23 Works

Data from: Heterogeneity of ecological patterns, processes and funding of marine manipulative field experiments conducted in Southeastern Pacific coastal ecosystems

Moisés A. Aguilera, Johanne Dobringer & Ignacio J. Petit
Ecological manipulative experiments conducted in marine coastal ecosystems have substantially improved ecological theory during the last decades, and have provided useful knowledge for the management and conservation of coastal ecosystems. Although different studies report global trends in ecological patterns worldwide, Southeastern Pacific coastal ecosystems have been poorly considered. Given that the SE Pacific coast encompasses diverse coastal ecosystems, consideration of studies conducted along this range can shed light on the heterogeneity of processes regulating coastal...

Data from: Genetic variation of loci potentially under selection confounds species-genetic diversity correlations in a fragmented habitat

Angeline Bertin, Nicolas Gouin, Alex Baumel, Ernesto Gianoli, Juan Serratosa, Rodomiro Osorio & Stéphanie Manel
Positive species-genetic diversity correlations (SGDCs) are often thought to result from the parallel influence of neutral processes on genetic and species diversity. Yet, confounding effects of non-neutral mechanisms have not been explored. Here, we investigate the impact of non-neutral genetic diversity on SGDCs in high Andean wetlands. We compare correlations between plant species diversity (SD) and genetic diversity (GD) calculated with and without loci potentially under selection (outlier loci). The study system includes 2188 specimens...

Assessing the genetic diversity in Argopecten nucleus (Bivalvia: Pectinidae), a functional hermaphrodite species with extremely low population density and self-fertilization: effect of null alleles

Judith Barros Gómez, Federico M. Winkler & Luz A. Velasco
Argopecten nucleus is a functional hermaphroditic pectinid species that exhibits self-fertilization, whose natural populations have usually very low densities. In the present study, the genetic diversity of a wild population from Neguanje Bay, Santa Marta (Colombia), was estimated using microsatellite markers, and the effect of the presence of null alleles on this estimation was assessed. A total of 8 microsatellite markers were developed, the first described for this species, and their amplification conditions were standardized....

Data from: Crop pests and predators exhibit inconsistent responses to surrounding landscape composition

Daniel S. Karp, Rebecca Chaplin-Kramer, Timothy D. Meehan, Emily A. Martin, Fabrice DeClerck, Heather Grab, Claudio Gratton, Lauren Hunt, Ashley E. Larsen, Alejandra Martínez-Salinas, Megan E. O’Rourke, Adrien Rusch, Katja Poveda, Mattias Jonsson, Jay A. Rosenheim, Nancy A. Schellhorn, Teja Tscharntke, Stephen D. Wratten, Wei Zhang, Aaron L. Iverson, Lynn S. Adler, Matthias Albrecht, Audrey Alignier, Gina M. Angelella, Muhammad Zubair Anjum … & Yi Zou
The idea that noncrop habitat enhances pest control and represents a win–win opportunity to conserve biodiversity and bolster yields has emerged as an agroecological paradigm. However, while noncrop habitat in landscapes surrounding farms sometimes benefits pest predators, natural enemy responses remain heterogeneous across studies and effects on pests are inconclusive. The observed heterogeneity in species responses to noncrop habitat may be biological in origin or could result from variation in how habitat and biocontrol are...

Data from: SNP discovery and gene annotation in the surf clam Mesodesma donacium

Cristian Gallardo-Escárate, Valentina Valenzuela-Muñoz, Gustavo Núñez-Acuña & Pilar Haye
The main objective of this research was to identify single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) from an Expressed Sequences Tags (EST) data set generated by 454 pyrosequencing in the soft clam Mesodesma donacium. A total of 180 159 ESTs were yielded from a M. donacium cDNA library. De novo assembly was performed using stringent calling parameters, producing 10 178 contigs and 41 765 singletons. Here, a total of 2594 SNPs were discovered related to 613 consensus sequences, achieving...

Study on the Socio-Economic Importance of Areas Beyond National Jurisdiction (ABNJ) in the Southeast Pacific Region

Marcelo Olivares-Arenas, Beatriz Yannicelli, Luis A. Zapata-Padilla, Rodrigo Sfeir, Gustavo A. Castellanos-Galindo, Jaime Aburto, Ben Boteler & Pablo Guerrero
This report aims to assess the contribution to human well-being of current and potential socio-economic activities in marine Areas Beyond National Jurisdiction (ABNJ) in the Southeast Pacific, highlighting human dependence on the ecosystem services that marine Biodiversity in Areas Beyond National Jurisdiction (BBNJ) provides, as well as on those activities that compete with or generate negative effects on it as a consequence of their deployment. The study focuses on the socio-economic aspects that depend on,...

