84 Works

Data from: Correlated responses to clonal selection in populations of Daphnia pulicaria: mechanisms of genetic correlation and the creative power of sex

Jeffry L. Dudycha, Margaret Snoke-Smith & Ricardo Alia
Genetic correlations among traits alter evolutionary trajectories due to indirect selection. Pleiotropy, chance linkage, and selection can all lead to genetic correlations, but have different consequences for phenotypic evolution. We sought to assess the mechanisms contributing to correlations with size at maturity in the cyclic parthenogen Daphnia pulicaria. We selected on size in each of four populations that differ in the frequency of sex, and evaluated correlated responses in a life table. Size at advanced...

Data from: Associations among elementary school children's actual motor competence, perceived motor competence, physical activity and BMI: a cross-sectional study

An De Meester, David Stodden, Ali Brian, Larissa True, Greet Cardon, Isabel Tallir & Leen Haerens
Background: Positive associations between motor competence and physical activity have been identified by means of variable-centered analyses. To expand the understanding of these associations, this study used a person-centered approach to investigate whether different combinations (i.e., profiles) of actual and perceived motor competence exist (aim 1); and to examine differences in physical activity levels (aim 2) and weight status (aim 3) among children with different motor competence-based profiles. Methods: Children's (N=361; Boys=50%; Mage=9.50±1.24yrs) actual motor...

Data from: Effects of roads and land use on frog distributions across spatial scales and regions in the eastern and central United States

David M. Marsh, Bradley J. Cosentino, Kara S. Jones, Joseph J. Apodaca, Karen H. Beard, Jane M. Bell, Christine Bozarth, Derrick Carper, Julie F. Charbonnier, Andreia Dantas, Elizabeth Forys, Miran Foster, Jaquelyn General, Kristen S. Genet, Macie Hanneken, Kyle R. Hess, Shane A. Hill, Faisal Iqbal, Nancy E. Karraker, Eran S. Kilpatrick, Tom A. Langen, James Langford, Kathryn Lauer, Alison J. McCarthy, Joseph Neale … & Mohammad Tasleem
Aim: Understanding the scales over which land use affects animal populations is critical for conservation planning, and it can provide information about the mechanisms that underlie correlations between species distributions and land use. We used a citizen-science database of anuran surveys to examine the relationship between road density, land use, and the distribution of frogs and toads across spatial scales and regions of the United States. Location: Eastern and Central United States Methods: We compiled...

Data from: Assessment of plasma proteomics biomarker’s ability to distinguish benign from malignant lung nodules

Gerard A. Silvestri, Nichole T. Tanner, Paul Kearney, Anil Vachani, Pierre P. Massion, Alexander Porter, Steven C. Springmeyer, Kenneth C. Fang, David Midthun, Peter J. Mazzone, D. Madtes, J. Landis, A. Levesque, K. Rothe, M. Balaan, B. Dimitt, B. Fortin, N. Ettinger, A. Pierre, L. Yarmus, K. Oakjones-Burgess, N. Desai, Z. Hammoud, A. Sorenson, R. Murali … & F. Allison
Background: Lung nodules are a diagnostic challenge, with an estimated yearly incidence of 1.6 million in the United States. This study evaluated the accuracy of an integrated proteomic classifier in identifying benign nodules in patients with a pretest probability of cancer (pCA) ≤ 50%. Methods: A prospective, multicenter observational trial of 685 patients with 8- to 30-mm lung nodules was conducted. Multiple reaction monitoring mass spectrometry was used to measure the relative abundance of two...

Data from: Non-stationary climate-salmon relationships in the Gulf of Alaska

Michael A. Litzow, Lorenzo Ciannelli, Patricia Puerta, Justin J. Wettstein, Ryan R. Rykaczewski & Michael Opiekun
Studies of climate effects on ecology often account for non-stationarity in individual physical and biological variables, but rarely allow for non-stationary relationships among variables. Here, we show that non-stationary relationships among physical and biological variables are central to understanding climate effects on salmon (Onchorynchus spp.) in the Gulf of Alaska during 1965-2012. The relative importance of two leading patterns in North Pacific climate, the Pacific Decadal Oscillation (PDO) and North Pacific Gyre Oscillation (NPGO), changed...

