1,378 Works

Data from: Polymorphism in the couch potato gene clines in eastern Australia but is not associated with ovarian dormancy in Drosophila melanogaster

Siu Fai Lee, Carla M Sgrò, Jennifer Shirriffs, Choon Wei Wee, Lea Rako, Belinda Van Heerwaaden & Ary A Hoffmann
Natural selection can generate parallel latitudinal clines in traits and gene frequencies across continents but these have rarely been linked. An amino acid (isoleucine to lysine, or I462K) polymorphism of the couch potato (cpo) gene in Drosophila melanogaster is thought to control female reproductive diapause cline in North America (Schmidt et al. 2008). Here, we show that under standard diapause inducing conditions (12 °C and short photoperiod) (Saunders et al. 1989), egg maturation in Australian...

Data from: Shades of red: bird-pollinated flowers target the specific colour discrimination abilities of avian vision

Mani Shrestha, Adrian G. Dyer, Skye Boyd-Gerny, Bob B. M. Wong & Martin Burd
Colour signals are a major cue in putative pollination syndromes. There is evidence that the reflectance spectra of many flowers target the distinctive visual discrimination abilities of hymenopteran insects, but far less is known about bird-pollinated flowers. Birds are hypothesized to exert different selective pressures on floral colour compared with hymenopterans because of differences in their visual systems. We measured the floral reflectance spectra of 206 Australian angiosperm species whose floral visitors are known from...

Data from: Patterns of niche filling and expansion across the invaded ranges of an Australian lizard

Reid Tingley, Michael B. Thompson, Stephen Hartley & David G. Chapple
Studies of realized niche shifts in alien species typically ignore the potential effects of intraspecific niche variation and different invaded-range environments on niche lability. We incorporate our detailed knowledge of the native-range source populations and global introduction history of the delicate skink Lampropholis delicata to examine intraspecific variation in realized niche expansion and unfilling, and investigate how alternative niche modelling approaches are affected by that variation. We analyzed the realized niche dynamics of L. delicata...

Data from: Colder environments did not select for a faster metabolism during experimental evolution of Drosophila melanogaster

Lesley A. Alton, Catriona Condon, Craig Robert White & Michael J. Angilletta
The effect of temperature on the evolution of metabolism has been the subject of debate for a century; however, no consistent patterns have emerged from comparisons of metabolic rate within and among species living at different temperatures. We used experimental evolution to determine how metabolism evolves in populations of Drosophila melanogaster exposed to one of three selective treatments: a constant 16°C, a constant 25°C, or temporal fluctuations between 16 and 25°C. We tested August Krogh's...

Data from: Limited scope for plasticity to increase upper thermal limits

Belinda Van Heerwaarden, Vanessa Kellermann & Carla M. Sgrò
Increases in average temperature and the frequency of extreme temperature events are likely to pose a major risk to species already close to their upper physiological thermal limits. The extent to which thermal phenotypic plasticity can buffer these changes and whether plasticity is constrained by basal tolerance levels, remains unknown. We examined the effect of developmental temperature under both constant and fluctuating thermal regimes (developmental acclimation), as well as short-term heat hardening on upper thermal...

Data from: Transgenerational plasticity and environmental stress: do paternal effects act as a conduit or a buffer?

Annie S. Guillaume, Keyne Monro & Dustin J. Marshall
For most organisms, early life-history stages are the most sensitive to environmental stress and so transgenerational phenotypic plasticity, whereby the parental environment and offspring environment interact to alter the phenotype of the offspring, is viewed as key to promoting persistence in the face of environmental change. While there has been long-standing interest in the role of transgenerational plasticity via the maternal line (traditionally the field of maternal effects), increasingly it appears that paternal effects can...

Data from: Identification of genes important for cutaneous function revealed by a large scale reverse genetic screen in the mouse

Tia DiTommaso, Lynelle K. Jones, Denny L. Cottle, The WTSI Mouse Genetics Program, Anna-Karin Gerdin, Valerie E. Vancollie, Fiona M. Watt, Ramiro Ramirez-Solis, Allan Bradley, Karen P. Steel, John P. Sundberg, Jacqueline K. White, Ian Smyth & Ian M. Smyth
The skin is a highly regenerative organ which plays critical roles in protecting the body and sensing its environment. Consequently, morbidity and mortality associated with skin defects represent a significant health issue. To identify genes important in skin development and homeostasis, we have applied a high throughput, multi-parameter phenotype screen to the conditional targeted mutant mice generated by the Wellcome Trust Sanger Institute's Mouse Genetics Project (Sanger-MGP). A total of 562 different mouse lines were...

