244 Works

Data from: Flower colour and phylogeny along an altitudinal gradient in the Himalaya of Nepal

Mani Shrestha, Adrian Dyer, Prakash Bhattarai, Martin Burd & Adrian G. Dyer
1. Both the phylogenetic structure and trait composition of flowering plant communities may be expected to change with altitude. In particular, floral colours are thought to vary with altitude because Hymenoptera typically decline in importance as pollinators while Diptera and Lepidoptera become more important at higher elevations. Thus, ecological filtering among elevation zones and competitive processes among co-occurring species within zones could influence the floral chromatic cues present at low and high elevations. 2. We...

Data from: Evolutionary constraints and the maintenance of individual specialization throughout succession

Keyne Monro & Dustin J. Marshall
Constraints on life-history traits, with their close links to fitness, are widely invoked as limits to niche expansion at most organizational levels. Theoretically, such constraints can maintain individual specialization by preventing adaptation to all niches available, but empirical evidence of them remains elusive for natural populations. This problem may be compounded by a tendency to seek constraints involving multiple traits, neglecting their added potential to manifest in trait expression across environments (i.e., within reaction norms)....

Data from: Perched at the mito-nuclear crossroads: divergent mitochondrial lineages correlate with environment in the face of ongoing nuclear gene flow in an Australian bird

Alexandra Pavlova, J. Nevil Amos, Leo Joseph, Kate Loynes, Jeremy J. Austin, J. Scott Keogh, Graham N. Stone, James Allan Nicholls & Paul Sunnucks
Relationships among multi-locus genetic variation, geography and environment can reveal how evolutionary processes affect genomes. We examined the evolution of an Australian bird, the eastern yellow robin Eopsaltria australis, using mitochondrial (mtDNA) and nuclear (nDNA) genetic markers, and bioclimatic variables. In southeastern Australia, two divergent mtDNA lineages occur east and west of the Great Dividing Range, perpendicular to latitudinal nDNA structure. We evaluated alternative scenarios to explain this striking discordance in landscape genetic patterning. Stochastic...

Data from: Extinction and recolonization of maritime Antarctica in the limpet Nacella concinna (Strebel, 1908) during the last glacial cycle: toward a model of Quaternary biogeography in shallow Antarctic invertebrates

Claudio A. González-Wevar, Thomas Saucède, Simon A. Morley, Steven L. Chown & Elie Poulin
Quaternary glaciations in Antarctica drastically modified geographical ranges and population sizes of marine benthic invertebrates and thus affected the amount and distribution of intraspecific genetic variation. Here, we present new genetic information in the Antarctic limpet Nacella concinna, a dominant Antarctic benthic species along shallow ice-free rocky ecosystems. We examined the patterns of genetic diversity and structure in this broadcast spawner along maritime Antarctica and from the peri-Antarctic island of South Georgia. Genetic analyses showed...

Effects of model resolution, physics, and coupling on Southern Hemisphere storm tracks in CESM1.3

Dongxia Yang & Gerald Meehl
Two high-resolution versions of a coupled Earth system model (CESM1.3: 0.25˚-atmosphere, 1˚-ocean; CESM1.1: 0.25˚-atmosphere, 0.1˚-ocean) are compared to the standard resolution CESM1.1 and CESM1.3 (1˚-atmosphere, 1˚-ocean). The CESM1.3 versions are documented, and the consequences of model resolution, air-sea coupling, and physics in the atmospheric models are studied with regards to storm tracks in the Southern Hemisphere as represented by 850 hPa eddy kinetic energy. Increasing the resolution from 1˚ to 0.25˚ in the atmosphere (same...

Data from: Cooperative defence operates by social modulation of biogenic amine levels in the honeybee brain

Morgane Nouvian, Souvik Mandal, Charlène Jamme, Charles Claudianos, Patrizia D'Ettorre, Judith Reinhard, Andrew B. Barron & Martin Giurfa
The defence of a society often requires that some specialized members coordinate to repel a threat at personal risk. This is especially true for honeybee guards, which defend the hive and may sacrifice their lives upon stinging. Central to this cooperative defensive response is the sting alarm pheromone, which has isoamyl acetate (IAA) as its main component. Although this defensive behaviour has been well described, the neural mechanisms triggered by IAA to coordinate stinging have...

