156 Works

Data from: Drought soil legacy overrides maternal effects on plant growth

Jonathan R. De Long, Marina Semchenko, William J. Pritchard, Irene Cordero, Ellen L. Fry, Benjamin G. Jackson, Ksenia Kurnosova, Nicholas J. Ostle, David Johnson, Elizabeth M. Baggs & Richard D. Bardgett
1.Maternal effects (i.e., trans‐generational plasticity) and soil legacies generated by drought and plant diversity can affect plant performance and alter nutrient cycling and plant community dynamics. However, the relative importance and combined effects of these factors on plant growth dynamics remain poorly understood. 2.We used soil and seeds from an existing plant diversity and drought manipulation field experiment in temperate grassland to test maternal, soil drought and diversity legacy effects, and their interactions, on offspring...

Data from: Two new species of Ichthyosaurus from the lowermost Jurassic (Hettangian) of Somerset, England

Dean R. Lomax & Judy A. Massare
All specimens of Ichthyosaurus from the Lower Jurassic of Somerset were previously identified as I. communis, an abundant and extremely variable species. Here, two new species of Ichthyosaurus are recognized from multiple specimens. The species are assigned to Ichthyosaurus on the basis of the humerus, pectoral girdle and forefin morphologies. I. larkini sp. nov. is distinguished by a broad jugal with a blunt anterior end that extends as far forward as the middle of the...

Data from: A predation cost to bold fish in the wild

Kaj Hulthén, Ben B. Chapman, P. Anders Nilsson, Lars-Anders Hansson, Christian Skov, Jakob Brodersen, Jerker Vinterstare & Christer Brönmark
Studies of predator-mediated selection on behaviour are critical for our understanding of the evolution and maintenance of behavioural diversity in natural populations. Consistent individual differences in prey behaviour, especially in the propensity to take risks (“boldness”), are widespread in the animal kingdom. Theory predicts that individual behavioural types differ in a cost-benefit trade-off where bolder individuals benefit from greater access to resources while paying higher predation-risk costs. However, explicitly linking predation events to individual behaviour...

Data from: Coordinated responses of soil communities to elevation in three subarctic vegetation types

G. F. Ciska Veen, Jonathan R. De Long, Paul Kardol, Maja K. Sundqvist, L. Basten Snoek & David A. Wardle
Global warming has begun to have a major impact on the species composition and functioning of plant and soil communities. However, long-term community and ecosystem responses to increased temperature are still poorly understood. In this study, we used a well-established elevational gradient in northern Sweden to elucidate how plant, microbial and nematode communities shift with elevation and associated changes in temperature in three highly contrasting vegetation types (i.e. heath, meadow and Salix vegetation). We found...

Growth, biomass allocation and tissue nutrient concentrations of subtropical and tropical tree seedlings in response to experimental manipulation of soil phosphorus pools

D Burslem, X. Liu, D. Johnson, A. Taylor, J. Taylor, T. Helgason, Y. Chen & M. Liang
This dataset reports metrics of plant growth, including height, total biomass and the biomass of component plant parts, and percentage root colonisation by mycorrhizas, for tree seedlings of eight tropical and seven subtropical growing in pots of soil that had been amended by addition of various sources of phosphorus (inorganic phosphate, adenosine monophosphate, phytic, or a mixture of all three) plus an unfertilized control treatment with no P additions. The aim of the experiment was...

Evolution of ecospace occupancy by Mesozoic marine tetrapods

Jane C. Reeves, Benjamin C. Moon, Michael J. Benton & Thomas L. Stubbs
Ecology and morphology are different, and yet in comparative studies of fossil vertebrates the two are often conflated. The macroevolution of Mesozoic marine tetrapods has been explored in terms of morphological disparity, but less commonly using ecological-functional categories. Here we use ecospace modelling to quantify ecological disparity across all Mesozoic marine tetrapods. We document the explosive radiation of marine tetrapod groups in the Triassic and their rapid attainment of high ecological disparity. Late Triassic extinctions...