Data from: Spectroscopic analysis of myoglobin and cytochrome c dynamics in isolated cardiomyocytes during hypoxia and reoxygenation

Abdullah R. D. Almohammedi, Sofia M. Kapetanaki, Bayden R. Wood, Emma L. Raven, Nina M. Storey & Andrew J. Hudson
Raman microspectroscopy was applied to monitor the intracellular redox state of myoglobin and cytochrome c from isolated adult rat cardiomyocytes during hypoxia and reoxygenation. The nitrite reductase activity of myoglobin leads to the production of nitric oxide in cells under hypoxic conditions, which is linked to the inhibition of mitochondrial respiration. In this work, the subsequent reoxygenation of cells after hypoxia is shown to lead to increased levels of oxygen-bound myoglobin relative to the initial...

Data from: Shared genetic diversity across the global invasive range of the Monk parakeet suggests a common restricted geographic origin and the possibility of convergent selection

Pim Edelaar, Severine Roques, Elizabeth A. Hobson, Anders Gonçalves Da Silva, Michael L. Avery, Michael A. Russello, Juan Carlos Senar, Timothy F. Wright, Martina Carrete & Jose Luis Tella
While genetic diversity is hypothesized to be an important factor explaining invasion success, there is no consensus yet on how variation in source populations or demographic processes affects invasiveness. We used mitochondrial DNA haplotypic and microsatellite genotypic data to investigate levels of genetic variation and reconstruct the history of replicate invasions on three continents in a globally invasive bird, the monk parakeet (Myiopsitta monachus). We evaluated whether genetic diversity at invasive sites could be explained...

Data from: A Drosophila laboratory evolution experiment points to low evolutionary potential under increased temperatures likely to be experienced in the future

Mads F. Schou, Torsten N. Kristensen, Vanessa Kellermann, Christian Schlötterer & Volker Loeschcke
The ability to respond evolutionarily to increasing temperatures is important for survival of ectotherms in a changing climate. Recent studies suggest that upper thermal limits may be evolutionary constrained. We address this hypothesis in a laboratory evolution experiment, encompassing ecologically relevant thermal regimes. To examine the potential for species to respond to climate change, we exposed replicate populations of Drosophila melanogaster to increasing temperatures (0.3 °C every generation) for 20 generations, whereas corresponding replicate control...

Data from: The genetic covariance between life-cycle stages separated by metamorphosis.

J. David Aguirre, Mark W. Blows & Dustin J. Marshall
Metamorphosis is common in animals, yet the genetic associations between life cycle stages are poorly understood. Given the radical changes that occur at metamorphosis, selection may differ before and after metamorphosis, and the extent that genetic associations between pre- and post-metamorphic traits constrain evolutionary change is a subject of considerable interest. In some instances, metamorphosis may allow the genetic decoupling of life cycle stages, whereas in others, metamorphosis could allow complementary responses to selection across...

Data from: The Trojan Female Technique for pest control: a candidate mitochondrial mutation confers low male fertility across diverse nuclear backgrounds in Drosophila melanogaster

Damian K. Dowling, Daniel M. Tompkins & Neil J. Gemmell
Pest species represent a major ongoing threat to global biodiversity. Effective management approaches are required that regulate pest numbers, while minimizing collateral damage to nontarget species. The Trojan Female Technique (TFT) was recently proposed as a prospective approach to biological pest control. The TFT draws on the evolutionary hypothesis that maternally inherited mitochondrial genomes are prone to the accumulation of male, but not female, harming mutations. These mutations could be harnessed to provide trans-generational fertility-based...

Data from: Quantifying the role of colonization history and biotic interactions in shaping communities –a community transplant approach

Chun-Yi Chang & Dustin J. Marshall
The role of colonization history and subsequent biotic interactions in determining the species composition in communities has long been the subject of debate in ecology. While one narrative has emphasized deterministic assembly rules, another has emphasized historical contingency. One problem lies in approach: community studies are typically either manipulative but somewhat unnatural, or observational but lacking manipulation. Furthermore, while most ecologists now recognize that both historical and biotic factors shape communities, too few studies have...

Data from: Functional traits in red flour beetles: the dispersal phenotype is associated with leg length but not body size nor metabolic rate

Pieter A. Arnold, Phill Cassey, Craig R. White & Phillip Cassey
Individuals vary in their ability to disperse. Much of this variation can be described by covarying phenotypic traits that are related to dispersal (constituting the ‘dispersal phenotype’ or ‘dispersal syndrome’), but the nature of the associations among these traits is not well understood. Unravelling the associations among traits that potentially constitute the dispersal phenotype provides a foundation for understanding evolutionary trade-offs due to variation in dispersal. Here, we tested five predictions pertaining to the relationships...

Data from: Sex-specific shifts in morphology and colour pattern polymorphism during range expansion of an invasive lizard

Kimberly A. Miller, Andressa Duran, Jane Melville, Michael B. Thompson & David G. Chapple
Aim: Human-assisted range expansion of animals to new environments can lead to phenotypic shifts over ecological timescales.We investigated whether phenotypic changes are sex-specific using an invasive lizard (Lampropholis delicata). Location: Pacific region (Hawaiian Islands, Lord Howe Island, New Zealand, eastern Australia) Methods: Using our knowledge of theintroduction history of L. delicata, we examined museum specimens of individuals collected across the native and introduced range to determine whether shifts in morphologyor colour pattern polymorphism had occurred...

