherine Coriell, Lauren Hays & Joseph Duke
Intrapleural pressure during a forced vital capacity (VC) manoeuvre is often in excess of that required to generate maximal expiratory airflow. This excess pressure compresses alveolar gas (i.e., thoracic gas compression; TGC), resulting in underestimated forced expiratory flows (FEFs) at a given lung volume. It is unknown if TGC is influenced by sex; however, because men have larger lungs and stronger respiratory muscles, we hypothesized that men would have greater TGC. We examined TGC across...

Data from: A changing climate is snuffing out post-fire recovery in montane forests

Kyle Rodman, Thomas Veblen, Mike Battaglia, Marin Chambers, Paula Fornwalt, Zachary Holden, Thomas Kolb, Jessica Ouzts & Monica Rother
Aim: Climate warming is increasing fire activity in many of Earth’s forested ecosystems. Because fire is an important catalyst for change, investigation of post-fire vegetation response is crucial for understanding the potential for future conversions from forest to non-forest vegetation types. To better understand effects of wildfire and climate warming on forest recovery, we assessed the extent to which climate and terrain influence spatiotemporal variation in past and future post-fire tree regeneration. Location: Montane forests,...

Gross primary production responses to warming, elevated CO2 , and irrigation: quantifying the drivers of ecosystem physiology in a semiarid grassland

Elise Pendall, Edmund M. Ryan, Kiona Ogle, Drew Peltier, David G. Williams, Anthony P. Walker, Martin G. De Kauwe, Belinda E. Medlyn, William Parton, Shinichi Asao, Bertrand Guenet, Anna B. Harper, Xingjie Lu, Kristina A. Luus, Sönke Zaehle, Shijie Shu, Christian Werner & Jianyang Xia
Determining whether the terrestrial biosphere will be a source or sink of carbon (C) under a future climate of elevated CO2 (eCO2) and warming requires accurate quantification of gross primary production (GPP), the largest flux of C in the global C cycle. We evaluated 6 years (2007–2012) of flux‐derived GPP data from the Prairie Heating and CO2 Enrichment (PHACE) experiment, situated in a grassland in Wyoming, USA. The GPP data were used to calibrate a...

Estimating social-ecological resilience: fire management futures in the Sonoran Desert

Clare Aslan, Manette Sandor, Martha Sample, Sasha Stortz, Sara Souther, Carrie Levine, Leah Samberg, Miranda Gray & Brett Dickson
Resilience quantifies the ability of a system to remain in or return to its current state following disturbance. Due to inconsistent terminology and usage of resilience frameworks, quantitative resilience studies are challenging, and resilience is often treated as an abstract concept rather than a measurable system characteristic. We used a novel, spatially-explicit stakeholder engagement process to quantify social-ecological resilience to fire, in light of modeled social-ecological fire risk, across the non-fire-adapted Sonoran Desert Ecosystem in...

Registration Year

  • 2020
    32

Resource Types

  • Dataset
    32

Affiliations

  • Northern Arizona University
    31
  • Wilfrid Laurier University
    3
  • University of Wyoming
    2
  • University of Edinburgh
    2
  • Auckland University of Technology
    2
  • CSIRO Ocean and Atmosphere
    2
  • University of Oklahoma
    2
  • University of Colorado Boulder
    2
  • United States Geological Survey
    2
  • Colorado State University
    2