Salas y Gómez and Nazca ridges dropcam data

Alan Friedlander, Whitney Goodell, Jonatha Giddens, Erin Easton & Daniel Wagner
The Salas y Gómez and Nazca ridges are underwater mountain chains that stretch across 2,900 km in the southeastern Pacific and are recognized for their high biodiversity value and unique ecological characteristics. Explorations of deep-water ecosystems have been limited in this area, and elsewhere globally. To characterize community composition of mesophotic and deep-sea demersal fauna at seamounts in the region, we conducted expeditions to Rapa Nui (RN) and Salas y Gómez (SyG) islands in 2011...

Plant dispersal strategies of high tropical alpine communities across the Andes

Carolina Tovar, Inga Melcher, Buntarou Kusumoto, Francisco Cuesta, Antoine Cleef, Rosa Isela Meneses, Stephan Halloy, Luis Daniel Llambi, Stephan Beck, Priscilla Muriel, Ricardo Jaramillo, Jorge Jacome & Julieta Carilla
• Dispersal is a key ecological process that influences plant community assembly. Therefore, understanding whether dispersal strategies are associated with climate is of utmost importance, particularly in areas greatly exposed to climate change. We examined alpine plant communities located in the mountain summits of the tropical Andes across a 4000 km latitudinal gradient. We investigated species dispersal strategies and tested their association with climatic conditions and their evolutionary history. • We used dispersal-related traits (dispersal...

Data from: Multiple late-Pleistocene colonisation events of the Antarctic pearlwort Colobanthus quitensis (Caryophyllaceae) reveal the recent arrival of native Antarctic vascular flora

E. M. Biersma, C. Torres-Díaz, K. K. Newsham, M. A. Vidal, G. Ballesteros, C. C. Figueroa, W. P. Goodall-Copestake, M.A. Leppe, M. Cuba-Díaz, M. A. Valladares, L. R. Pertierra, P. Convey, I. S. Acuña-Rodríguez, G. A. Collado & M. A. Molina-Montenegro
Aim: Antarctica’s remote and extreme terrestrial environments are inhabited by only two species of native vascular plants. We assessed genetic connectivity amongst Antarctic and South American populations of one of these species, Colobanthus quitensis, to determine its origin and age in Antarctica. Location: Maritime Antarctic, sub-Antarctic islands, South America Taxon: Antarctic pearlwort Colobanthus quitensis (Caryophyllaceae) Methods: Four chloroplast markers and one nuclear marker were sequenced from 270 samples from a latitudinal transect spanning 21–68° S....

Data from: Thorson’s rule, life history evolution and diversification of benthic octopuses (Cephalopoda: Octopodoidea)

Christian M. Ibáñez, Enrico L. Rezende, Roger D. Sepúlveda, Jorge Avaria-Llautureo, Cristián E. Hernández, Javier Sellanes, Elie Poulin & María Cecilia Pardo-Gandarillas
Here we evaluate the so-called Thorson’s rule, which posits that direct-development and larger eggs are favored towards the poles in marine organisms and whose validity been the subject of considerable debate in the literature, combining an expanded phenotypic dataset encompassing 60 species of benthic octopuses with a new molecular phylogeny. Phylogenetic reconstruction shows two clades: clade 1 including species of the families Eledonidae, Megaleledonidae, Bathypolypodidae and Enteroctopodidae, and clade 2 including species of Octopodidae. Egg...

Data from: The herbivorous fish, Aplodactylus punctatus, as a potential facilitator of dispersal of the bottom kelp, Lessonia trabeculata, in Chile

Alejandro Pérez-Matusa & Fadia Tala
Kelp forests are productive marine habitats known to facilitate many trophic and non-trophic interactions. While much of our understanding comes from positive effects of kelp on associated fauna, few studies focus on potential feedbacks that such fauna may provide to benefit kelp. This study aims to analyze the positive interactions between two closely associated fish and kelp species. Lessonia trabeculata, the bottom kelp, and the herbivorous fish, Aplodactylus punctatus, were sampled at four sites off...