Data from: Interactions between host sex and age of exposure modify the virulence-transmission trade-off

Stephen A.Y. Gipson, Matthew D. Hall & S. A. Y. Gipson
The patterns of immunity conferred by host sex or age represent two sources of host heterogeneity that can potentially shape the evolutionary trajectory of disease. With each host sex or age encountered, a pathogen’s optimal exploitative strategy may change, leading to considerable variation in expression of pathogen transmission and virulence. To date, these host characteristics have been studied in the context of host fitness alone, overlooking the effects of host sex and age on the...

Data from: Antagonistic pleiotropy in species with separate sexes, and the maintenance of genetic variation in life-history traits and fitness

Felix Zajitschek & Tim Connallon
Antagonistic pleiotropy (AP) – where alleles of a gene increase some components of fitness at a cost to others – can generate balancing selection, and contribute to the maintenance of genetic variation in fitness traits, such as survival, fecundity, fertility, and mate competition. Previous theory suggests that AP is unlikely to maintain variation unless antagonistic selection is strong, or AP alleles exhibit pronounced differences in genetic dominance between the affected traits. We show that conditions...

Data from: Physical and physiological impacts of ocean warming alter phenotypic selection on sperm morphology

Evatt Chirgwin
Global warming may threaten fertility, which is a key component of individual fitness and vital for population persistence. For males, fertility relies on the ability of sperm to collide and fuse with eggs; consequently, sperm morphology is predicted to be a prime target of selection owing to its effects on male function. In aquatic environments, warming will expose gametes of external fertilisers to the physiological effects of higher temperature and the physical effects of lower...

Data from: The ecological and genomic basis of explosive adaptive radiation

Matt McGee
Rates of speciation vary tremendously among evolutionary lineages, with our understanding of what fuels the rapid succession of speciation events within young adaptive radiations remaining particularly incomplete. The cichlid fish family provides the most notable example of such variation among extant metazoans. It includes many slowly speciating lineages as well as the several exceptionally large and rapid adaptive radiations. By reconstructing a large phylogeny of all described cichlid species, we show that explosive speciation is...

Dominant native and non-native graminoids differ in key leaf traits irrespective of nutrient availability

Arthur Broadbent, Jennifer Firn, James McGree, Elizabeth Borer, Yvonne Buckley, W. Stanley Harpole, Kimberly Komatsu, Andrew MacDougall, Kate Orwin, Nicholas Ostle, Eric Seabloom, Jonathan Bakker, Lori Biedermann, Maria Caldeira, Nico Eisenhauer, Nicole Hagenah, Yann Hautier, Joslin Moore, Carla Nogueira, Pablo Peri, Anita Risch, Christiane Roscher, Martin Schuetz & Carly Stevens
Aim Nutrient enrichment is associated with plant invasions and biodiversity loss. Functional trait advantages may predict the ascendancy of invasive plants following nutrient enrichment but this is rarely tested. Here, we investigate 1) whether dominant native and non-native plants differ in important morphological and physiological leaf traits, 2) how their traits respond to nutrient addition, and 3) whether responses are consistent across functional groups. Location Australia, Europe, North America and South Africa Time period 2007...

Data from: Comparing thermal performance curves across traits: how consistent are they?

Vanessa Kellermann, Steven L. Chown, Mads Fristrup Schou, Ian Aitkenhead, Charlene Janion-Scheepers, Allannah Clemson, Marina Telonis Scott & Carla M. Sgro
Thermal performance curves (TPCs) are intended to approximate the relationship between temperature and fitness, and are commonly integrated into species distributional models for understanding climate change responses. However, TPCs may vary across traits because selection and environmental sensitivity (plasticity) differ across traits or because the timing and duration of the temperature exposure, here termed time-scale, may alter trait variation. Yet the extent to which TPCs vary temporally and across traits is rarely considered in assessments...

Testing the drivers of the temperature-size covariance using artificial selection

Martino E. Malerba & Dustin J. Marshall
Body size often declines with increasing temperature. Although there is ample evidence for this effect to be adaptive, it remains unclear whether size shrinking at warmer temperatures is driven by specific properties of being smaller (e.g. surface to volume ratio) or by traits that are correlated with size (e.g. metabolism, growth). We used 290 generations (22 months) of artificial selection on a unicellular phytoplankton species to evolve a 13-fold difference in volume between small-selected and...

