277 Works

Understanding Trend Inflation Through the Lens of the Goods and Services Sectors

Yunjong Eo, Luis Uzeda & Benjamin Wong
Monetary policy is largely concerned with managing the part of inflation that is persistent (or permanent), a quantity often referred to as trend inflation. For example, a casual reading of any monetary policy report from the Federal Reserve Board will make it clear that, in addition to total (or headline) inflation, the Federal Reserve also focuses on underlying (or core) measures of inflation that exclude more volatile components such as food and energy prices. This...

Data from: Enhancing plant diversity in a novel grassland using seed addition

Tara J. Zamin, Alex Jolly, Steve Sinclair, John W. Morgan & Joslin L. Moore
1.Restoration of novel ecosystems to a historical benchmark may not always be possible or advisable. Novel ecosystems may be managed by targeting specific components and accepting the novelty of other ecosystem attributes. The feasibility of this component-wise management of novel ecosystems has rarely been tested. 2.In a novel grassland, where C3 grasses have replaced C4 grasses, nutrients have been elevated, and diversity has been lost due to a history of agricultural land use, we aimed...

Data from: Behavioural syndromes vary among geographically distinct populations in a reptile

Marcus Michelangeli, David G. Chapple, Celine T. Goulet, Michael G. Bertram, Bob B.M. Wong & Bob B M Wong
A key goal in the study of animal personalities is to determine their adaptive potential and importance for behavioural evolution. Behavioural syndromes are evolutionarily intriguing because they suggest that an adaptive change in one behaviour requires a concomitant shift in another. Within species, behavioural syndromes might be evolutionarily constrained by intrinsic mechanisms that restrict behaviours from evolving independently. Alternatively, behavioural correlations might easily be decoupled over short evolutionary time-scales due to variation in selective pressures...

Data from: Complexity of the genetic basis of aging in nature revealed by a clinal study of lifespan and methuselah, a gene for aging, in Drosophila from eastern Australia.

Carla M. Sgrò, Belinda Van Heerwaarden, Vanessa Kellermann, Choon Wei Wee, Ary A. Hoffmann & Siu Fai Lee
Clinal studies are a powerful tool for understanding the genetic basis of climatic adaptation. However, while clines in quantitative traits and genetic polymorphisms have been observed within and across continents, few studies have attempted to demonstrate direct links between them. The gene methuselah in Drosophila has been shown to have a major effect on stress response and longevity phenotypes based largely on laboratory studies of induced mutations in the mth gene. Clinal patterns in the...

Data from: Experience buffers extrinsic mortality in a group-living bird species

Michael Griesser, Emeline Mourocq, Jonathan Barnaby, Katharine Bowegen, Sönke Eggers, Kevin Fletcher, Radoslav Kozma, Franziska Kurz, Anssi Laurila, Magdalena Nystrand, Enrico Sorato, Jan Ekman & Katharine M. Bowgen
Extrinsic mortality has a strong impact on the evolution of life-histories, prey morphology and behavioural adaptations, but for many animals the causes of mortality are poorly understood. Predation is an important driver of extrinsic mortality and mobile animals form groups in response to increased predation risk. Furthermore, in many species juveniles suffer higher mortality than older individuals, which may reflect a lower phenotypic quality, lower competitiveness, or a lack of antipredator or foraging skills. Here...

Data from: High genetic variation in resting stage production in a metapopulation: is there evidence for local adaptation?

Anne Carole Roulin, Mahendra Mariadassou, Matthew D. Hall, Jean-Claude Walser, Christoph Haag & Dieter Ebert
Local adaptation is a key process for the maintenance of genetic diversity and population diversification. A better understanding of the mechanisms that allow (or prevent) local adaptation constitutes a key in apprehending how and at what spatial scale it occurs. The production of resting stages is found in many taxa and reflects an adaptation to outlast adverse environmental conditions. Daphnia magna (Crustacea) can alternate between asexual and sexual reproduction, the latter being linked to dormancy,...

Data from: Is adaptation to climate change really constrained in niche specialists?

