Spatial patterns and ecological drivers of soil nematode β-diversity in natural grasslands vary among vegetation types and trophic positionDan Xiong, Cunzheng Wei, Xugao Wang, Xiaotao Lü, Shuai Fang, Yingbin Li, Xiaobo Wang, Wenju Liang, Xingguo Han, T. Martijn Bezemer & Qi Li
1. Understanding biogeographic patterns of community assemblages is a core objective in ecology, but for soil communities these patterns are poorly understood. To understand the spatial patterns and underlying mechanisms of β-diversity in soil communities, we investigated the β-diversity of soil nematode communities along a 3200 km transect across semi-arid and arid grasslands. 2. Spatial turnover and nested-resultant are the two fundamental components of β-diversity, which have been attributed to various processes of community assembly....
A matter of time: Recovery of plant species diversity in wild plant communities at declining nitrogen depositionFrank Berendse, Rob Geerts, Wim Elberse, Martijn Bezemer, Paul Goedhart, Wei Xue, Erik Noordijk, Cajo Ter Braak & Hein Korevaar
Aim: High levels of nitrogen deposition have been responsible for important losses of plant species diversity. It is often assumed that reduction of ammonia and nitrogen oxide emissions will result in the recovery of the former biodiversity. In Western Europe N deposition peaked between 1980 and 1988 and declined thereafter. In a 60-year experiment in hay meadows we tested the hypothesis that increasing and declining nitrogen deposition had negative, respectively, positive effects on plant species...
Plant-soil feedbacks are shaped by microbial legacies that plants leave in the soil. We tested the persistence of these legacies after subsequent colonization by the same or other plant species. Soil fungal legacies were detectable for months, but the current plant effect on fungi amplified in time. Contrary, in bacterial communities, legacies faded away rapidly and bacteria communities were influenced strongly by the current plant. However, both fungal and bacterial legacies were conserved inside the...
There is an ongoing unprecedented loss in insects, both in terms of richness and biomass. The usage of pesticides, especially neonicotinoid insecticides, has been widely suggested to be a contributor to this decline. However, the risks of neonicotinoids to natural insect populations have remained largely unknown due to lack of field-realistic experiments. Here, we used an outdoor experiment to determine effects of field-realistic concentrations of the commonly applied neonicotinoid thiacloprid on the emergence of naturally...
It is increasingly evident that plants interact with their outside world through the production of volatile organic compounds, but whether the volatiles have evolved to serve in plant defense is still a topic of considerable debate. Unharmed leaves constitutively release small amounts of volatiles, but when the leaves are damaged by herbivorous arthropods, they emit substantially more volatiles. These herbivore-induced plant volatiles (HIPVs) attract parasitoids and predators that kill insect herbivores, and this can benefit...
Plant-soil feedbacks (PSF) and functional traits are two active but not well theoretically integrated areas of research. However, PSF and traits are both affected by life history evolution, so the two should theoretically be related. We provide a conceptual framework to link plant functional traits to two types of PSF metrics, and hypothesize that individual PSF (plant performance in conspecific versus heterospecific soil) should be related to the fast-slow trait spectrum, while pairwise PSF (the...
Timing of increased temperature sensitivity coincides with nervous system development in winter moth embryosNatalie Van Dis, Maurijn Van Der Zee, Roelof Hut, Bregje Wertheim & Marcel Visser
Climate change is rapidly altering the environment and many species will need to genetically adapt their seasonal timing to keep up with these changes. Insect development rate is largely influenced by temperature, but we know little about the mechanisms underlying temperature sensitivity of development. Here we investigate seasonal timing of egg hatching in the winter moth, one of the few species which has been found to genetically adapt to climate change, likely through selection on...
Canopy disturbance explains liana abundance and distribution within tropical forests and thus may also explain the widespread pattern of increasing liana abundance; however, this hypothesis remains untested. We used a 10-year study (2007 – 2017) of 117,100 rooted lianas in an old-growth Panamanian forest to test whether local canopy disturbance explains increasing liana abundance. We found that liana density increased 29.2% and basal area 12.5%. The vast majority of these increases were associated with clonal...
Next-generation phylogeography of the banded newts (Ommatotriton): A phylogenetic hypothesis for three ancient species with geographically restricted interspecific gene flow and deep intraspecific genetic structureIsolde Van Riemsdijk, J. W. Arntzen, Wiesław Babik, Sergé Bogaerts, Michael Franzen, Konstantinos Kalaentzis, Spartak N. Litvinchuk, Kurtuluş Olgun, Jan Willem P.M. Wijnands & Ben Wielstra
Technological developments now make it possible to employ many markers for many individuals in a phylogeographic setting, even for taxa with large and complex genomes such as salamanders. The banded newt (genus Ommatotriton) from the Near East has been proposed to contain three species (O. nesterovi, O. ophryticus and O. vittatus) with unclear phylogenetic relationships, apparently limited interspecific gene flow and deep intraspecific geographic mtDNA structure. We use parallel tagged amplicon sequencing to obtain 177...
The geoglyphs of Palpa, Peru is a revision of the author´s Ph.D. thesis. In this study, the famed geoglyphs of the Paracas and Nasca cultures on the south coast of Peru are investigated in order to better understand their function and meaning. Combining aerial photogrammetry, archaeological fieldwork, and GIS-based analysis, more than 600 geoglyphs in the vicinity of the modern town of Palpa were recorded and analyzed. This interdisciplinary approach enabled the establishment of the...
Nederlands Instituut voor Ecologie2
Sun Yat-sen University1
Utah State University1
University of Neuchâtel1
University of Groningen1
National Institute for Public Health and the Environment1
King's College London1
Universiteit Leiden, Faculteit der Archeologie1