Data from: More salt, please: global patterns, responses, and impacts of foliar sodium in grasslands

Elizabeth T. Borer, Eric M. Lind, Jennifer Firn, Eric W. Seabloom, T. Michael Anderson, Elizabeth S. Bakker, Lori Biederman, Kimberly J. La Pierre, Andrew S. MacDougall, Joslin L. Moore, Anita C. Risch, Martin Schutz & Carly J. Stevens
Sodium is unique among abundant elemental nutrients, because most plant species do not require it for growth or development, whereas animals physiologically require sodium. Foliar sodium influences consumption rates by animals and can structure herbivores across landscapes. We quantified foliar sodium in 201 locally abundant, herbaceous species representing 32 families and, at 26 sites on four continents, experimentally manipulated vertebrate herbivores and elemental nutrients to determine their effect on foliar sodium. Foliar sodium varied taxonomically...

Data from: Leaf nutrients, not specific leaf area, are consistent indicators of elevated nutrient inputs

Jennifer Firn, James M. McGree, Eric Harvey, Habacuc Flores-Moreno, Martin Schütz, Yvonne M. Buckley, Elizabeth T. Borer, Eric W. Seabloom, Kimberly J. La Pierre, Andrew M. MacDougall, Suzanne M. Prober, Carly J. Stevens, Lauren L. Sullivan, Erica Porter, Emma Ladouceur, Charlotte Allen, Karine H. Moromizato, John W. Morgan, W. Stanley Harpole, Yann Hautier, Nico Eisenhauer, Justin P. Wright, Peter B. Adler, Carlos Alberto Arnillas, Jonathan D. Bakker … & Anita C. Risch
Leaf traits are frequently measured in ecology to provide a ‘common currency’ for predicting how anthropogenic pressures impact ecosystem function. Here, we test whether leaf traits consistently respond to experimental treatments across 27 globally distributed grassland sites across 4 continents. We find that specific leaf area (leaf area per unit mass)—a commonly measured morphological trait inferring shifts between plant growth strategies—did not respond to up to four years of soil nutrient additions. Leaf nitrogen, phosphorus...

Data from: Y chromosome sequences reveal a short Beringian Standstill, rapid expansion, and early population structure of Native American founders

Thomaz Pinotti, Susana Revollo, Cézar Paz-Y-Miño, Ricardo Fujita, Fabrício Rodrigues Santos, Chris Tyler-Smith, Toomas Kivisild, Qasim Ayub, Anders Bergström, Yali Xue, Cinthia Cuellar, Dominique Ohasi, Daniela R. Lacerda, Marilza S. Jota, José E. Santos & Arne Solli
The Americas were the last inhabitable continents to be occupied by humans, with a growing multidisciplinary consensus for entry 15-25 thousand years ago (kya) from northeast Asia via the former Beringia land bridge. Autosomal DNA analyses have dated the separation of Native American ancestors from the Asian gene pool to 23 kya or later, and mtDNA analyses to ~25 kya, followed by isolation (‘Beringian Standstill’) for 2.4-9 ky and then a rapid expansion throughout the...

Data from: Relating Ediacaran fronds

Thomas Alexander Dececchi, Guy M. Narbonne, Carolyn Greentree & Marc Laflamme
Ediacaran fronds are key components of terminal-Proterozoic ecosystems. They represent one of the most widespread and common body forms ranging across all major Ediacaran fossil localities and time slices postdating the Gaskiers glaciation, but uncertainty over their phylogenetic affinities has led to uncertainty over issues of homology and functional morphology between and within organisms displaying this ecomorphology. Here we present the first large-scale, multigroup cladistic analysis of Ediacaran organisms, sampling 20 ingroup taxa with previously...

Data from: Does the house sparrow Passer domesticus represent a global model species for egg rejection behavior?

Thomas Manna, Caren Cooper, Shane Baylis, Matthew D. Shawkey, Geoffrey I. N. Waterhouse, Tomas Grim & Mark E. Hauber
Conspecific brood parasitism (CP) is a facultative breeding tactic whereby females lay their eggs in the nests of conspecifics. In some species, potential host individuals have evolved the ability to identify and reject foreign eggs from their nest. Previous studies suggest that the ubiquitous House Sparrow Passer domesticus in Spain and South Africa employs both CP and parasitic egg rejection, while a population in China does not. Given the species’ invasive range expansions, the House...