Carla M. Sgró & Belinda Van Heerwaarden
Species with restricted distributions make up the vast majority of biodiversity. Recent evidence suggests that Drosophila species with restricted tropical distributions lack genetic variation in the key trait of desiccation resistance. It has therefore been predicted that tropically restricted species will be limited in their evolutionary response to future climatic changes and will face higher risks of extinction. However, these assessments have been made using extreme levels of desiccation stress (less than 10% relative humidity...

Data from: Evidence for lower plasticity in CTMAX at warmer developmental temperatures

Vanessa Kellermann & Carla M. Sgro
Understanding the capacity for different species to reduce their susceptibility to climate change via phenotypic plasticity is essential for accurately predicting species extinction risk. The climatic variability hypothesis suggests that spatial and temporal variation in climatic variables should select for more plastic phenotypes. However, empirical support for this hypothesis is limited. Here we examine the capacity for ten Drosophila species to increase their critical thermal maxima (CTMAX) through developmental acclimation and/or adult heat hardening. Using...

Data from: Heat tolerance is more variable than cold tolerance across species of Iberian lizards after controlling for intraspecific variation

Salvador Herrando-Pérez, Camila Monasterio, Wouter Beukema, Verónica Gomes, Francisco Gomes Ferri-Yáñez, Josabel Belliure, Steven L. Chown, Lauren B Buckley, David R. Vieites & Miguel B. Araújo
The widespread observation that heat tolerance is less variable than cold tolerance (‘cold-tolerance asymmetry’) leads to the prediction that species exposed to temperatures near their thermal maxima should have reduced evolutionary potential for adapting to climate warming. However, the prediction is largely supported by species-level global studies based on single estimates of both physiological metrics per taxon. We ask if cold-tolerance asymmetry holds for Iberian lizards after accounting for intraspecific variation in critical thermal maxima...

Data from: Expression of parasite genetic variation changes over the course of infection: implications of within-host dynamics for the evolution of virulence

Melanie Clerc, D. Ebert & M. D. Hall
How infectious disease agents interact with their host changes during the course of infection and can alter the expression of disease-related traits. Yet by measuring parasite life-history traits at one or few moments during infection, studies have overlooked the impact of variable parasite growth trajectories on disease evolution. Here we show that infection-age-specific estimates of host and parasite fitness components can reveal new insight into the evolution of parasites. We do so by characterizing the...

Data from: Sex-dependent evolution of life-history traits following adaptation to climate warming

Björn Rogell, William Widegren, Lára R. Hallsson, David Berger, Mats Björklund & Alexei A. Maklakov
1. Thermodynamic processes increase metabolic rate and decrease longevity at high temperatures in ectotherms. However, how sustained long-term increase in temperature affects the evolution of longevity is poorly understood. 2. Stress theory of ageing predicts that increased longevity is positively genetically correlated with resistance to different types of environmental stressors implying that evolutionary trajectories of ageing may be mediated by correlative selection for robust phenotypes under thermal stress. 3. Here, we test this hypothesis by...

Data from: Environment-dependent variation in selection on life history across small spatial scales

Rolanda Lange, Keyne Monro & Dustin J. Marshall
Variation in life-history traits is ubiquitous, even though genetic variation is thought to be depleted by selection. One potential mechanism for the maintenance of trait variation is spatially-variable selection. We explored spatial variation in selection in the field for a colonial marine invertebrate that shows phenotypic differences across a depth gradient of only three meters. Our analysis included life-history traits relating to module size, colony growth and phenology. Directional selection on colony growth varied in...

Data from: A widespread thermodynamic effect, but maintenance of biological rates through space across life’s major domains

Jesper G. Sørensen, Craig R. White, Grant A. Duffy & Steven L. Chown
For over a century, the hypothesis of temperature compensation, the maintenance of similar biological rates in species from different thermal environments, has remained controversial. An alternative idea, that fitness is greater at higher temperatures (the thermodynamic effect), has gained increasing traction. This alternative hypothesis is also being used to understand large-scale biodiversity responses to environmental change. Yet evidence in favour of each of these contrasting hypotheses continues to emerge. In consequence, the fundamental nature of...