Digital 3D models and measurements of avian brain cavity, blood vessel and nerve endocasts

S. A. Walsh, A. N. Iwaniuk, M. A. Knoll, E. Bourdon, P. M. Barrett, A. Milner, R. Nudds, R. L. Abel & P. Dello Sterpaio
This dataset comprises cast reconstructions of brain cavity space in 60 extant avian species, derived from X-ray micro computed-tomography scan image stacks. Each reconstruction was made using Materialise Mimics 14.11 to create volumetric models (brain cavity casts) that were then transformed into the polygon mesh stereolithograph (STL) files archived here. Brain cavity cast models are in most cases accompanied by casts of main vascular features (e.g., carotid arteries) and the olfactory nerves (CN I). A...

Data from: Context-dependent consequences of colour biases in a social fish

Brett Culbert, Sanduni Talagala, Emily Stanbrook, Parker Smale, Sigal Balshine & James Barnett
Colourful visual signals can provide receivers with valuable information about food, danger, and the quality of social partners. However, the value of the information that colour provides varies depending on the situation, and colour may even act as a sensory trap where signals that evolved under one context are exploited in another. Despite some elegant early work on colour as a sensory trap, few empirical studies have examined how colour biases may vary depending on...

Ecosystem functions and vegetation data for Winklebury Hill, Salisbury Plain, UK 2016

E.L. Fry, A.L. Hall, J. Savage, R.D. Bardgett, N. Ostle, R.F. Pywell, J.M. Bullock, S. Oakley, R. Griffiths, R. McDonald, T. Caruso & M. Ilardi
This dataset contains vegetation survey data, and nitrate and ammonium concentrations, nitrification and mineralisation rates, microbial biomass and carbon and nitrogen stock data from soils taken from an experiment based at Winklebury Hill, UK. The vegetation survey comprises total species percentage cover and species richness data from four 50 cm by 50 cm quadrats. Net ecosystem carbon dioxide exchange, photosynthesis and respiration data were measured with an Infra-red Gas Analyser (IRGA); methane, carbon dioxide and...

Data from: A test of the hierarchical model of litter decomposition

Mark A. Bradford, G. F. Veen, Anne Bonis, Ella M. Bradford, Aimee T. Classen, J. Hans C. Cornelissen, Thomas W. Crowther, Jonathan R. De Long, Gregoire T. Freschet, Paul Kardol, Marta Manrubia-Freixa, Daniel S. Maynard, Gregory S. Newman, Richard S. P. Van Logtestijn, Maria Viketoft, David A. Wardle, William R. Wieder, Stephen A. Wood & Wim H. Van Der Putten
Our basic understanding of plant litter decomposition informs the assumptions underlying widely applied soil biogeochemical models, including those embedded in Earth system models. Confidence in projected carbon cycle-climate feedbacks therefore depends on accurate knowledge about the controls regulating the rate at which plant biomass is decomposed into products such as CO2. Here, we test underlying assumptions of the dominant conceptual model of litter decomposition. The model posits that a primary control on the rate of...

Data from: Does postcranial palaeoneurology provide insight into pterosaur behaviour and lifestyle? New data from the azhdarchoid Vectidraco and the ornithocheirids Coloborhynchus and Anhanguera

Elizabeth Martin-Silverstone, Daniel Sykes & Darren Naish
The postcranial palaeoneurology of fossil reptiles is understudied, and those studies that exist focus predominantly on crocodyliforms and dinosaurs. The intervertebral foramina of the spine house nerves that exit to innervate surrounding tissues and the extremities. In the heavily fused (and typically distorted or poorly preserved) pterosaurian sacrum, intervertebral foramina can be difficult to observe and are rarely identified. The Early Cretaceous azhdarchoid Vectidraco from the Isle of Wight, UK, exhibits large, paired foramina on...

Data from: A three-dimensionally preserved lobopodian from the Herefordshire (Silurian) Lagerstätte, UK

Derek J. Siveter, Derek E.G. Briggs, David J. Siveter, Mark D. Sutton, David Legg & Derek E. G. Briggs
The Herefordshire (Silurian) Lagerstätte (c. 430 MYr BP) has yielded, amongst many exceptionally preserved invertebrates, a wide range of new genera belonging to crown-group Panarthropoda. Here we increase this panarthropod diversity with the lobopodian Thanahita distos, a new total-group panarthropod genus and species. This new lobopodian preserves at least nine paired, long, slender appendages, the anterior two in the head region and the posterior seven representing trunk lobopods. The body ends in a short post-appendicular...