Data from: Structure and function of the bacterial and fungal gut microbiota of Neotropical butterflies

Alison Ravenscraft, Michelle Berry, Tobin Hammer, Kabir Peay & Carol Boggs
The relationship between animals and their gut flora is simultaneously one of the most common and most complex symbioses on Earth. Despite its ubiquity, our understanding of this invisible but often critical relationship is still in its infancy. We employed adult Neotropical butterflies as a study system to ask three questions: First, how does gut microbial community composition vary across host individuals, species and dietary guilds? Second, how do gut microbiota compare to food microbial...

Seasonal survival and reversible state effects in a long-distance migratory shorebird

Rose Swift, Amanda D. Rodewald, James Johnson, Brad Andres & Nathan Senner
1. Events during one stage of the annual cycle can reversibly affect an individual’s condition and performance not only within that stage, but also in subsequent stages (i.e., reversible state effects). Despite strong conceptual links, however, few studies have been able to empirically link individual-level reversible state effects with larger-scale demographic processes. 2. We studied both survival and potential reversible state effects in a long-distance migratory shorebird, the Hudsonian Godwit (Limosa haemastica). Specifically, we estimated...

Carry-over effects of larval food stress on adult energetics and life history in a nectar-feeding butterfly

Carol Boggs & Kristjan Niitepold
Stressful juvenile developmental conditions can affect performance and fitness later in life. In holometabolous insects such as butterflies, development under stressful conditions may lead to smaller adult size, lower reproductive output and shorter lifespan. However, how larval developmental stress affects energy intake and expenditure in adult individuals is poorly understood. We subjected last-instar larvae of Speyeria mormonia Edwards (Lepidoptera: Nymphalidae) to periodic dietary restriction (DR) to examine the allocation of energy and nutrients among different...

UAV Rapidly-Deployable Stage Sensor with Electro-permanent Magnet Docking Mechanism for Flood Monitoring in Undersampled Watersheds

Corinne Smith
This repository details a microcontroller-based sensor package intended to be deployed in sparsely monitored watershed to monitor stage data from flooding events. Included are CAD files, EDA files, Arduino code, test data, materials, and figures.

Adaptation to a bacterial pathogen in Drosophila melanogaster is not aided by sexual selection

Sakshi Sharda, Tadeusz Kawecki & Brian Hollis
Theory predicts that sexual selection should aid adaptation to novel environments, but empirical support for this idea is limited. Pathogens are a major driver of host evolution and, unlike abiotic selection pressures, undergo epidemiological and co-evolutionary cycles with the host involving adaptation and counteradaptation. Because of this, populations harbor ample genetic variation underlying immunity and the opportunity for sexual selection based on condition-dependent “good genes” is expected to be large. In this study, we evolved...

Radical Flank Environmental Study Fall 2020

Brent Simpson, Robb Willer & Matthew Feinberg
This experiment will investigate how the existence of "radical flanks" in social movements impacts identification with and support for more moderate arms of the social movement (here we refer to the latter as the "focal group"). This study investigates these effects in the context of the environmental movement.

Influence of sand supply and grain size on upper regime bedforms

Sydney Sanders, Sadegh Jafarinik, Ricardo Hernandez Moreira, Ryan Johnson, Amanda Balkus, Mahsa Ahmadpoor, Brandon Fryson, Briana McQueen, Juan Fedele & Enrica Viparelli
Notwithstanding the large number of studies on bedforms such as dunes and antidunes, performing quantitative predictions of bedform type and geometry remains an open problem. Here we present the results of laboratory experiments specifically designed to study how sediment supply and caliber may impact equilibrium bedform type and geometry in the upper regime. Experiments were performed in a sediment feed flume with flow rates varying between 5 l/s and 30 l/s, sand supply rates varying...

