187 Works

Recorded Cybercrime and Fraud Trends in UK during COVID-19

David Buil-Gil, Asier Moneva, Steven Kemp, Nacho Díaz-CAstaño & Fernando Miró-Llinares

Mechanical characterization of millimetric agarose spheres using a resonant technique

J. Yescas, P. Mandal, J. Sinha, R. Snook, J. Hawkes, P. Moreno Garibaldi & R. Carrera-Espinoza
This paper presents a methodology for the mechanical characterization of agarose millimetric spheres using resonant principles. Detection of the modes of vibration was conducted using a low-cost experimental setup based on an electret microphone adapted with a thin latex elastic membrane for the sensing stage and a piezoelectric actuator driven by a conventional transformer for the excitation stage. The identification of vibration modes is supported through an ANSYS Finite Element model of the experimental setup....

Coding Demonstrations: Programming for Social Science Research

Diarmuid McDonnell & Julia Kasmire
Computational methods for collecting, cleaning and analysing data are an increasingly important component of a social scientist’s toolkit. Central to engaging in these methods is the ability to write readable and effective code using a programming language.

Ageing, Well-being and Development Project 2002, 2008

Armando Barrientos & Peter Lloyd-Sherlock

Drillcore GT1 of the ICDP Oman Drilling Project: insights into magmatic processes beneath fast-spreading mid-ocean ridges

Dominik Mock, Benoit Ildefonse, Dieter Garbe-Schönberg, Samuel Müller, David Axford-Neave, Jürgen Koepke & Diverse Science Team
The Samail ophiolite in Oman provides an ideal field laboratory for investigating the processes taking place beneath fast-spreading mid-ocean ridges (MORs). Drill site GT1, which was sampled by the Oman Drilling Project in the frame of the International Continental Scientific Drilling Program (ICDP), is located in Wadi Gideah (Wadi Tayin massif). Here, a reference profile through the entire Oman paleocrust was established [1] such that GT1 can be embedded into the surface profile. The core...

Total carbon and nitrogen stocks across a land use gradient on Salisbury Plain in June 2014

E.L. Fry, J. Savage, W.J. Pritchard, R.D. Bardgett, R.F. Pywell & J.M. Bullock
This dataset contains carbon and nitrogen stock data from soils collected from Salisbury Plain, UK. The sites were selected to reflect the four main grassland management types on Salisbury Plain ranging from arable cropland to species rich grassland, with six representative grassland plots for each type (24 sites in total). Each site had two replicates for each variable measured. The data collected was intended to illustrate a gradient of ecosystem functioning and vegetation change as...

Ecosystem function and vegetation data from a land use gradient on Salisbury Plain in June 2014

E.L. Fry, J. Savage, W.J. Pritchard, R.D. Bardgett, N. Ostle, R.F. Pywell & J.M. Bullock
This dataset contains ecosystem function and vegetation survey data from soils collected from Salisbury Plain, UK. The sites were selected to reflect the four main grassland management types on Salisbury Plain ranging from arable cropland to species rich grassland, with six representative grassland plots for each type (24 sites in total). Each site had four replicates for each variable measured. The data collected was intended to illustrate a gradient of ecosystem functioning and vegetation change...

Atmospheric gas and vegetation survey data from Winklebury Hill, UK, in 2014

E.L. Fry, A.L. Hall, J. Savage, R.D. Bardgett, N. Ostle, R.F. Pywell, J.M. Bullock & S. Oakley
This dataset contains greenhouse gas flux data and vegetation survey data from an experiment based at Winklebury Hill, UK. The vegetation survey comprises total species percentage cover and species richness data from four 50 cm by 50 cm quadrats. The greenhouse gas flux data comprises net ecosystem carbon dioxide exchange, photosynthesis and respiration data measured with an Infra-red Gas Analyser (IRGA); methane, carbon dioxide and nitrous oxide data measured using gas chromatography; and nitrate and...

Soil nutrient data from Winklebury Hill, UK, in 2014

E.L. Fry, A.L. Hall, J. Savage, R.D. Bardgett, N. Ostle, R.F. Pywell, J.M. Bullock & S. Oakley
This dataset contains nutrient data from soils and microbial biomass in soils from an experiment based at Winklebury Hill, UK. The experiment used seeds and plug plants to create different plant communities on the bare chalk on Winklebury Hill and tested the resulting carbon and nutrient cycling rates and compared these to the characteristics of different plant functional groups. The experiment ran from 2013 to 2016 and this dataset contains data from 2014 only. This...

Corine land cover changes between 2012 and 2018 for the UK, Isle of Man, Jersey and Guernsey

B. Cole, B. De La Barreda, A. Hamer, T. Codd, M. Payne, L. Chan, G. Smith & H. Balzter
This dataset is the Corine Land Cover (CLC) change map between 2012 and 2018, consisting of 44 classes in the hierarchical three level Corine nomenclature. The Corine land cover changes between 2012 and 2018 for the UK, Isle of Man, Jersey and Guernsey dataset forms part of the Corine Land Cover Maps collection and is produced within the frame of the Copernicus programme on land monitoring. Corine Land Cover (CLC) provides consistent information on land...

