85 Works

Data from: The interplay among intraspecific leaf trait variation, niche breadth and species abundance along light and soil nutrient gradients

Alex Fajardo & Andrew Siefert
It is assumed that widespread, generalist species have high phenotypic variation, but we know little about how intraspecific trait variation (ITV) relates to species abundance and niche breadth. In the temperate rainforest of southern Chile, we hypothesized that species with wide niche breadth would exhibit 1) high among-plot ITV, 2) a strong relationship between trait values and the environment, and 3) a close fit between traits and local environment trait optima. We measured leaf functional...

Data from: Asymmetric competitive effects during species range expansion: an experimental assessment of interaction strength between ‘equivalent’ grazer species at their range overlap

Moises A. Aguilera, Nelson Valdivia, Stuart Jenkins, Sergio A. Navarrete & Bernardo Broitman
1. Biotic interactions are central to the development of theory and concepts in community ecology; experimental evidence has shown their strong effects on patterns of population and community organization and dynamics over local spatial scales. The role of competition in determining range limits and preventing invasions at biogeographic scales is more controversial, partly because of the complexity of processes involved in species colonization of novel habitats and the difficulties in performing appropriate manipulations and controls....

Data from: Masculinized females produce heavier offspring in a group living rodent

Loreto Alejandra Correa, Cecilia León, Juan Ramírez-Estrada, Mauricio Soto-Gamboa, Roger Dani Sepúlveda & Luis Alberto Ebensperger
Alternative morphotypes have been reported less frequently in females than in males. An exception to this rule is the gradient of phenotypical masculinization reported in some female mammals, in which feminized and masculinized females represent two opposite ends along this gradient. These phenotypical differences originate during prenatal development as the consequence of maternal effects. Feminized and masculinized females differ in several traits, including morphological, physiological, behavioural and reproductive traits. Differences previously reported in reproductive traits...

Data from: Tracing the trans-Pacific evolutionary history of a domesticated seaweed (Gracilaria chilensis) with archaeological and genetic data

Marie-Laure Guillemin, Myriam Valero, Sylvain Faugeron, Wendy Nelson & Christophe Destombe
The history of a domesticated marine macroalga is studied using archaeological, phylogeographic and population genetic tools. Phylogeographic and population genetic analyses demonstrated that the cultivated red alga Gracilaria chilensis colonised the Chilean coast from New Zealand. Combining archaeological observations with phylogeographic data provided evidence that exchanges between New Zealand and Chile have occurred at least before the Holocene, likely at the end of the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM) and we suggest that migration probably occurred...

Data from: Quantification of correlational selection on thermal physiology, thermoregulatory behavior and energy metabolism in lizards

Paulina Artacho, Julia Saravia, Beatriz Decencière Ferrandière, Samuel Perret & Jean-François Le Galliard
Phenotypic selection is widely accepted as the primary cause of adaptive evolution in natural populations, but selection on complex functional properties linking physiology, behavior, and morphology has been rarely quantified. In ectotherms, correlational selection on thermal physiology, thermoregulatory behavior, and energy metabolism is of special interest because of their potential coadaptation. We quantified phenotypic selection on thermal sensitivity of locomotor performance (sprint speed), thermal preferences, and resting metabolic rate in captive populations of an ectothermic...

Data from: Identifying management actions to increase foraging opportunities for shorebirds at semi-intensive shrimp farms

Juan G. Navedo, Guillermo Fernández, Nelson Valdivia, Mark C. Drever & Jose A. Masero
The expansion of aquaculture has resulted in widespread habitat conversion throughout the world. Identifying beneficial management measures may dramatically reduce negative impacts of aquaculture for migratory birds. We studied how densities of foraging shorebirds varied at ponds within a semi-intensive shrimp aquaculture farm on the north-western coast of Mexico, as related to timing of harvest and tidal cycles. Further, we estimated the total daily available area for each shorebird species throughout two entire harvesting seasons...