Emplacement of massive deposits by sheet flow

Ricardo Hernandez‐Moreira, Sadegh Jafarinik, Sydney Sanders, Christopher G. St. C. Kendall, Gary Parker & Enrica Viparelli
Relatively common to the submarine setting are depositional sequences that begin with a lower erosional boundary, followed in ascending order by a either a graded or an inherently massive basal unit, a relatively coarse parallel laminated unit, a cross laminated unit, a relatively fine parallel laminated unit, and a capping layer of massive mud. These sequences are present in turbidity current, coastal storm and tsunami deposits, and their study is the key to understanding the...

Islands Within Islands: Bacterial Phylogenetic Structure and Consortia in Hawaiian Lava Caves and Fumaroles

Rebecca Prescott, Tatyana Zamkovaya, Stuart Donachie, Diana Northup, Joseph Mendley, Natalia Monsalve, Jimmy Saw, Alan Decho, Patrick Chain & Penelope Boston
Lava caves, tubes, and fumaroles in Hawai‘i present a range of volcanic, oligotrophic environments from different lava flows and host unexpectedly high levels of bacterial diversity. These features provide an opportunity to study the ecological drivers that structure bacterial community diversity and assemblies in volcanic ecosystems and compare the older, more stable environments of lava tubes, to the more variable and extreme conditions of younger, geothermally active caves and fumaroles. Using 16S rRNA amplicon-based sequencing...

A data-driven investigation on park visitation and income mixing of visitors in New York City

Hanxue Wei, Xiao Huang, Sicheng Wang, Junyu Lu, Zhenlong Li & Liao Zhu
It is crucial to understand the current pattern of urban park visitation to achieve environmental justice. Current discussions of environmental equity of parks mainly focus on the inequality provision measured by park accessibility, park area, park quality, and park congestion, ignoring the inequity of social benefits through interactions among mixed-income groups. Based on fine-grained mobile phone location data at the census block group level in 2018 and 2019, we explored visitation patterns and the mixed-income...

Differential patterns of opioid misuse between younger and older adults – a retrospective observational study using data from South Carolina’s prescription drug monitoring program

Suyanpeng Zhang, Allie Silverman, Sze-Chuan Suen, Christina Andrews & Brian K. Chen
Background: Most research on opioid misuse focuses on younger adults, yet opioid-related mortality has risen fastest among older Americans over age 55. Objectives: To assess whether there are differential patterns of opioid misuse over time between younger and older adults and whether South Carolina’s mandatory Prescription Drug Monitoring Program (PDMP) affected opioid misuse differentially between the two groups. Methods: We used South Carolina’s Reporting and Identification Prescription Tracking System from 2010 to 2018 to calculate...

Data from: Historical mutation rates predict susceptibility to radiation in Chernobyl birds

Anders P Møller, Johannes Erritzøe, Filiz Karadas & Timothy A Mousseau
Extreme environmental perturbations are rare, but may have important evolutionary consequences. Responses to current perturbations may provide important information about the ability of living organisms to cope with similar conditions in the evolutionary past. Radioactive contamination from Chernobyl constitutes one such extreme perturbation, with significant but highly variable impact on local population density and mutation rates of different species of animals and plants. We explicitly tested the hypothesis that species with strong impacts of radiation...

Data from: Thermal sensitivity and the role of behavior in driving an intertidal predator-prey interaction

Cristian J. Monaco, David S. Wethey & Brian Helmuth
Environmental stress models (ESM) provide a useful framework to study the direct and indirect ecological drivers of community diversity and resilience. ESMs make predictions about the relative importance of structuring processes (e.g., predation) based on the relative stress suffered by consumers and prey. Their practical application, i.e., determining the conditions under which consumers and prey performance is more negatively affected, has been limited because the roles of behavior and physiology are not usually considered. We...

