33 Works

Rapid adaptive evolution of the diapause program during range expansion of an invasive mosquito

Zachary A. Batz, Anthony J. Clemento, Jens Fitzenwanker, Timothy J. Ring, John Carlos Garza & Peter A. Armbruster
In temperate climates, the recurring seasonal exigencies of winter represent a fundamental physiological challenge for a wide range of organisms. In response, many temperate insects enter diapause, an alternative developmental program, including developmental arrest, that allows organisms to synchronize their life cycle with seasonal environmental variation. Geographic variation in diapause phenology contributing to local climatic adaptation is well documented. However, few studies have examined how the rapid evolution of a suite of traits expressed across...

Sociality and tattoo skin disease among bottlenose dolphins in Shark Bay, Australia

Sarah Powell, Ewa Krzyszczyk, Vivienne Foroughirad, Shweta Bansal, Janet Mann, Sarah N Powell, Megan M Wallen & Madison L Miketa
Social behavior is an important driver of infection dynamics, though identifying the social interactions that foster infectious disease transmission is challenging. Here we examine how social behavior impacts disease transmission in Indo-Pacific bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops aduncus) using an easily identifiable skin disease and social network data. We analyzed tattoo skin disease (TSD) lesions based on photographs collected as part of a 34-year longitudinal study in relation to the sociality of T. aduncus using three metrics...

A place to land: spatiotemporal drivers of stopover habitat use by migrating birds

Emily Cohen, Jeffrey Buler, Kyle Horton, Andrew Farnsworth, Peter Marra, Hannah Clipp, Jaclyn Smolinsky & Daniel Sheldon
Migrating birds require en route habitats to rest and refuel. Yet habitat use has never been integrated with passage to understand factors that determine where and when birds stopover during spring and autumn migration. Here, we introduce the stopover-to-passage ratio (SPR), the percentage of passage migrants that stop in an area, and use eight years of data from 12 weather surveillance radars to estimate over 50% SPR during spring and autumn through the Gulf of...

Fine-scale spatial patterns of wildlife disease are common and understudied

Gregory Albery, Amy Sweeny, Daniel Becker & Shweta Bansal
1. All parasites are heterogeneous in space, yet little is known about the prevalence and scale of this spatial variation, particularly in wild animal systems. To address this question, we sought to identify and examine spatial dependence of wildlife disease across a wide range of systems. 2. Conducting a broad literature search, we collated 31 such datasets featuring 89 replicates and 71 unique host-parasite combinations, only 51% of which had previously been used to test...

Macroimmunology: the drivers and consequences of spatial patterns in wildlife immune defense

Daniel Becker, Gregory Albery, Maureen Kessler, Tamika Lunn, Caylee Falvo, Gábor Czirják, Lynn Martin & Raina Plowright
1. Spatial variation in parasite pressure, abiotic and biotic conditions, and anthropogenic factors can all shape immune phenotypes across spatial scales. Identifying the most important spatial drivers of immunity could help preempt infectious disease risks, especially in the context of how large-scale factors such as urbanization affect defense by changing environmental conditions. 2. We provide a synthesis of how to apply macroecological approaches to the study of ecoimmunology (i.e., macroimmunology). We first review spatial factors...

Overview of AMALGUM - Large Silver Quality Annotations across English Genres

Luke D. Gessler, Siyao Peng, Yang Liu, Yilun Zhu, Shabnam Behzad & Amir Zeldes

Characterization of Salix nigra floral insect community and activity of three native Andrena bees

Stephen DiFazio, Sandra Simon, Ken Keefover-Ring, Yong-Lak Park, Gina Wimp & Julianne Grady
Salix nigra (black willow) is a widespread tree that hosts many species of polylectic hymenopterans and oligolectic bees of the genus Andrena. The early flowering of S. nigra makes it an important nutritive resource for insects emerging from hibernation. However, since S. nigra is dioecious, not all insect visits will lead to successful pollination. Using both visual observation and pan-trapping we characterized the community of insects that visited S. nigra flowers and assessed differences among...

Supersense and Sensibility: Proxy Tasks for Semantic Annotation of Prepositions

Luke Gessler, Shira Wein & Nathan Schneider

Single cell RNA sequencing (scRNAseq) of transplanted mT3 tumors

Ivana Peran
Background & Aims: Pancreatic ductal adenocarcinomas (PDAC) are characterized by fibrosis and an abundance of cancer-associated fibroblasts (CAFs). We investigated strategies to disrupt interactions among CAFs, the immune system, and cancer cells, focusing on adhesion molecule cadherin 11 (CDH11), which has been associated with other fibrotic disorders and is expressed by activated fibroblasts. Methods: We compared levels of CDH11mRNA in human pancreatitis and pancreatic cancer tissues and cells, compared with normal pancreas, and measured levels...

