94 Works

Latitudinal gradients in population growth do not reflect demographic responses to climate

Megan Peterson, Graham Bailes, Lauren Hendricks, Laurel Pfeifer-Meister, Paul Reed, Scott Bridgham, Bart Johnson, Robert Shriver, Ellen Waddle, Hannah Wroton, Daniel Doak, Bitty Roy & William Morris
Spatial gradients in population growth, such as across latitudinal or elevational gradients, are often assumed to primarily be driven by variation in climate, and are frequently used to infer species’ responses to climate change. Here, we use a novel demographic, mixed model approach to dissect the contributions of climate variables vs. other latitudinal or local site effects on spatiotemporal variation in population performance in three perennial bunchgrasses. For all three species, we find that performance...

Data from: Phylogeographic estimation and simulation of global diffusive dispersal

Stilianos Louca
The analysis of time-resolved phylogenies (timetrees) and geographic location data allows estimation of dispersal rates, for example for invasive species and infectious diseases. Many estimation methods are based on the Brownian Motion model for diffusive dispersal on a 2-dimensional plane, however the accuracy of these methods deteriorates substantially when dispersal occurs at global scales because Spherical Brownian Motion (SBM) differs from planar Brownian Motion. No statistical method exists for estimating SBM diffusion coefficients from a...

Data from: Prairie plant phenology driven more by temperature than moisture in climate manipulations across a latitudinal gradient in the Pacific Northwest, USA

Paul B. Reed, Laurel E. Pfeifer-Meister, Bitty A. Roy, Bart R. Johnson, Graham T. Bailes, Aaron A. Nelson, Peg C. Boulay, Sarah T. Hamman & Scott D. Bridgham
Plant phenology will likely shift with climate change, but how temperature and/or moisture regimes will control phenological responses is not well understood. This is particularly true in Mediterranean climate ecosystems where the warmest temperatures and greatest moisture availability are seasonally asynchronous. We examined plant phenological responses at both the population and community levels to four climate treatments (control, warming, drought, and warming plus additional precipitation) embedded within three prairies across a 520 km latitudinal Mediterranean...

Data from: Minor allele frequency thresholds strongly affect population structure inference with genomic datasets

Ethan Linck & C.J. Battey
One common method of minimizing errors in large DNA sequence datasets is to drop variable sites with a minor allele frequency below some specified threshold. Though widespread, this procedure has the potential to alter downstream population genetic inferences and has received relatively little rigorous analysis. Here we use simulations and an empirical SNP dataset to demonstrate the impacts of minor allele frequency (MAF) thresholds on inference of population structure. We find that model-based inference of...

Data from: Genetic variation for outcrossing among Caenorhabditis elegans isolates

Henrique Teotonio, Diogo Manoel & Patrick C. Phillips
The evolution of breeding systems results from the existence of genetic variation and selective forces favoring different outcrossing rates. In this study we determine the extent of genetic variation for characters directly related to outcrossing, such as male frequency, male mating ability, and male reproductive success, in several wild isolates of the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans. This species is characterized by an androdioecious breeding system in which males occur with hermaphrodites that can either self-fertilize or...

Woody encroachment happens via intensification, not extensification, of species ranges in an African savanna

Yong Zhou, Morgan Tingley, Madelon Case, Corli Coetsee, Gregory Kiker, Rheinhardt Scholtz, Freek Venter & Carla Staver
Widespread woody encroachment is a prominent concern for savanna systems as it is often accompanied by losses in productivity and biodiversity. Extensive ecosystem-level work has advanced our understanding of its causes and consequences. However, there is still debate over whether local management can override regional and global drivers of woody encroachment, and it remains largely unknown how encroachment influences woody community assemblages. Here, we examined species-level changes in woody plant distributions and size structure from...

Germination and epiphytic seed fungi on Festuca roemeri and Danthonia californica

Bitty Roy, Hunter C. Mackin & Tiffany E Thornton
Demographic studies measure drivers of plant fecundity such as seed production and survival, but few address environmental drivers of seed viability, such as germination and dormancy. Variation in climate and seed type may both directly and indirectly alter seed germination via altered fungal pathogen abundance. We examined seed germination and microbial communities of seeds of Danthonia californica, which are either chasmogamous (external, wind-pollinated) or cleistogamous (internal, self-fertilized) and Festuca roemeri, which are solely chasmogamous. Seed...

50 Maneras de Hacer Redituables los Medios

Damian Radcliffe
Este informe se divide entre seis capítulos que presenta los generadores de ingresos principales para editores: muros de pago, suscripciones, publicidad, libres de anuncios, eventos, y e-commerce. Se acaba por mirar a estrategias de crear ingresos emergentes que editores están empezando a utilizar y probar con éxito. El informe también tiene apéndice comprehensivo que conecta a artículos con los estudios de caso y ejemplos. Fue publicado originalmente por What’s New in Publishing (WNIP) con auspicio...