Pieces in a global puzzle: Population genetics at two whale shark aggregations in the western Indian Ocean

Royale Hardenstine, Song He, Jesse Cochran, Camrin Braun, E. Fernando Cagua, Simon Pierce, Clare Prebble, Christoph Rohner, Pablo Saenz-Agudelo, Tane Sinclair-Taylor, Gregory Skomal, Simon Thorrold, Alexandra Watts, Casey Zakroff & Michael Berumen
The whale shark Rhincodon typus is found throughout the world’s tropical and warm-temperate ocean basins. Despite their broad physical distribution, research on the species has been concentrated at a few aggregation sites. Comparing DNA sequences from sharks at different sites can provide a demographically neutral understanding of the whale shark’s global ecology. Here, we created genetic profiles for 84 whale sharks from the Saudi Arabian Red Sea and 72 individuals from the coast of Tanzania...

How to?! Practical knowledge for transformative science – facilitation guidelines for two applications of the Human Scale Development Approach

Salina Spiering nee Centgraf & Maria del Valle Barrera
Multiple methods for transdisciplinary and transformative sciences have been presented and dis-cussed in the literature on sustainability. Wider knowledge however, on how to implement global en-vironmental change is still sough for. We suggest that understanding the practical knowledge with the Aristotelian concept of stechne and phronesis provides important contributions for change. With the present paper we will show the detailed facilitation outlines within the application of the Human Scale Development Approach (HSDA) that was introduced...

Pinpointing genetic breaks in the southeastern Pacific: phylogeography and genetic structure of Pyura chilensis, a commercially important tunicate

Suany Quesada-Calderon, Emily C. Giles, Sarai Morales-González & Pablo Saenz-Agudelo
Aim: Accurate characterization of evolutionary units (species or populations) underlies all ecological and evolutionary studies and is crucial to conservation planning. Seascapes have long been thought to be highly permeable to gene flow, yet over the last decade building evidence has shown that barriers to gene flow in marine environments are much more common than previously thought. Here, we precisely characterize barriers to gene flow in the tunicate Pyura chilensis across 26° of latitude in...

Data from: Physiological plasticity and local adaptation to elevated pCO2 in calcareous algae: an ontogenetic and geographic approach

Jacqueline L. Padilla-Gamiño, Juan D. Gaitán-Espitia, Morgan W. Kelly & Gretchen E. Hofmann
To project how ocean acidification will impact biological communities in the future, it is critical to understand the potential for local adaptation and the physiological plasticity of marine organisms throughout their entire life cycle, as some stages may be more vulnerable than others. Coralline algae are ecosystem engineers that play significant functional roles in oceans worldwide, and are considered vulnerable to ocean acidification. Using different stages of coralline algae, we tested the hypothesis that populations...

Data from: The oldest, slowest forests in the world? Exceptional biomass and slow carbon dynamics of Fitzroya cupressoides temperate rainforests in southern Chile

Rocio B. Urrutia-Jalabert, Yadvinder Malhi, Antonio Lara & Rocio Urrutia-Jalabert
Old-growth temperate rainforests are, per unit area, the largest and most long-lived stores of carbon in the terrestrial biosphere, but their carbon dynamics have rarely been described. The endangered Fitzroya cupressoides forests of southern South America include stands that are probably the oldest dense forest stands in the world, with long-lived trees and high standing biomass. We assess and compare aboveground biomass, and provide the first estimates of net primary productivity (NPP), carbon allocation and...

Data from: Linking macro-trends and micro-rates: re-evaluating micro-evolutionary support for Cope’s rule

Kiyoko M. Gotanda, Cristián Correa, Martin M. Turcotte, Gregor Rolshausen & Andrew P. Hendry
Cope's rule, wherein a lineage increases in body size through time, was originally motivated by macro-evolutionary patterns observed in the fossil record. More recently, some authors have argued that evidence exists for generally positive selection on individual body size in contemporary populations, providing a micro-evolutionary mechanism for Cope's rule. If larger body size confers individual fitness advantages as the selection estimates suggest, thereby explaining Cope's rule, then body size should increase over micro-evolutionary time scales....