Data from: An inversion supergene in Drosophila underpins latitudinal clines in survival traits

Esra Durmaz, Clare Benson, Martin Kapun, Paul Schmidt & Thomas Flatt
Chromosomal inversions often contribute to local adaptation across latitudinal clines, but the underlying selective mechanisms remain poorly understood. We and others have previously shown that a clinal inversion polymorphism in Drosophila melanogaster, In(3R)Payne, underpins body size clines along the North American and Australian east coasts. Here we ask whether this polymorphism also contributes to clinal variation in other fitness-related traits, namely survival traits (lifespan, survival upon starvation, and survival upon cold shock). We generated homokaryon...

Competition for resources can promote the divergence of social learning phenotypes

R. Tucker Gilman, Fern Johnson & Marco Smolla
Social learning occurs when animals acquire knowledge or skills by observing or interacting with others, and is the fundamental building block of culture. Within populations, some individuals use social learning more frequently than others, but why social learning phenotypes differ among individuals is poorly understood. We modelled the evolution of social learning frequency in a system where foragers compete for resources and there are many different foraging options to learn about. Social learning phenotypes diverged...

Data from: Preserved collagen reveals species identity in archaeological marine turtle bones from Caribbean and Florida sites

Michael Buckley, Virginia L. Harvey, Michelle J. LeFebvre, Susan D. DeFrance, Casper Toftgaard & Andrew C. Kitchener
Advancements in molecular science are continually improving our understanding of marine turtle biology and evolution. However, there are still considerable gaps in our understanding, such as past marine turtle distributions, which can benefit from advanced zooarchaeological analyses. Here we apply collagen fingerprinting to 130 archaeological marine turtle bone samples up to 2500 years old from the Caribbean and Florida’s Gulf Coast for faunal identification, finding the vast majority of samples (88%) to contain preserved collagen...

Data from: Bite marks and predation of fossil jawless fish during the rise of jawed vertebrates

Emma Randle & Robert S. Sansom
Although modern vertebrate diversity is dominated by jawed vertebrates, early vertebrate assemblages were predominantly comprised of jawless fishes. Hypotheses for this faunal shift and the Devonian decline of jawless vertebrates include predation and competitive replacement. The nature and prevalence of ecological interactions between jawed and jawless vertebrates are highly relevant to both hypotheses, but direct evidence is limited. Here we use the occurrence and distribution of bite mark type traces in fossil jawless armoured heterostracans...

Maladaptive migration behaviour in hybrids links to predator-mediated ecological selection

Varpu Pärssinen, Kaj Hulthén, Christer Brönmark, Christian Skov, Jakob Brodersen, Henrik Baktoft, Ben Chapman, Lars-Anders Hansson & Anders Nilsson
1. Different migratory species have evolved distinct migratory characteristics that improve fitness in their particular ecological niches. However, when such species hybridize, migratory traits from parental species can combine maladaptively and cause hybrids to fall between parental fitness peaks, with potential consequences for hybrid viability and species integrity. 2. Here, we take advantage of a natural cross-breeding incident to study migratory behaviour in naturally occurring hybrids as well as in their parental species and explore...

Data from: Do cladistic and morphometric data capture common patterns of morphological disparity?

Alexander J. Hetherington, Emma Sherratt, Marcello Ruta, Mark Wilkinson, Bradley Deline & Philip C. J. Donoghue
The distinctly non-random diversity of organismal form manifests itself in discrete clusters of taxa that share a common body plan. As a result, analyses of disparity require a scalable comparative framework. The difficulties of applying geometric morphometrics to disparity analyses of groups with vastly divergent body plans are overcome partly by the use of cladistic characters. Character-based disparity analyses have become increasingly popular, but it is not clear how they are affected by character coding...