Data from: Constructing an invasion machine: the rapid evolution of a dispersal-enhancing phenotype during the cane toad invasion of Australia

Cameron M. Hudson, Matthew R. McCurry, Petra Lundgren, Colin R. McHenry & Rick Shine
Biological invasions can induce rapid evolutionary change. As cane toads (Rhinella marina) have spread across tropical Australia over an 80-year period, their rate of invasion has increased from around 15 to 60 km per annum. Toads at the invasion front disperse much faster and further than conspecifics from range-core areas, and their offspring inherit that rapid dispersal rate. We investigated morphological changes that have accompanied this dramatic acceleration, by conducting three-dimensional morphometric analyses of toads...

Data from: Reproductive activity triggers accelerated male mortality and decreases lifespan: genetic and gene expression determinants in Drosophila

Alan T. Branco, Luca Schilling, Katherine Silkaitis, Damian K. Dowling & Bernardo Lemos
Reproduction and aging evolved to be intimately associated. Experimental selection for early-life reproduction drives the evolution of decreased longevity in Drosophila whereas experimental selection for increased longevity leads to changes in reproduction. Although life history theory offers hypotheses to explain these relationships, the genetic architecture and molecular mechanisms underlying reproduction–longevity associations remain a matter of debate. Here we show that mating triggers accelerated mortality in males and identify hundreds of genes that are modulated upon...

Data from: GloPL, a global data base on pollen limitation of plant reproduction

Joanne. M. Bennett, Janette. A. Steets, Jean. H. Burns, Walter Durka, Jana. C. Vamosi, Gerardo Arceo-Gómez, Martin Burd, Laura. A. Burkle, Allan. G Ellis, Leandro Freitas, Junmin Li, James. G. Rodger, Marina Wolowski, Jing Xia, Tia-Lynn Ashman & Tiffany. M. Knight
Plant reproduction relies on transfer of pollen from anthers to stigmas, and the majority of flowering plants depend on biotic or abiotic agents for this transfer. A key metric for characterizing if pollen receipt is insufficient for reproduction is pollen limitation, which is assessed by pollen supplementation experiments. In a pollen supplementation experiment, fruit or seed production by flowers exposed to natural pollination is compared to that following hand pollination either by pollen supplementation (i.e....

Data from: Thermal performance curves reveal shifts in optima, limits, and breadth in early life

Adriana Rebolledo, Keyne Monro & Carla Sgrò
Understanding thermal performance at life stages that limit persistence is necessary to predict responses to climate change, especially for ectotherms whose fitness (survival and reproduction) depends on environmental temperature. Ectotherms often undergo stage-specific changes in size, complexity and duration that are predicted to modify thermal performance. Yet performance is mostly explored for adults, while performance at earlier stages that typically limit persistence remains poorly understood. Here, we experimentally isolate thermal performance curves at fertilization, embryo...

Data from: Dose-dependent effects of an immune challenge at both ultimate and proximate levels in Drosophila melanogaster

Magdalena Nystrand & Damian K. Dowling
Immune responses are highly dynamic. The magnitude and efficiency of an immune response to a pathogen can change markedly across individuals, and such changes may be influenced by variance in a range of intrinsic (e.g. age, genotype, sex) and external (e.g. abiotic stress, pathogen identity, strain) factors. Life history theory predicts that up-regulation of the immune system will come at a physiological cost, and studies have confirmed that increased investment in immunity can reduce reproductive...

Data from: Modification of plant-induced responses by an insect ecosystem engineer influences the colonization behaviour of subsequent shelter-users

Akane Uesugi, Kimberly Morrell, Erik H. Poelman, Ciska E. Raaijmakers & André Kessler
Herbivores that modify plant morphology, such as gall forming insects, can disproportionately impact arthropod community on their host plants by providing novel habitats and shelters from biotic and abiotic stresses. These ecosystem engineers could also modify plant chemical properties, but how such changes in plant quality affect the behaviour of subsequent colonizers has rarely been investigated. We explored how an initial infestation of the tall goldenrod (Solidago altissima) by an ecosystem engineer, the rosette gall-midge...

Data from: Floral colours in a world without birds and bees: the plants of Macquarie Island

Mani Shrestha, Klaus Lunau, Alan Dorin, Brian Schulze, Mascha Bischoff, Martin Burd & Adrian G. Dyer
We studied biotically pollinated angiosperms on Macquarie Island, a remote site in the Southern Ocean with a predominately or exclusively dipteran pollinator fauna, in an effort to understand how flower colour affects community assembly. We compared a distinctive group of cream-green Macquarie Island flowers to the flora of likely source pools of immigrants and to a continental flora from a high latitude in the northern hemisphere. We used both dipteran and hymenopteran colour models and...

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