Data from: Unveiling current guanaco distribution in Chile based upon niche structure of phylogeographic lineages: Andean puna to subpolar forests

Benito A. González, Horacio Samaniego, Juan Carlos Marín & Cristián F. Estades
Niche description and differentiation at broad geographic scales have been recent major topics in ecology and evolution. Describing the environmental niche structure of sister taxa with known evolutionary trajectories stands out as a useful exercise in understanding niche requirements. Here we model the environmental niche structure and distribution of the recently resolved phylogeography of guanaco (Lama guanicoe) lineages on the western slope of the southern Andes. Using a maximum entropy framework, field data, and information...

Data from: Highly masculinized and younger males attain higher reproductive success in a social rodent

Loreto A. Correa, Cecilia León, Juan Ramírez-Estrada, Alvaro Ly-Prieto, Sebastian Abades, Loren D. Hayes, Mauricio Soto-Gamboa & Luis A. Ebensperger
Abstract: Alternative morphotypes have been reported in males of different taxa. In some mammals highly masculinized and slightly masculinized males represent two opposite ends along a gradient of phenotypic variation in males. This phenotypical gradient originates during prenatal development. Laboratory studies have documented how highly and slightly masculinized males differ in several traits, including their reproductive success. However, the extent to which these reported differences materialize in natural populations remains unknown. We quantified the impact...

Data from: Phylogenomic analysis of the Chilean clade of Liolaemus lizards (Squamata: Liolaemidae) based on sequence capture data

Alejandra Panzera, Adam D. Leaché, Guillermo D'Elía & Pedro F. Victoriano
The genus Liolaemus is one of the most ecologically diverse and species-rich genera of lizards worldwide. It currently includes more than 250 recognized species, which have been subject to many ecological and evolutionary studies. Nevertheless, Liolaemus lizards have a complex taxonomic history, mainly due to the incongruence between morphological and genetic data, incomplete taxon sampling, incomplete lineage sorting and hybridization. In addition, as many species have restricted and remote distributions, this has hampered their examination...

Data from: Integrated and independent evolution of heteromorphic sperm types

Allen J. Moore, Leonardo D. Bacigalupe & Rhonda R. Snook
Sperm are a simple cell type with few components, yet they exhibit tremendous between-species morphological variation in those components thought to reflect selection in different fertilization environments. However, within a species, sperm components are expected to be selected to be functionally integrated for optimal fertilization of eggs. Here, we take advantage of within-species variation in sperm form and function to test whether sperm components are functionally and genetically integrated both within and between sperm morphologies...

Data from: Coordinated species importation policies are needed to reduce serious invasions globally: the case of alien bumblebees in South America

Marcelo A. Aizen, Cecilia Smith-Ramirez, Carolina L. Morales, Lorena Vieli, Agustín Sáez, Rodrigo M. Barahona-Segovia, Marina P. Arbetman, José Montalva, Lucas A. Garibaldi, David W. Inouye & Lawrence D. Harder
The global trade of species promotes diverse human activities but also facilitates the introduction of potentially invasive species into new environments. As species ignore national boundaries, unilateral national decisions concerning species trade set the stage for transnational species invasion with significant conservation, economic and political consequences. The need for a coordinated approach to species importation policies is demonstrated by the introduction of two bumblebee species into Chile for crop pollination, despite Argentina banning commercial importation...

Data from: The phenotypic correlates and quantitative genetics of masculinization in the rodent, Octodon degus

Derek A. Roff, Matthew E. Wolak, Loreto A. Correa & Mauricio Soto-Gamboa
In some mammals female characteristics have been shown to depend in part on the intrauterine position during development of female fetuses relative to male fetuses. Females developing in close proximity to males show behavioural, physiological and life history characteristics that are masculinized. With the exception of one inconclusive study, nothing is known of the genetic basis of this phenomenon. In this paper we reported an analysis of the quantitative genetic basis of masculinization, as indicated...

Data from: A genetic signature of the evolution of loss of flight in the Galapagos cormorant

Alejandro Burga, Wang Weiguang, Eyal Ben-David, Paul C. Wolf, Andrew M. Ramey, Claudio Verdugo, Karen Lyons, Patricia G. Parker & Leonid Kruglyak
We have a limited understanding of the genetic and molecular basis of evolutionary changes in the size and proportion of limbs. We studied wing and pectoral skeleton reduction leading to flightlessness in the Galapagos cormorant (Phalacrocorax harrisi). We sequenced and de novo assembled the genomes of four cormorant species and applied a predictive and comparative genomics approach to find candidate variants that may have contributed to the evolution of flightlessness. These analyses and cross-species experiments...