Data from: Trait-mediated functional responses: predator behavioral type mediates prey consumption

Benjamin J. Toscano & Blaine D. Griffen
1. The predator functional response (i.e. per capita consumption rate as a function of prey density) is central to our understanding of predator-prey population dynamics. This response is behavioral, depending on the rate of attack and time it takes to handle prey. 2. Consistent behavioral differences between conspecific individuals, termed behavioral types, are a widespread feature of predator and prey populations but the effects of behavioral types on the functional response remain unexplored. 3. We...

Data from: Ecological and evolutionary implications of allometric growth in stomach size of brachyuran crabs

Blaine D. Griffen, Zachary J. Cannizzo & Mustafa R. Gul
Individual characteristics often scale allometrically with organismal body size and the form of this scaling can be influenced by ecological and evolutionary factors. Examining the specific form of this scaling can therefore yield important insights into organismal ecology and evolution and the ability of organisms to respond to future environmental changes. We examine the allometric scaling of stomach volume with body mass for 17 species of brachyuran crabs. We also examine how this scaling is...

Data from: Experimental manipulation of population-level MHC diversity controls pathogen virulence evolution in Mus musculus

Douglas H. Cornwall, Jason L. Kubinak, Elisabeth Zachary, Derek L. Stark, Dustan Seipel & Wayne K. Potts
The virulence levels attained by serial passage of pathogens through similar host genotypes are much higher than observed in natural systems, however, it is unknown what keeps natural virulence levels below these empirically demonstrated maximum levels. One hypothesis suggests that host diversity impedes pathogen virulence, because adaptation to one host genotype carries tradeoffs in the ability to replicate and cause disease in other host genotypes. To test this hypothesis, with the simplest level of population...

Center for Hierarchical Waste Form Materials (CHWM)

Hans-Conrad zur Loye & Matthew Christian
This is our DOE EFRC CHWM Center

Data From: An artificial habitat increases the reproductive fitness of a range-shifting species within a newly colonized ecosystem

Zachary Cannizzo, Susan Lang, Bryan Benitez-Nelson & Blaine Griffen
When a range-shifting species colonizes an ecosystem it has not previously inhabited, it may experience suboptimal conditions that challenge its continued persistence and expansion. Some impacts may be partially mitigated by artificial habitat analogues: artificial habitats that more closely resemble a species’ historic ecosystem than the surrounding habitat. If conditions provided by such habitats increase reproductive success, they could be vital to the expansion and persistence of range-shifting species. We investigated the reproduction of the...

Burrowing behavior and burrowing energetics of a bioindicator under human disturbance

Mustafa Gul & Blaine Griffen
Bioindicator species are extensively used for rapid assessment of ecological changes. Their use commonly focuses on changes in population abundance and individual sizes in response to environmental change. These numerical and demographic shifts likely have behavioral and physiological mechanistic drivers that, if understood, could provide additional insights into the use of these species as bioindicators of habitat health. The Atlantic ghost crab, Ocypode quadrata, is a global bio-indicator species of human disturbance on sandy shores....

Data from: A snapping shrimp has the fastest vision of any aquatic animal

Alexandra Kingston, Daniel Chappell & Daniel Speiser
Animals use their sensory systems to sample information from their environments. The physiological properties of sensory systems differ, leading animals to perceive their environments in different ways. For example, eyes have different temporal sampling rates, with faster-sampling eyes able to resolve faster-moving scenes. Eyes can also have different dynamic ranges. For every eye, there is a light level below which vision is unreliable because of an insufficient signal-to-noise ratio and a light level above which...

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  • University of South Carolina
  • Stanford University
  • Beijing Chao-Yang Hospital
  • Second Affiliated Hospital of Nanchang University
  • Brigham Young University
  • Oregon State University
  • University of Paris-Sud
  • Purdue University West Lafayette
  • Tongji University
  • Xiangya Hospital Central South University