85 Works

Data from: An assessment of carbon and nutrient limitations in the formation of the southern Andes treeline

Alex Fajardo & Frida I. Piper
Although the principal mechanism determining tree line formation appears to be carbon (C)-sink limitations due to low temperatures, few studies have assessed the complementary role of reduced soil nutrient availability with elevation. We tested the hypothesis that nutrient (especially nitrogen, N) limitations at tree line may directly (via C-source) or indirectly (via C-sink) reduce the growth of a winter deciduous tree line species. If a shortage of soil N with elevation is involved in tree...

Data from: Wind exposure and light exposure, more than elevation-related temperature, limit tree line seedling abundance on three continents

Eliot J. B. McIntire, Frida I. Piper & Alex Fajardo
The transition from seedlings into trees at alpine treelines is a temperature-limited process that ultimately sets the treeline elevation at a global scale. As such, treelines may be key bioassays of global warming effects on species distributions. For global warming to promote upward treeline migration, as predicted, seedlings must be available. We examined, for the first time at a global scale, elevational patterns and drivers of seedling availability at treelines. Working at 10 sites across...

Data from: Aerobic power and flight capacity in birds: a phylogenetic test of the heart-size hypothesis

Roberto F. Nespolo, Cesar González-Lagos, Jaiber J. Solano-Iguaran, Magnus Elfwing, Alvaro Garitano-Zavala, Santiago Mañosa, Juan Carlos Alonso & Jordi Altamiras
Flight capacity is one of the most important innovations in animal evolution; it only evolved in insects, birds, mammals and the extinct pterodactyls. Given that powered flight represents a demanding aerobic activity, an efficient cardiovascular system is essential for the continuous delivery of oxygen to the pectoral muscles during flight. It is well known that the limiting step in the circulation is stroke volume (the volume of blood pumped from the ventricle to the body...

Data from: The time geography of segregation during working hours

Teodoro Dannemann, Boris Sotomayor-Gómez & Horacio Samaniego
Understanding segregation is essential to develop planning tools for building more inclusive cities. Theoretically, segregation at the work place has been described as lower compared to residential segregation given the importance of skill complementarity among other productive factors shaping the economies of cities. This paper tackles segregation during working hours from a dynamical perspective by focusing on the movement of urbanites across the city. In contrast to measuring residential patterns of segregation, we used mobile...

Data from: Assessing the effects of human activities on the foraging opportunities of migratory shorebirds in Austral high-latitude bays

Juan G. Navedo, Claudio Verdugo, Ignacio Rodríguez-Jorquera, Jose M. Abad-Gómez, Cristián G. Suazo, Luis E. Castañeda, Valeria Araya, Jorge Ruiz & Jorge S. Gutiérrez
Human presence at intertidal areas could impact coastal biodiversity, including migratory waterbird species and the ecosystem services they provide. Assessing this impact is therefore essential to develop management measures compatible with migratory processes and associated biodiversity. Here, we assess the effects of human presence on the foraging opportunities of Hudsonian godwits (Limosa haemastica, a trans-hemispheric migratory shorebird) during their non-breeding season on Chiloé Island, southern Chile. We compared bird density and time spent foraging in...

Data from: Genomic patterns of diversity and divergence of two introduced salmonid species in Patagonia, South America

Shawn R. Narum, Pablo Gallardo, Cristian Correa, Amanda Matala, Daniel Hasselman, Ben J.G. Sutherland, Louis Bernatchez & Ben J. G. Sutherland
Invasive species have become widespread in aquatic environments throughout the world, yet there are few studies that have examined genomic variation of multiple introduced species in newly colonized environments. In this study, we contrast genomic variation in two salmonid species (anadromous Chinook Salmon, Oncorhynchus tshawytscha, 11,579 SNPs and resident Brook Charr Salvelinus fontinalis, 13,522 SNPs) with differing invasion success after introduction to new environments in South America relative to populations from their native range in...

A multi-state occupancy modeling framework for robust estimation of disease prevalence in multi-tissue disease systems

Vratika Chaudhary, Samantha M. Wisely, Felipe A. Hernández, James E. Hines, James D. Nichols & Madan K. Oli
1. Given the public health, economic, and conservation implications of zoonotic diseases, their effective surveillance is of paramount importance. The traditional approach to estimating pathogen prevalence as the proportion of infected individuals in the population is biased because it fails to account for imperfect detection. A statistically robust way to reduce bias in prevalence estimates is to obtain repeated samples (or sample many tissues in multi-tissue disease systems) and to apply statistical methods that account...

Data from: The Magellanic Province and its fish fauna (South America): several provinces or one?

Ezequiel Mabragaña, Germán Pequeño, María Cousseau, Luis Lucifora, Patricia Martinez & Analía Giussi
Aim: We assessed the validity of the division of the Magellanic Province into the four provinces as proposed by Briggs and Bowen (2012): Southern Chile, Tierra del Fuego, Southern Argentina and Falkland (Malvinas) Islands. We aimed to 1) present an up to date list of the fishes from the region known as “Magellanic Province”, 2) analyze the specific richness of fishes in the Atlantic and Pacific sectors and their degree of endemism, 3) evaluate statistically...

Bill disparity and feeding strategies amongst fossil and modern penguins

Martin Chavez Hoffmeister
One of the most remarkable differences between Paleogene penguins and their living relatives is the shape and length of their beaks. Many of the Eocene and Oligocene penguins have a thin and elongated spear-like bill, which contrasts with the proportionally shorter and more robust bill of most living species. These differences suggest an important shift on their feeding strategies. This study explores the morphological disparity on the skull of penguins, emphasizing bill morphology and it...

Climate change and lithium mining influence flamingo abundance in the Lithium Triangle

Jorge Gutiérrez, Johnnie Moore, Patrick Donnelli, Cristina Dorador, Juan Navedo & Nathan Senner
The development of technologies to slow climate change has been identified as a global imperative. Nonetheless, such ‘green’ technologies can potentially have negative impacts on biodiversity. We explored how climate change and the mining of lithium for green technologies influence surface water availability, primary productivity, and the abundance of three threatened and economically important flamingo species in the ‘Lithium Triangle’ of the Chilean Andes. We combined climate and primary productivity data with remotely sensed measures...

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