Data from: Rare long-distance dispersal of a marine angiosperm across the Pacific Ocean

Timothy M. Smith, Paul H. York, Bernardo R. Broitman, Martin Thiel, Graeme C. Hays, Erik Van Sebille, Nathan F. Putman, Peter I. Macreadie & Craig D. H. Sherman
Aim: Long-distance dispersal (LDD) events occur rarely but play a fundamental role in shaping species biogeography. Lying at the heart of island biogeography theory, LDD relies on unusual events to facilitate colonisation of new habitats and range expansion. Despite the importance of LDD, it is inherently difficult to quantify due to the rarity of such events. We estimate the probability of LDD of the seagrass Heterozostera nigricaulis, a common Australian species, across the Pacific Ocean...

The role of island physiography and oceanographic factors in shaping species richness and turnover of nesting seabird assemblages on islands across the southeastern Pacific

Joao B. Gusmao, Guillermo Luna-Jorquera, Claudia Fernández, Nicolás Luna, Paula Plaza, Matías Portflitt_Toro, Juan Serratosa, Pamela Nuñez, Andrea I. Varela & Marcelo Rivadeneira
For seabirds, food supplies and nest sites are largely driven by oceanographic gradients and island habitats, respectively. Research into seabirds’ ecological roles in insular ecosystems is crucial to understanding processes that structure seabird nesting assemblages. We examined the influence of island physiography and oceanographic factors on the spatial variation in α and β-diversity of nesting seabird assemblages. Location Southeastern Pacific Ocean. Taxon Birds Methods We compiled data from 53 seabirds breeding on 41 coastal and...

Data from: Lizards on ice: evidence for multiple refugia in Liolaemus pictus (Liolaemidae) during the Last Glacial Maximum in the southern Andean beech forests

Iván Vera-Escalona, Guillermo D’Elía, Nicolás Gouin, Frank M. Fontanella, Carla Muñoz-Mendoza, , Pedro F. Victoriano, Guillermo D'Elía & Jack W. Sites
Historical climate changes and orogenesis are two important factors that have shaped intraspecific biodiversity patterns worldwide. Although southern South America has experienced such complex events, there is a paucity of studies examining the effects on intraspecific diversification in this part of the world. Liolaemus pictus is the southernmost distributed lizard in the Chilean temperate forest, whose genetic structure has likely been influenced by Pleistocene glaciations. We conducted a phylogeographic study of L. pictus in Chile...

Data from: A down-shifting Eu 3+ -doped Y 2 WO 6 /TiO 2 photoelectrode for improved light harvesting in dye-sensitized solar cells

Jaime Llanos, Ivan Brito, Dario Espinoza, Ramkumar Sekar & Paulraj Manidurai
Y1.86Eu0.14WO6 phosphors were prepared using a solid-state reaction method. Their optical properties were analysed, and they was mixed with TiO2, sintered, and used as a photoelectrode (PE) in dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs). The as-prepared photoelectrode was characterized by photoluminescence spectroscopy, diffuse reflectance, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) and X-ray diffraction. The photoelectric conversion efficiency of the DSSC with TiO2:Y1.86Eu0.14WO6 (100:2.5) was 25.8% higher than that of a DSCC using pure TiO2 as PE. This high efficiency...

Data from: Microbial life in a fjord: metagenomic analysis of a microbial mat in Chilean Patagonia

Juan A. Ugalde, Maria J. Gallardo, Camila Belmar, Práxedes Muñoz, Nathaly Ruiz-Tagle, Sandra Ferrada-Fuentes, Carola Espinoza, Eric E. Allen & Victor A. Gallardo
The current study describes the taxonomic and functional composition of metagenomic sequences obtained from a filamentous microbial mat isolated from the Comau fjord, located in the northernmost part of the Chilean Patagonia. The taxonomic composition of the microbial community showed a high proportion of members of the Gammaproteobacteria, including a high number of sequences that were recruited to the genomes of Moritella marina MP-1 and Colwellia psycherythraea 34H, suggesting the presence of populations related to...