Data from: Quantifying the relative contributions of the X chromosome, autosomes, and mitochondrial genome to local adaptation

Clementine Lasne, Belinda Van Heerwaarden, Carla M Sgro & Tim Connallon
During local adaptation with gene flow, some regions of the genome are inherently more responsive to selection than others. Recent theory predicts that X-linked genes should disproportionately contribute to local adaptation relative to other genomic regions, yet this prediction remains to be tested. We carried out a multi-generation crossing scheme, using two cline-end populations of Drosophila melanogaster, to estimate the relative contributions of the X chromosome, autosomes and mitochondrial genome to adaptive divergence in four...

Data from: Assessing the sensitivity of biodiversity indices used to inform fire management

Katherine M. Giljohann, Luke T. Kelly, Jemima Connell, Michael F. Clarke, Rohan H. Clarke, Tracey J. Regan & Michael A. McCarthy
Biodiversity indices are widely used to summarise changes in the distribution and abundance of multiple species and measure progress towards management targets. However, the sensitivity of biodiversity indices to the data, landscape classification and conservation values underpinning them are rarely interrogated. There are limited studies to help scientists and land managers use biodiversity indices in the presence of fire and vegetation succession. The geometric mean of species’ relative abundance or occurrence (G) is a biodiversity...

Multi-species models reveal that eDNA metabarcoding is more sensitive than backpack electrofishing for conducting fish surveys in freshwater streams

Emily McColl-Gausden, Andrew Weeks, Rhys Coleman, Katie Robinson, Sue Song, Tarmo Raadik & Reid Tingley
Environmental DNA (eDNA) sampling can provide accurate, cost-effective, landscape-level data on species distributions. Previous studies have compared the sensitivity of eDNA sampling to traditional sampling methods for single species, but similar comparative studies on multi-species eDNA metabarcoding are rare. Using hierarchical species occupancy-detection models, we examined whether key choices associated with eDNA metabarcoding (primer selection, low-abundance read filtering, and the number of positive water samples used to classify a species as present at a site)...

Data from: The global diversity and distribution of lizard clutch sizes

Shai Meiri, Luciano Avila, Aaron Bauer, David Chapple, Indraneil Das, Tiffany Doan, Paul Doughty, Ryan Ellis, Lee Grismer, Fred Kraus, Mariana Morando, Paul Oliver, Daniel Pincheira-Donoso, Marco-Antonio Ribeiro-Junior, Glenn Shea, Omar Torres-Carvajal, Alex Slavenko & Uri Roll
Aim. Clutch size is a key life-history trait. In lizards, it ranges over two orders of magnitude. The global drivers of spatial and phylogenetic variation in clutch have been extensively studied in birds, but such tests in other organisms are lacking. To test the generality of latitudinal gradients in clutch size, and their putative drivers, we present the first global-scale analysis of clutch sizes across of lizard taxa. Location, Global Time period. Recent Major taxa...

Effects of embryo energy, egg size and larval food supply on the development of asteroid echinoderms

Stacy Trackenberg, Emily Richardson & Jonathan Allen
Organisms have limited resources available to invest in reproduction, causing a tradeoff between the number and size of offspring. One consequence of this tradeoff is the evolution of disparate egg sizes and, by extension, developmental modes. In particular, echinoid echinoderms (sea urchins and sand dollars) have been widely used to experimentally manipulate how changes in egg size affect development. Here we test the generality of the echinoid results by 1) using laser ablations of blastomeres...

The roles of acclimation and behavior in buffering climate change impacts along elevational gradients

Urtzi Enriquez-Urzelai, Reid Tingley, Michael Kearney, Martina Sacco, Antonio Palacio, Miguel Tejedo & Alfredo Nicieza
1. The vulnerability of species to climate change is jointly influenced by geographic phenotypic variation, acclimation, and behavioral thermoregulation. The importance of interactions between these factors, however, remains poorly understood. 2. We demonstrate how advances in mechanistic niche modelling can be used to integrate and assess the influence of these sources of uncertainty in forecasts of climate change impacts. 3. We explored geographic variation in thermal tolerance (i.e. maximum and minimum thermal limits) and its...