Data from: Single-cell transcriptomic analysis of tumor-derived fibroblasts and normal tissue-resident fibroblasts reveals fibroblast heterogeneity in breast cancer

Nicholas Hum, Aimy Sebastian, Kelly Martin, Sean Gilmore, Stephen Byers, Elizabeth Wheeler, Matthew Coleman & Gabriela Loots
Cancer-associated fibroblasts (CAFs) are a prominent stromal cell type in solid tumors and molecules secreted by CAFs play an important role in tumor progression and metastasis. CAFs coexist as heterogeneous populations with potentially different biological functions. Although CAFs are a major component of the breast cancer stroma, molecular and phenotypic heterogeneity of CAFs in breast cancer is poorly understood. In this study, we investigated CAF heterogeneity in triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) using a syngeneic mouse...

Reversible diffusion-weighted imaging lesions in acute ischemic stroke: a systematic review

Nandakumar Nagaraja, John Forder, Steven Warach & Jośe Merino
Supplemental data: NNagaraja_12292019_DWI_Reversal_In_AIS_Review_Supplemental_File Supplemental Figure e-1: DWI reversal in acute ischemic stroke Supplemental Table e-1: Search Strategy Supplemental Table e-2: Variables extracted for the review Supplemental Table e-3: Imaging protocols for included studies Supplemental Table e-4: DWIR definitions used in the selected studies Supplemental Table e-5: Imaging characteristics of patients Supplemental Table e-6: QUADAS-2 tool for quality assessment of diagnostic accuracy studies by evaluating risk of bias and applicability concerns.

Zygomorphic flowers have fewer potential pollinator species

Jeremy B. Yoder, Giancarlo Gomez & Colin J. Carlson
Botanists have long identified bilaterally symmetrical (zygomorphic) flowers with more specialized pollination interactions than radially symmetrical (actinomorphic) flowers. Zygomorphic flowers facilitate more precise contact with pollinators, guide pollinator behaviour and exclude less effective pollinators. However, whether zygomorphic flowers are actually visited by a smaller subset of available pollinator species has not been broadly evaluated. We compiled 53 609 floral visitation records in 159 communities and classified the plants' floral symmetry. Globally and within individual communities,...

Spatiotemporal variation in drivers of parasitism in a wild wood mouse population

Amy Sweeny, Gregory Albery, Saudamini Venkatesan, Andy Fenton & Amy Pedersen
Host-parasite interactions in nature are driven by a range of factors across several ecological scales, so observed relationships are often context-dependent. Importantly, if these factors vary across space and time, practical sampling limitations can limit or bias inferences, and the relative importance of different drivers can be hard to discern. Here we ask to what degree environmental, host, and within-host influences on parasitism are shaped by spatiotemporal variation. We use a replicated, longitudinal dataset of...

Within-generation and transgenerational social plasticity interact during rapid adaptive evolution

Samantha Sturiale & Nathan Bailey
The effects of within-generation plasticity versus transgenerational plasticity on trait expression are poorly understood, but important for evaluating plasticity’s evolutionary consequences. We tested how genetics, within-generation plasticity, and transgenerational plasticity jointly shape traits influencing rapid evolution in the field cricket Teleogryllus oceanicus. In Hawaiian populations attacked by acoustically-orienting parasitoid flies, a protective, X-linked variant (“flatwing”) eliminates male acoustic sexual signals. Silent males rapidly spread to fixation, dramatically changing the acoustic environment. First, we found evidence...

Graph-to-Graph Meaning Representation Transformations for Human-Robot Dialogue

Mitchell Abrams, Claire Bonial & Lucia Donatelli

Data from: Sex, synchrony and skin contact: integrating multiple behaviors to assess pathogen transmission risk

Stephan T. Leu, Pratha Sah, Ewa Krzyszczyk, Ann-Marie Jacoby, Janet Mann & Shweta Bansal
Direct pathogen and parasite transmission is fundamentally driven by a population’s contact network structure, its demographic composition, and is further modulated by pathogen life history traits. Importantly, populations are most often concurrently exposed to a suite of pathogens, which is rarely investigated, because contact networks are typically inferred from spatial proximity only. Here, we use five years of detailed observations of Indo-Pacific bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops aduncus) that distinguish between four different types of social contact....

Predator population size structure alters consumption of prey from epigeic and grazing food webs

Shannon Murphy, Danny Lewis & Gina Wimp
Numerous studies have found that predators can suppress prey densities and thereby impact important ecosystem processes such as plant productivity and decomposition. However, prey suppression by spiders can be highly variable. Unlike predators that feed on prey within a single energy channel, spiders often consume prey from asynchronous energy channels, such as grazing (live plant) and epigeic (soil surface) channels. Spiders undergo few life cycle changes and thus appear to be ideally suited to link...