Data from: The modulating role of traits on the biogeographic dynamics of chondrichthyans from the Neogene to the present

Jaime A. Villafana & Marcelo M. Rivadeneira
The environmental transformations that occurred during the Neogene had profound effects on spatio-temporal biodiversity patterns, yet the modulating role of traits (i.e. physiological, ecological and life history traits) remains little understood. We tested this idea using the Neogene fossil record of chondrichthyans along the temperate Pacific coast of South America (TPSA). Information of georeferenced occurrences and ecological and life history information of 38 chondrichthyan fossil genera in 42 Neogene sites was collected. Global georeferenced records...

Estudio sobre la importancia socioeconómica de las áreas fuera de la jurisdicción nacional (ABNJ) en la región del Pacífico Sudeste

Marcelo Olivares-Arenas, Beatriz Yannicelli, Luis A. Zapata-Padilla, Rodrigo Sfeir, Gustavo A. Castellanos-Galindo, Jaime Aburto, Ben Boteler & Pablo Guerrero
Este reporte tiene como objetivo evaluar la con-tribución al bienestar humano de las activida-des socioeconómicas, actuales y potenciales, en las áreas marinas fuera de la jurisdicción nacio-nal (ABNJ por sus siglas en inglés) del Pacífico Sudeste, destacando la dependencia humana de los servicios ecosistémicos que la biodiver-sidad marina en las áreas fuera de la jurisdic-ción nacional (o BBNJ por sus siglas en inglés) provee, así como también de aquellas activi-dades que compiten en uso o...

Data from: Benthic communities under anthropogenic pressure show resilience across the Quaternary

Julieta C. Martinelli, Luis P. Soto, Jorge González & Marcelo M. Rivadeneira
The Southeast Pacific is characterized by rich upwelling systems that have sustained and been impacted by human groups for at least 12 ka. Recent fishing and aquaculture practices have put a strain on productive coastal ecosystems from Tongoy Bay, in north-central Chile. We use a temporal baseline to determine whether potential changes to community structure and composition over time are due to anthropogenic factors, natural climatic variations or both. We compiled a database (n =...

Data from: Lineage divergence, local adaptation across a biogeographic break, and artificial transport, shape the genetic structure in the ascidian Pyura chilensis

Nicolás I. Segovia, Cristian Gallardo-Escárate, Elie Poulin & Pilar A. Haye
Marine benthic organisms inhabit a heterogeneous environment in which connectivity between populations occurs mainly through dispersive larval stages, while local selective pressures acting on early life history stages lead to non-random mortality, shaping adaptive genetic structure. In order to test the influence of local adaptation and neutral processes in a marine benthic species with low dispersal, in this study we used Genotyping by Sequencing technology to compare the neutral and putatively selected signals (neutral and...

Data from: Marine biodiversity in Juan Fernández and Desventuradas Islands, Chile: global endemism hotspots

Alan M. Friedlander, Enric Ballesteros, Jennifer E. Caselle, Carlos F. Gaymer, Alvaro T. Palma, Ignacio Petit, Eduardo Varas, Alex Muñoz Wilson & Enric Sala
The Juan Fernández and Desventuradas islands are among the few oceanic islands belonging to Chile. They possess a unique mix of tropical, subtropical, and temperate marine species, and although close to continental South America, elements of the biota have greater affinities with the central and south Pacific owing to the Humboldt Current, which creates a strong biogeographic barrier between these islands and the continent. The Juan Fernández Archipelago has ~ 700 people, with the major...

Data from: Asymmetric competitive effects during species range expansion: an experimental assessment of interaction strength between ‘equivalent’ grazer species at their range overlap

Moises A. Aguilera, Nelson Valdivia, Stuart Jenkins, Sergio A. Navarrete & Bernardo Broitman
1. Biotic interactions are central to the development of theory and concepts in community ecology; experimental evidence has shown their strong effects on patterns of population and community organization and dynamics over local spatial scales. The role of competition in determining range limits and preventing invasions at biogeographic scales is more controversial, partly because of the complexity of processes involved in species colonization of novel habitats and the difficulties in performing appropriate manipulations and controls....

Cost of Capital for Small Size Tourism Industry in Developing Countries: The Case of Lodging Sector in Chile

Sergio Zuniga-Jara & Karla Soria Barreto
This paper provides a simplified approach toward estimating the cost of capital for a small company of the tourism sector. This is accomplished by dividing the hurdle rate into the return of the specific industry in a specific country, and a specific risk premium dependent on the size and age of the company/projects. We illustrate our proposal with investment estimations in lodging accommodations along the northern coast of Chile where tourism represents an important source...

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