Data from: Experimental evolution of the Caenorhabditis elegans sex determination pathway

Christopher H. Chandler, Genna Elise Chadderdon, Patrick C. Phillips, Ian Dworkin & Fredric J. Janzen
Sex determination is a critical developmental decision with major ecological and evolutionary consequences, yet a large variety of sex determination mechanisms exist and we have a poor understanding of how they evolve. Theoretical and empirical work suggest that compensatory adaptations to mutations in genes involved in sex determination may play a role in the evolution of these pathways. Here, we directly address this problem using experimental evolution in Caenorhabditis elegans lines fixed for a pair...

Data from: Phylogenomic analyses reveal convergent patterns of adaptive evolution in elephant and human ancestries

Morris Goodman, Kirstin N. Sterner, M. Munirul Islam, Monica Uddin, Chet C. Sherwood, Patrick R. Hof, Zhuo-Cheng Hou, Leonard Lipovich, Hui Jia, Lawrence I. Grossman, Derek E. Wildman, M. Islam & Z. C. Hou
Specific sets of brain-expressed genes, such as aerobic energy metabolism genes, evolved adaptively in the ancestry of humans and may have evolved adaptively in the ancestry of other large-brained mammals. The recent addition of genomes from two afrotherians (elephant and tenrec) to the expanding set of publically available sequenced mammalian genomes provided an opportunity to test this hypothesis. Elephants resemble humans by having large brains and long life spans; tenrecs, in contrast, have small brains...

Data from: A phylogenetic analysis of egg size, clutch size, spawning mode, adult body size, and latitude in reef fishes

Katja Kasimatis & Cynthia Riginos
Theoretical treatments of egg size in fishes suggest that constraints on reproductive output should create trade-offs between the size and number of eggs produced per spawn. For marine reef fishes, the observation of distinct reproductive care strategies (demersal guarding, egg scattering, and pelagic spawning) has additionally prompted speculation that these strategies reflect alternative fitness optima with selection on egg size differing by reproductive mode and perhaps latitude. Here, we aggregate data from 278 reef fish...

Data from: Rapid identification of major histocompatibility complex class I haplotypes using deep sequencing in an endangered Old World monkey

Noah D. Simons, Maria Jose Ruiz-Lopez, Colin A. Chapman, Tony L. Goldberg, Julie A. Karl, Roger W. Wiseman, Patrick S. Bohn, David H. O'Connor & Nelson Ting
Immunogenetic data from wild primate populations have been difficult to obtain, due to logistic and methodological constraints. We applied a well-characterized deep sequencing method for MHC I typing, developed for macaques, to a population of wild red colobus to assess the feasibility of identifying MHC I-A/B haplotypes. Ten individuals produced sufficient data from blood and tissue samples to assign haplotypes. Eighty-two sequences were classified as red colobus MHC I alleles distributed across six MHC I...

Data from: Ecological history of a long-lived conifer in a disjunct population

Erin M. Herring, Daniel G. Gavin, Solomon Z. Dobrowski, Matias Fernandez & Feng Sheng Hu
1. In northern Idaho (USA), more than 100 vascular plant species are disjunct <200 km from their main distribution along the Pacific Northwest coast. It remains unclear whether most species within this interior forest disjunction, including Tsuga mertensiana, survived the last glacial period in a north-Idaho refugium or whether these species colonized the region via long-distance dispersal during the Holocene. 2. Sediment cores were extracted from three mid- to high-elevation lakes within T. mertensiana dominated...

Data from: Alongshore variation in barnacle populations is determined by surfzone hydrodynamics

Alan L. Shanks, Steven G. Morgan, Jamie MacMahan, Ad J.H.M. Reniers & Ad J. H. M. Reniers
Larvae in the coastal ocean are transported toward shore by a variety of mechanisms. Crossing the surf zone is the last step in a shoreward migration and surf zones may act as semipermeable barriers altering delivery of larvae to the shore. We related variation in the structure of intertidal barnacle populations to surfzone width (surfzone hydrodynamics proxy), wave height, alongshore wind stress (upwelling proxy), solar radiation, and latitude at 40 rocky intertidal sites from San...

Data from: Where and how to restore in a changing world: a demographic-based assessment of resilience

Loralee Larios, Lauren M. Hallett & Katharine N. Suding
Managers are increasingly looking to apply concepts of resilience to better anticipate and understand conservation and restoration in a changing environment. In this study, we explore how information on demography (recruitment, growth and survival) and competitive effects in different environments and with different starting species abundances can be used to better understand resilience. We use observational and experimental data to better understand dynamics between native Stipa pulchra and exotic Avena barbata and fatua, grasses characteristic...

Data from: Natural and experimental evolution of sexual conflict within Caenorhabditis nematodes

Michael F. Palopoli, Colin Peden, Caitlin Woo, Ken Akiha, Megan Ary, Lori Cruze, Jennifer L. Anderson & Patrick C. Phillips
Background: Although males and females need one another in order to reproduce, they often have different reproductive interests, which can lead to conflict between the sexes. The intensity and frequency of male-male competition for fertilization opportunities is thought to be an important contributor to this conflict. The nematode genus Caenorhabditis provides an opportunity to test this hypothesis because the frequency of males varies widely among species with different mating systems. Results: We find evidence that...