Data from: Disentangling plant and soil microbial controls on carbon and nitrogen loss in grassland mesocosms

Franciska T. De Vries, Helene Bracht Jorgensen, Katarina Hedlund & Richard D. Bardgett
1. It is well known that plant–soil interactions play an important role in determining the impact of global change phenomena on biodiversity and ecosystem functioning. Little is known, however, about the individual and relative importance for carbon (C) and nitrogen (N) cycling of non-random changes in plant and soil communities that result from global change phenomena, such as fertilization and agricultural intensification. 2. We set up a field-based mesocosm experiment in which we re-inoculated soil...

Data from: Individual variation in whole-animal hypoxia tolerance is associated with cardiac hypoxia tolerance in a marine teleost

Holly Alice Shiels, William Joyce, Karlina Ozolina, Florian Mauduit, Hélène Ollivier, Guy Claireaux & Holly A. Shiels
Hypoxia is a pervasive problem in coastal environments and is predicted to have enduring impacts on aquatic ecosystems. Intraspecific variation in hypoxia tolerance is well documented in fish; however, the factors underlying this variation remain unknown. Here, we investigate the role of the heart in individual hypoxia tolerance of the European sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax). We found individual whole-animal hypoxia tolerance is a stable trait in sea bass for more than 18 months (duration of...

Data from: Testing and quantifying phylogenetic signals and homoplasy in morphometric data

Christian Peter Klingenberg, Nelly A. Gidaszewski, Christian Peter Klingenberg & Nelly A. Gidaszewski
The relationship between morphometrics and phylogenetic analysis has long been controversial. Here we propose an approach that is based on mapping morphometric traits onto phylogenies derived from other data and thus avoids the pitfalls encountered by previous studies. This method treats shape as a single, multidimensional character. We propose a test for the presence of a phylogenetic signal in morphometric data, which simulates the null hypothesis of the complete absence of phylogenetic structure by permutation...

Data from: Evolutionary covariation in geometric morphometric data: analyzing integration, modularity, and allometry in a phylogenetic context

Christian Peter Klingenberg & Jesús Marugán-Lobón
Quantifying integration and modularity of evolutionary changes in morphometric traits is crucial for understanding how organismal shapes evolve. For this purpose, comparative studies are necessary, which need to take into account the phylogenetic structure of interspecific data. This study applies several of the standard tools of geometric morphometrics, which mostly have been used in intraspecific studies, in the new context of analyzing integration and modularity based on comparative data. Morphometric methods such as principal component...

Data from: Metamorphosis revealed: time-lapse three-dimensional imaging inside a living chrysalis

Tristan Lowe, Russell J. Garwood, Thomas J. Simonsen, Robert S. Bradley & Philip J. Withers
Studies of model insects have greatly increased our understanding our animal development. Yet they are limited in scope to this small pool of model species: a small number of representatives for a hyperdiverse group with highly varied developmental processes. One factor behind this narrow scope is the challenging nature of traditional methods of study, such as histology and dissection, which can preclude quantitative analysis and do not allow the development of a single individual to...

Data from: The interaction of Saccharomyces paradoxus with its natural competitors on oak bark

Vienna Kowallik, Eric Miller & Duncan Greig
The natural history of the model yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae is poorly understood and confounded by domestication. In nature, S. cerevisiae and its undomesticated relative S. paradoxus are usually found on the bark of oak trees, a habitat very different from wine or other human fermentations. It is unclear whether the oak trees are really the primary habitat for wild yeast, or whether this apparent association is due to biased sampling. We use culturing and high-throughput...

Data from: Bat species comparisons based on external morphology: a test of traditional versus geometric morphometric approaches

Daniela A. Schmieder, Hugo A. Benítez, Ivailo M. Borissov & Carmelo Fruciano
External morphology is commonly used to identify bats as well as to investigate flight and foraging behavior, typically relying on simple length and area measures or ratios. However, geometric morphometrics is increasingly used in the biological sciences to analyse variation in shape and discriminate among species and populations. Here we compare the ability of traditional versus geometric morphometric methods in discriminating between closely related bat species – in this case European horseshoe bats (Rhinolophidae, Chiroptera)...

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