Data from: Relationships between plant traits, soil properties and carbon fluxes differ between monocultures and mixed communities in temperate grassland

Jonathan R. De Long, Benjamin G. Jackson, Anna Wilkinson, William J. Pritchard, Simon Oakley, Kelly E. Mason, Jörg G. Stephan, Nicholas J. Ostle, David Johnson, Elizabeth M. Baggs & Richard D. Bardgett
1. The use of plant traits to predict ecosystem functions has been gaining growing attention. Aboveground plant traits, such as leaf nitrogen (N) content and specific leaf area (SLA), have been shown to strongly relate to ecosystem productivity, respiration, and nutrient cycling. Further, increasing plant functional trait diversity has been suggested as a possible mechanism to increase ecosystem carbon (C) storage. However, it is uncertain whether belowground plant traits can be predicted by aboveground traits,...

Data from: Repeated land mass reformation limits diversification in the widespread littoral zone mosquito Anopheles sundaicus sensu lato in the Indo-Oriental Region

Magdalena Zarowiecki, Yvonne-Marie Linton, Rory J. Post, Michael J. Bangs, Pe Than Htun, Thaung Hlaing, Chang Moh Seng, Visut Baimai, Trung Ho Ding, Tho Sochantha & Catherine Walton
Southeast Asia harbours abundant biodiversity, hypothesized to have been generated by Pliocene and Pleistocene climatic and environmental change. Vicariance between the island of Borneo, the remaining Indonesian archipelago and mainland Southeast Asia caused by elevated sea levels during interglacial periods has been proposed to lead to diversification in the littoral zone mosquito Anopheles (Cellia) sundaicus (Rodenwaldt) sensu lato. To test this biogeographical hypothesis, we inferred the population history and assessed gene flow of A. sundaicus...

Data from: Large brains and groups associated with high rates of agonism in primates

Veronica B. Cowl & Susanne Shultz
Animals living in social groups will almost inevitably experience competition for limited resources. One consequence of competition can be agonism, an activity that is not only costly to participate in at the individual level but potentially also at the group level due the detrimental effects that agonism can have on group stability and cohesion. Agonism rates across primate species have previously been associated with group size and terrestriality; therefore primates, particularly those in large groups,...

Data from: Finite element modelling vs. classic beam theory: comparing methods for stress estimation in a morphologically diverse sample of vertebrate long bones

Charlotte A. Brassey, Lee Margetts, Andrew C. Kitchener, Philip J. Withers, Phillip L. Manning & William I. Sellers
Classic beam theory is frequently employed in biomechanics to model the stress behaviour of vertebrate long bones, particularly when creating intraspecific scaling models. Although methodologically straightforward, classic beam theory requires complex irregular bones to be approximated as slender beams, and the errors associated with simplifying complex organic structures to such an extent are unknown. Alternative approaches, such as Finite Element Analysis (FEA), whilst much more time-consuming to perform, require no such assumptions. This paper compares...

Data from: Soil biota and chemical interactions promote co-existence in co-evolved grassland communities

Marina Semchenko, Siim Nettan, Anette Sepp, Qiaoying Zhang, Maria Abakumova, John Davison, Rein Kalamees, Anu Lepik, Kersti Püssa, Sirgi Saar, Merilin Saarma, Marge Thetloff & Kristjan Zobel
1. Plant populations can exhibit local adaptation to their abiotic environment, such as climate and soil properties, as well as biotic components such as the chemical signatures of dominant plant species and mutualistic and pathogenic microbial populations. While patterns of local adaptation in individual species are widely recorded, the importance of microevolutionary processes for plant community assembly and function is poorly understood. 2. Here we examined how a history of long-term co-existence, and thus potential...

Assigning occurrence data to cryptic taxa improves climatic niche assessments: biodecrypt, a new tool tested on European butterflies

Leonardo Dapporto, Platania Leonardo, Mattia Menchetti, Cecília Corbella, Isaac Kay-Lavelle, Roger Vila, Martin Wiemers & Oliver Schweiger
Aim Occurrence data are fundamental to macroecology, but accuracy is often compromised when multiple units are lumped together (e.g. in recently separated cryptic species or citizen science records). Using amalgamated data leads to inaccuracy in species mapping, to biased beta-diversity assessments and to potentially erroneously predicted responses to climate change. We provide a set of R functions (biodecrypt) to objectively attribute undetermined occurrences to the most probable taxon based on a subset of identified records....

The effect of parasite dose on disease severity in the rodent malaria Plasmodium chabaudi

Andrew Read, Nick Colegrave, Brian Chan & Rebecca Tims
Experiments were designed to look at the relationship between infective dose and disease severity using two clones of Plasmodium chabaudi that differ in virulence. We asked whether there were dose–severity relationships, whether clone differences in virulence were maintained over a range of doses, and whether disease severity could be accounted for by parasite dynamics. Groups of mice were infected with parasite doses differing by an order of magnitude, ranging from 100 to 1×108 parasites. Infective...

