85 Works

Fitness and fur colouration - testing the camouflage and thermoregulation hypotheses in an Arctic mammal

Cecilia Di Bernardi, Anne-Mathilde Thierry, Nina E. Eide, Diana E. Bowler, Lars Rød-Eriksen, Stefan Blumentrath, Lukas Tietgen, Brett Sandercock, Øystein Flagstad & Arild Landa
1. Selection for crypsis has been recognised as an important ecological driver of animal coloration, whereas the relative importance of thermoregulation is more contentious with mixed empirical support. A potential thermal advantage of darker individuals has been observed in a wide range of animal species. Arctic animals that exhibit colour polymorphisms and undergo seasonal colour moults are interesting study subjects for testing the two alternative hypotheses: demographic performance of different colour morphs might be differentially...

Beta redundancy for functional ecology

Carlo Ricotta, Evsey Kosman, Fabien Laroche & Sandrine Pavoine
Functional beta redundancy has been recently defined as the fraction of species dissimilarity between two plots not expressed by functional dissimilarity. As such, it summarizes to what degree the compositional differences between two plots mirror their functional differences. A fundamental condition to obtain an appropriate measure of functional beta redundancy is that the functional dissimilarity between the plots is always lower (or at least not higher) than the corresponding species dissimilarity. However, many of the...

Global impacts of climate change on avian functional diversity

Peter Stewart, Alke Voskamp, Luca Santini, Matthias Biber, Adam Devenish, Christian Hof, Stephen Willis & Joseph Tobias
Climate change is predicted to drive geographical range shifts, leading to fluctuations in species richness worldwide. However, the effect of these changes on functional diversity remains unclear, in part because comprehensive species-level trait data are generally lacking at global scales. Here we use morphometric and ecological traits for 8268 bird species to estimate the impact of climate change on avian functional diversity (FD). We show that future bird assemblages are likely to undergo substantial shifts...

Data from: Significance and popularity in music production

Bernardo Monechi, Pietro Gravino, Vito D.P. Servedio, Francesca Tria & Vittorio Loreto
Creative industries constantly strive for fame and popularity. Though highly desirable, popularity is not the only achievement artistic creations might ever acquire. Leaving a longstanding mark in the global production and influencing future works is an even more important achievement, usually acknowledged by experts and scholars. ‘Significant’ or ‘influential’ works are not always well known to the public or have sometimes been long forgotten by the vast majority. In this paper, we focus on the...

Data from: Cold adaptation shapes the robustness of metabolic networks in Drosophila melanogaster.

Caroline Margaret Williams, Miki Watanabe, Mario R. Guarracino, Maria Brigida Ferraro, Arthur S. Edison, Theodore J. Morgan, Arezue F. B. Boroujerdi, Dan A. Hahn & Daniel A. Hahn
When ectotherms are exposed to low temperatures, they enter a cold-induced coma (chill coma) that prevents resource acquisition, mating, oviposition, and escape from predation. There is substantial variation in time taken to recover from chill coma both within and among species, and this variation is correlated with habitat temperatures such that insects from cold environments recover more quickly. This suggests an adaptive response, but the mechanisms underlying variation in recovery times are unknown, making it...

Data from: Hybridization, natural selection and evolution of reproductive isolation: a 25-years survey of an artificial sympatric area between two mosquito sibling species of the Aedes mariae complex

Sandra Urbanelli, Daniele Porretta, Valentina Mastrantonio, Romeo Bellini, Giuseppe Pieraccini, Riccardo Romoli, Graziano Crasta & Giuseppe Nascetti
Natural selection can act against maladaptive hybridization between co-occurring divergent populations leading to evolution of reproductive isolation among them. A critical unanswered question about this process that provides a basis for the theory of speciation by reinforcement, is whether natural selection can cause hybridization rates to evolve to zero. Here we investigated this issue in two sibling mosquitoes species, Aedes mariae and Ae. zammitii, that show post-mating reproductive isolation (F1 males sterile) and partial pre-mating...

Cross-continental comparison of parasite communities in a wide-ranging carnivore suggests associations with prey diversity and host density

Astrid Stronen, Barbara Molnar, Paolo Ciucci, Chris Darimont, Lorenza Grottoli, Paul Paquet, Tim Sallows, Judit Smits & Heather Bryan
Parasites are integral to ecosystem functioning yet often overlooked. Improved understanding of host-parasite associations is important, particularly for wide-ranging species for which host range shifts and climate change could alter host-parasite interactions and their effects on ecosystem function. Among the most widely distributed mammals with diverse diets, grey wolves (Canis lupus) host parasites that are transmitted among canids and via prey species. Grey wolf-parasite associations may therefore influence the population dynamics and ecological functions of...

Unemployment and inflation in the European Monetary Union: A new approach?

Nicola Acocella
The paper deals first with the characters of unemployment and inflation and their trend in the EMU. Then it underlines that EMU’s institutions tend to reduce inflation to a minimum, while limiting fiscal interventions at the national and the European level. The policies implemented recently represent some kind of a novel line of conduct of the EU, as they introduce a rise in the EU budget, release some constraints to national fiscal policies and foresee...

Data from: The Bantu expansion revisited: a new analysis of Y chromosome variation in Central Western Africa

Valeria Montano, Gianmarco Ferri, Veronica Marcari, Chiara Batini, Okorie Anyaele, Giovanni Destro-Bisol & David Comas
The current distribution of Bantu languages is commonly considered to be a consequence of a relatively recent population expansion (3-5 kya) in Central Western Africa. While there is a substantial consensus regarding the centre of origin of Bantu languages (the Benue River Valley, between South East Nigeria and Western Cameroon), the identification of the area from where the population expansion actually started, the relation between the processes leading to the spread of languages and peoples...

Data from: Evolution of pre-mating reproductive isolation among conspecific populations of the sea rock-pool beetle Ochthebius urbanelliae driven by reinforcing natural selection

Daniele Porretta & Sandra Urbanelli
How natural selection might be involved in speciation remains a fundamental question in evolutionary biology. When two or more species co-occur in the same areas, natural selection may favour divergence in mating traits. By acting in sympatric but not allopatric populations, natural selection can also affect mate choice within species and ultimately initiate speciation among conspecific populations. Here we address this potential effect in the sea rock-pool beetles Ochthebius quadricollis and O.urbanelliae. The two species,...

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