Data from: Ecological mechanism of climate-mediated selection in a rapidly evolving invasive species

Alexandra Mushegian, Naresh Neupane, Zachary Batz, Motoyoshi Mogi, Nobuko Tuno, Takako Toma, Ichiro Miyagi, Leslie Ries & Peter Armbruster
Recurring seasonal changes can lead to the evolution of phenological cues. For example, many arthropods undergo photoperiodic diapause, a programmed developmental arrest induced by short autumnal day length. The selective mechanisms that determine the timing of autumnal diapause initiation have not been empirically identified. We quantified latitudinal clines in genetically determined diapause timing of an invasive mosquito, Aedes albopictus, on two continents. We show that variation in diapause timing within and between continents is explained...

SNACS Annotation of Case Markers and Adpositions in Hindi

Aryaman Arora, Nitin Venkateswaran & Nathan Schneider

Empirical tests of habitat selection theory reveal that conspecific density and patch quality, but not habitat amount, drive long-distance immigration in a wild bird

Clark Rushing, Brandt Ryder, Jonathon J. Valente, Scott Sillett & Peter Marra
Individuals that disperse long distances from their natal site must select breeding patches with no prior knowledge of patch suitability. Despite decades of theoretical studies examining which cues dispersing individuals should use to select breeding patches, few empirical studies have tested the predictions of these theories at spatial scales relevant to long-distance dispersal in wild animal populations. Here, we use a novel assignment model based on multiple intrinsic markers to quantify natal dispersal distances of...

Data from: Adaptive patterns of phenotypic plasticity in laboratory and field environments in Drosophila melanogaster

Vinayak Mathur & Paul S. Schmidt
Identifying mechanisms of adaptation to variable environments is essential in developing a comprehensive understanding of evolutionary dynamics in natural populations. Phenotypic plasticity allows for phenotypic change in response to changes in the environment, and as such may play a major role in adaptation to environmental heterogeneity. Here, the plasticity of stress response in D. melanogaster originating from two distinct geographic regions and ecological habitats was examined. Adults were given a short-term, 5-day exposure to combinations...

Reversible Diffusion Weighted Imaging Lesion in Acute Ischemic Stroke – A Systematic Review

Nandakumar Nagaraja, John Forder, Steven Warach & Jośe Merino
Supplemental data: NNagaraja_12292019_DWI_Reversal_In_AIS_Review_Supplemental_File Supplemental Figure e-1: DWI reversal in acute ischemic stroke Supplemental Table e-1: Search Strategy Supplemental Table e-2: Variables extracted for the review Supplemental Table e-3: Imaging protocols for included studies Supplemental Table e-4: DWIR definitions used in the selected studies Supplemental Table e-5: Imaging characteristics of patients Supplemental Table e-6: QUADAS-2 tool for quality assessment of diagnostic accuracy studies by evaluating risk of bias and applicability concerns.

Comparing the impacts of an invasive grass on nitrogen cycling and ammonia-oxidizing Prokaryotes in high-nitrogen forests, open fields, and wetlands

Tyler Rippel
Aims Numerous invasive plant species can increase soil nitrate (NO3-) by altering the nitrification process through plant-soil microbe interactions with ammonia-oxidizing archaea (AOA) and ammonia-oxidizing bacteria (AOB). We evaluated how the invasive species Microstegium vimineum influenced physico-chemical soil properties, inorganic nitrogen (N) cycling, and AOA and AOB abundances under various environmental conditions. Methods We paired 75 M. vimineum-invaded plots with 75 neighboring reference plots across forests, open fields, and forested wetlands within a state park...

Data from: Impacts of nutrient subsidies on salt marsh arthropod food webs: a latitudinal survey

Gina Wimp, Danny Lewis & Shannon Murphy
Anthropogenic nutrient inputs into native ecosystems cause fluctuations in resources that normally limit plant growth, which has important consequences for associated foodwebs. Such inputs from agricultural and urban habitats into nearby natural systems are increasing globally and can be highly variable. Despite the global increase in anthropogenically-derived nutrient inputs into native ecosystems, the consequences of variation in subsidy amount on native plants and their associated foodwebs are poorly known. Salt marshes represent an ideal system...

School exemptions in the United States

Casey Zipfel, Romain Garnier, Madeline Kuney & Shweta Bansal
Once-eliminated vaccine-preventable childhood diseases, such as measles, are resurging across the United States. Understanding the spatio-temporal trends in vaccine exemptions is crucial to targeting public health intervention to increase vaccine uptake and anticipating vulnerable populations as cases surge. However, prior available data on childhood disease vaccination is either on too rough a spatial scale for this spatially-heterogeneous issue, or is only available for small geographic regions, making general conclusions infeasible. Here, we have collated school...

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