Adaptation at different points along antibiotic concentration gradients

Mato Lagator, Hildegard Uecker & Paul Neve
Antibiotic concentrations vary dramatically in the body and the environment. Hence, understanding the dynamics of resistance evolution along antibiotic concentration gradients is critical for predicting and slowing the emergence and spread of resistance. While it has been shown that increasing the concentration of an antibiotic slows resistance evolution, how adaptation to one antibiotic concentration correlates with fitness at other points along the gradient has not received much attention. Here, we selected populations of Escherichia coli...

Turning turtle: Scaling relationships and self-righting ability in Chelydra serpentina

Jonathan Codd
Testudines are susceptible to inversion and self-right using their necks, limbs, or both, to generate enough mechanical force to flip over. We investigated how shell morphology, neck length, and self-righting biomechanics scale with body mass during ontogeny in Chelydra serpentina, which uses neck-powered self-righting. We found that younger turtles flipped over twice as fast as older individuals. A simple geometric model predicted the relationships of shell shape and self-righting time with body mass. Conversely, neck...

Tripartite symbioses regulate plant-soil feedback in alder

Agnes Ardanuy, Jennifer KM Walker, Ully Kritzler, Andy FS Taylor & David Johnson
• Plant-soil feedbacks regulate plant productivity and diversity, but potential mechanisms underpinning such feedbacks, such as the allocation of recent plant assimilate, remain largely untested especially for plants forming tripartite symbioses. • We tested how soils from under alder (Alnus glutinosa) and beneath other species of the same and different families affected alder growth and nutrition, and colonisation of roots by nitrogen-fixing Frankia bacteria and ectomycorrhizal fungi. We also measured how the soil environment affected...

The release of inertial instability near an idealized zonal jet

Callum Thompson & David M. Schultz
Inertial instability is a hydrodynamic instability that occurs in strong anticyclonic flow and is typically diagnosed by negative absolute vorticity in the Northern Hemisphere. As such, inertial instability is often observed on the anticyclonic-shear side of jet streams, yet the release of the instability in this environment is still poorly understood. We simulate the release of inertial instability near an idealized midlatitude zonal jet compared a control simulation with no instability. We find that the...

Financing Community Energy Case Studies : Green Energy Mull

Iain Cairns, Matthew Hannon, Timothy Braunholtz-Speight, Jeffrey Hardy, Carly McLachlan, Sarah Mander, Edward Manderson & Maria Sharmina
This report presents the second of four case studies of UK community energy organisations conducted during 2018/19. These will later be included as part of a synthesis briefing alongside a series of sector-level interviews. The case study makes use of a combination of qualitative (e.g. interviews, organisation reports) and quantitative (e.g. financial reports) data. Summary of key lessons: Government subsidy is the cornerstone to securing both community and private finance. By providing a substantial long-term...

Data from: A new family of Cambrian rhynchonelliformean brachiopods (Order Naukatida) with an aberrant coral-like morphology

Michael Streng, Aodhán D. Butler, John S. Peel, Russell J. Garwood & Jean-Bernard Caron
Tomteluva perturbata gen. et sp. nov. and Nasakia thulensis gen. et sp. nov., two new rhynchonelliformean brachiopod taxa, are described from carbonate beds from the lower middle Cambrian (Series 3, Stage 5) basinal Stephen Formation, Canada, and the upper lower Cambrian (Series 2, Stage 4) Henson Gletscher Formation, North Greenland, respectively. The two taxa are characterized by an unusual coral-like morphology typified by a high conical ventral valve with an anteriorly curved umbo and a...

Data from: A cross-lingual similarity measure for detecting biomedical term translations

Danushka Bollegala, Georgios Kontonatsios & Sophia Ananiadou
Bilingual dictionaries for technical terms such as biomedical terms are an important resource for machine translation systems as well as for humans who would like to understand a concept described in a foreign language. Often a biomedical term is first proposed in English and later it is manually translated to other languages. Despite the fact that there are large monolingual lexicons of biomedical terms, only a fraction of those term lexicons are translated to other...

Data from: REvoSim: organism-level simulation of macro and microevolution

Russell J. Garwood, Alan R. T. Spencer & Mark D. Sutton
Macroevolutionary processes dictate the generation and loss of biodiversity. Understanding them is a key challenge when interrogating the earth-life system in deep time. Model-based approaches can reveal important macroevolutionary patterns, and generate hypotheses on the underlying processes. Here we present and document a novel model called REvoSim (Rapid Evolutionary Simulator) coupled with a software implementation of this model. The latter is available here as both source code (C++/Qt, GNU General Public License), and as distributables...

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  • University of Manchester
  • Lancaster University
  • Centre for Ecology & Hydrology
  • University of Bristol
  • Imperial College London
  • University of Edinburgh
  • University of Liverpool
  • University of Oxford
  • University of Pennsylvania
  • University of Bath