Data from: Evidence of linked selection on the Z chromosome of hybridizing hummingbirds

C. J. Battey
Levels of genetic differentiation vary widely along the genomes of recently diverged species. What processes cause this variation? Here I analyze geographic population structure and genome-wide patterns of variation in the Rufous, Allen's, and Calliope Hummingbirds (Selasphorus rufus/sasin/calliope) and assess evidence that linked selection on the Z chromosome drives patterns of genetic differentiation in a pair of hybridizing species. Demographic models, introgression tests, and genotype clustering analyses support a reticulate evolutionary history consistent with divergence...

Data from: Increases and decreases in marine disease reports in an era of global change

Allison M. Tracy, Madeline L. Pielmeier, Reyn M. Yoshioka, Scott F. Heron & C. Drew Harvell
Outbreaks of marine infectious diseases have caused widespread mass mortalities, but the lack of baseline data has precluded evaluating whether disease is increasing or decreasing in the ocean. We use an established literature proxy method from Ward and Lafferty (2004) to analyze a 44-year global record of normalized disease reports from 1970 to 2013. Major marine hosts are combined into nine taxonomic groups, from seagrasses to marine mammals, to assess disease swings, defined as positive...

Data from: Black abalone (Haliotis cracherodii) population structure shifts through deep time: Management implications for southern California's northern Channel Islands

Hannah Haas, Todd J. Braje, Matthew S. Edwards, Jon M. Erlandson & Steven G. Whitaker
For over 10,000 years, black abalone (Haliotis cracherodii) were an important resource in southern California, first for coastal Native Americans, then beginning in the nineteenth century, as one of the state's first commercial shellfisheries. By 1993, after years of heavy fishing, rising sea surface temperatures (SST), and the spread of withering syndrome (WS), black abalone populations declined dramatically, resulting in the closure of the Alta California fishery. After nearly 25 years of management and recovery...

Dynamics of gaze control during prey capture in freely moving mice

Angie Michaiel, Elliott Abe & Cristopher Niell
Most studies of visual processing are conducted under head- and gaze-restricted conditions. While this provides experimental control, it radically limits the natural exploration of the visual world which is typically achieved through directed eye, head, and body movements. As such, less is known about how animals naturally sample the external visual world to acquire relevant visual information in natural contexts. To determine how mice target their gaze and sample the visual world during natural behavior,...

Climate manipulations differentially affect plant population dynamics within versus beyond northern range limits

Paul Reed, Megan Peterson, Laurel Pfeifer-Meister, William Morris, Daniel Doak, Bitty Roy, Bart Johnson, Graham Bailes & Aaron Nelson
Predicting species’ range shifts under future climate is a central goal of conservation ecology. Studying populations within and beyond multiple species’ current ranges can help identify whether demographic responses to climate change exhibit directionality, indicative of range shifts, and whether responses are uniform across a suite of species. We quantified the demographic responses of six native perennial prairie species planted within and, for two species, beyond their northern range limits to a three-year experimental manipulation...

Archaeological mitogenomes illuminate the historical ecology of sea otters (Enhydra lutris) and the viability of reintroduction

Hannah Wellman, Rita Austin, Nihan Dagtas, Madonna Moss, Torben Rick & Courtney Hofman
Genetic analyses are an important contribution to wildlife reintroductions, particularly in the modern context of extirpations and ecological destruction. To address the complex historical ecology of the sea otter (Enhydra lutris) and its failed 1970s reintroduction to coastal Oregon, we compared mitochondrial genomes of pre-extirpation Oregon sea otters to extant and historical populations across the range. We sequenced the first complete ancient mitogenomes from archaeological Oregon sea otter dentine and historical sea otter dental calculus....

The Publisher's Guide to eCommerce

Damian Radcliffe

Data from: Independent axes of genetic variation and parallel evolutionary divergence of opercle bone shape in threespine stickleback

Charles B Kimmel, William A Cresko, Patrick C. Phillips, Bonnie Ullmann, Mark Currey, Frank Von Hippel, Bjarni K Kristjánsson, Ofer Gelmond & Katrina McGuigan
Evolution of similar phenotypes in independent populations is often taken as evidence of adaptation to the same fitness optimum. However, the genetic architecture of traits might cause evolution to proceed more often toward particular phenotypes, and less often toward others, independently of the adaptive value of the traits. Freshwater populations of Alaskan threespine stickleback have repeatedly evolved the same distinctive opercle shape after divergence from an oceanic ancestor. Here we demonstrate that this pattern of...

Data from: Oligo-Miocene climate change and mammal body size evolution in the northwest United States a test of Bergmann's Rule

John D. Orcutt & Samantha S. B. Hopkins
Whether or not climate plays a causal role in mammal body-size evolution is one of the longest-standing debates in ecology. Bergmann's Rule, the longest-standing model addressing this topic, posits that geographic body-mass patterns are driven by temperature, whereas subsequent research has suggested that other ecological variables, particularly precipitation and seasonality, may be the major drivers of body-size evolution. While paleoecological data provide a unique and crucial perspective on this debate, paleontological tests of Bergmann's rule...

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