The macroecology of fish migration

Dominique Alò, Shaw Lacy, Andrea Castillo, Horacio Samaniego & Pablo Marquet
Aim: We still lack a consensus on the main variables driving changes in migratory strategies. Different hypotheses have been proposed: productivity, energy, environmental heterogeneity, and genetic predisposition. This work takes an integrative view and analyzes migrations from a macroecological perspective estimating the extent to which different environmental variables and historic factors influence migratory life histories. Location: Global Time period: Current Major taxa studied: Actinopterygian fishes Methods: Using public domain museum records, global repositories, and global...

Data from: Local coastal configuration rather than latitudinal gradient shape clonal diversity and genetic structure of Phymatolithon calcareum maerl beds in North European Atlantic

Cristina Pardo, Marie-Laure Guillemin, Viviana Peña, Ignacio Bárbara, Myriam Valero & Rodolfo Barreiro
Maerl beds are one of the world’s key coastal ecosystems and are threatened by human activities and global change. In this study, the genetic diversity and structure of one of the major European maerl-forming species, Phymatolithon calcareum, was studied using eight microsatellite markers. Two sampling scales (global: North East Atlantic and regional: Galicia) were investigated and fifteen maerl beds from Atlantic Europe were sampled. At the regional-scale the location of sites outside and within four...

Community-wide consequences of nonconsumptive predator effects on a foundation species

Alexis Catalán, Joseline Büchner-Miranda, Bárbara Riedemann, Oscar Chaparro, Nelson Valdivia & Ricardo Scrosati
1. Predators can exert nonconsumptive effects (NCEs) on prey, which often take place through prey behavioural adjustments to minimize predation risk. As NCEs are widespread in nature, interest is growing to determine whether NCEs on a prey species can indirectly influence several other species simultaneously, thus leading to changes in community structure. 2. In this study, we investigate whether a predator can exert NCEs on a foundation species and indirectly affect community structure. 3. Through...

Semi-intensive Shrimp-Farms as Experimental Arenas for the Study of Predation Risk from Falcons to Shorebirds

Juan G. Navedo
Varying environmental conditions and energetic demands can affect habitat use by predators and their prey. Anthropogenic habitats may provide an opportunity to document both predation events and foraging activity by prey, and therefore enable an empirical evaluation how prey cope with trade-offs between starvation and predation risk in environments of variable foraging opportunities and predation danger. Here we use seven years of observational data of peregrine falcons Falco peregrinus and shorebirds at a semi-intensive shrimp-farm...

Files for phylogenetics, structure, and migration rate analyses for the bivalve Aequiyoldia eightsii

Carlos P. Muñoz-Ramírez, Chester Sands, David Barnes, James Scourse, Alejandro Roman-Gonzalez, Simon Morley, Leyla Cardenas, Antonio Brante & Michael Meredith
The Antarctic Circumpolar Current (ACC) dominates the open-ocean circulation of the Southern Ocean, and both isolates and connects the Southern Ocean biodiversity. However, the impact on biological processes of other Southern Ocean currents is less clear. Adjacent to the West Antarctic Peninsula (WAP), the ACC flows offshore in a northeastward direction, whereas the Antarctic Peninsula Coastal Current (APCC) follows a complex circulation pattern along the coast, with topographically-influenced deflections depending on the area. Using genomic...

Microsatellite markers for assessing genetic diversity and kinship relationships in one of the largest South American fur seal (Arctocephalus australis) populations of the Pacific Ocean

Josefina Gutierrez
The genetic diversity of a population is the foundation of its adaptability to environmental challenges. The South American fur seal is a widely distributed pinniped in the south cone of South America. However, a large gap in the Pacific coast separates two distinct evolutionary units for the species: the Peruvian and the Southern Pacific/Atlantic populations. Throughout the Pacific, one of the main breeding colonies is located in Guafo Island, in the southern Chilean Patagonia. As...

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  • University Austral de Chile
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