Developmental Cost Theory predicts thermal environment and vulnerability to global warming

Dustin Marshall, Amanda Pettersen, Michael Bode & Craig White
Metazoans must develop from zygotes to feeding organisms. In doing so, developing offspring consume up to 60% of the energy provided by their parent. The cost of development depends on two rates: metabolic rate, which determines the rate that energy is used; and developmental rate, which determines the length of the developmental period. Both development and metabolism are highly temperature-dependent such that developmental costs should be sensitive to the local thermal environment. Here we develop,...

Impacts of caudal autotomy on personality

Marcus Michelangeli, Brooke Melki-Wegner, Kate Laskowski, Bob Wong & David Chapple
Caudal autotomy, the voluntary shedding of a tail, is a last-ditch strategy used by many lizard species to escape from predators. There are several costs associated with caudal autotomy that may cause lizards to make behavioral adjustments during tail regeneration. These behavioral changes may be dependent upon individual differences in response to autotomy (e.g. trait or state-dependent differences) and/or the degree of tail loss, as many lizards have the capacity to only partially shed their...

Data from: Dyadic leader-follower dynamics change across situations in captive house sparrows

Beniamino Tuliozi, Ettore Camerlenghi & Matteo Griggio
Individuals can behave as either leaders or followers in many taxa of collectively-moving animals. Leaders initiate movements and may incur predation risks while followers are thought to be more risk-averse. As a group encounters different challenges and ecological situations, individuals in the group may change their social role. We investigated leader and follower roles using dyads of captive house sparrow (Passer domesticus) during both exploration of a novel environment and a simulation of predator attack....

Natalizumab, fingolimod and dimethyl fumarate use and pregnancy-related relapse and disability in women with multiple sclerosis

Wei Yeh
Objective: To investigate pregnancy-related disease activity in a contemporary multiple sclerosis (MS) cohort. Methods: Using data from the MSBase Registry, we included pregnancies conceived after 31 Dec 2010 from women with relapsing-remitting MS or clinically isolated syndrome. Predictors of intrapartum relapse, and postpartum relapse and disability progression were determined by clustered logistic regression or Cox regression analyses. Results: We included 1998 pregnancies from 1619 women with MS. Preconception annualized relapse rate (ARR) was 0.29 (95%...

Double-tagging scores of seabirds reveals that light-level geolocator accuracy is limited by species idiosyncrasies and equatorial solar profiles

Luke Halpin, Jeremy Ross, Raül Ramos, Rowan Mott, Nicholas Carlile, Nick Golding, José Manuel Reyes-González, Teresa Militão, Fernanda De Felipe, Zuzana Zajková, Marta Cruz Flores, Sarah Saldanha, Virginia Morera-Pujol, Leia Navarro-Herrero, Laura Zango, Jacob Gonzalez-Solis & Rohan Clarke
Light-level geolocators are popular bio-logging tools, with advantageous sizes, longevity, and affordability. Biologists tracking seabirds often presume geolocator spatial accuracies between 186-202 km from previously-innovative, yet taxonomically, spatially, and computationally limited, studies. Using recently developed methods, we investigated whether assumed uncertainty norms held across a larger-scale, multispecies study. We field-tested geolocator spatial accuracy by synchronously deploying these with GPS loggers on scores of seabirds across five species and 11 Mediterranean Sea, East Atlantic and South...

Data from: Positive and purifying selection in mitochondrial genomes of a bird with mitonuclear discordance

Hernán E. Morales, Alexandra Pavlova, Leo Joseph & Paul Sunnucks
Diversifying selection on metabolic pathways can reduce intraspecific gene flow and promote population divergence. An opportunity to explore this arises from mitonuclear discordance observed in an Australian bird Eopsaltria australis. Across >1500 km, nuclear differentiation is low and latitudinally structured by isolation by distance, whereas two highly divergent, parapatric mitochondrial lineages (>6.6% in ND2) show a discordant longitudinal geographic pattern and experience different climates. Vicariance, incomplete lineage sorting and sex-biased dispersal were shown earlier to...

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