Data from: The other 96%: can neglected sources of fitness variation offer new insights into adaptation to global change?

Evatt Chirgwin, Dustin J. Marshall, Carla M. Sgro & Keyne Monro
Mounting research considers whether populations may adapt to global change based on additive genetic variance in fitness. Yet selection acts on phenotypes, not additive genetic variance alone, meaning that persistence and evolutionary potential in the near-term, at least, may be influenced by other sources of fitness variation, including non-additive genetic and maternal environmental effects. The fitness consequences of these effects, and their environmental sensitivity, are largely unknown. Here, applying a quantitative genetic breeding design to...

Data from: The contribution of the mitochondrial genome to sex-specific fitness variance

Shane R. T. Smith & Tim Connallon
Maternal inheritance of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) facilitates the evolutionary accumulation of mutations with sex-biased fitness effects. Whereas maternal inheritance closely aligns mtDNA evolution with natural selection in females, it makes it indifferent to evolutionary changes that exclusively benefit males. The constrained response of mtDNA to selection in males can lead to asymmetries in the relative contributions of mitochondrial genes to female versus male fitness variation. Here, we examine the impact of genetic drift and the...

Data from: Does increased heat resistance result in higher susceptibility to predation? A test using (Drosophila melanogaster) selection and hardening

Sandra Hangartner, Ian Dworkin, Michael DeNieu & Ary A. Hoffmann
Heat resistance of ectotherms can be increased both by plasticity and evolution, but these effects may have trade-offs resulting from biotic interactions. Here we test for predation costs in Drosophila melanogaster populations with altered heat resistance produced by adult hardening and directional selection for increased heat resistance. In addition, we also tested for genetic trade-offs by testing heat resistance in lines that have evolved under increased predation risk. We show that while 35/37°C hardening increases...

Data from: Sexual selection on spontaneous mutations strengthens the between-sex genetic correlation for fitness

Scott Lee Allen, Katrina McGuigan, Tim Connallon, Mark W. Blows & Stephen F. Chenoweth
A proposed benefit to sexual selection is that it promotes purging of deleterious mutations from populations. For this benefit to be realised, sexual selection, which is usually stronger on males, must purge mutations deleterious to both sexes. Here, we experimentally test the hypothesis that sexual selection on males purges deleterious mutations that affect both male and female fitness. We measured male and female fitness in two panels of spontaneous mutation-accumulation lines of the fly, Drosophila...

Data from: Field manipulations of resources mediate the transition from intraspecific competition to facilitation

Karin Svanfeldt, Keyne Monro & Dustin J. Marshall
1. Population density affects individual performance, though its effects are often mixed. For sessile species, increases in population density typically reduce performance. Still, cases of positive density dependence do occur in these systems and demand explanation. The stress gradient hypothesis (SGH) predicts that under stressful conditions, positive effects of facilitation may outweigh the negative effects of competition. 2. While some elements of the SGH are well studied, its potential to explain intraspecific facilitation has received...

Data from: Patterns and drivers of aquatic invertebrate diversity across an arid biome

Jenny Davis, Lien Sim, Ross M. Thompson, Adrian Pinder, Jayne Brim Box, Nick P. Murphy, Fran Sheldon, Alejandra Morán-Ordóñez, Paul Sunnucks & Nicholas P. Murphy
Managing and restoring faunal diversity across large areas requires an understanding of the roles of connectivity and dispersal in driving community patterns. We sought to determine the influence of connectivity, water regime, water source, geographical location, and dispersal traits on patterns of aquatic invertebrate diversity across a continent-wide arid biome. We compiled data on freshwater invertebrate assemblages from sites spanning the breadth of arid Australia. Univariate analyses (analysis of variance and rarefaction) revealed that alpha...

Data from: Investigating movement in the laboratory: dispersal apparatus designs and the red flour beetle, Tribolium castaneum

Pieter A. Arnold, Michelle A. Rafter, Rokhsareh Malekpour, Phillip Cassey, Gimme H. Walter & Craig R. White
The natural dispersal of Tribolium castaneum Herbst (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae) has been emulated in the laboratory for more than 50 years, using a simple dispersal apparatus. This has typically comprised of a starting container (initial resource or patch) connected by tubing, which contains thread for the animals to climb into a tube and hence to an end container. That is, beetles move to a new viable resource or patch from an inter-patch zone or non-viable habitat....

Data from: Female ornamentation and the fecundity trade-off in a sex-role reversed pipefish

Kenyon B. Mobley, John R. Morrongiello, Matthew Warr, Dianne J. Bray, Bob B.M. Wong & Bob B. M. Wong
Sexual ornaments found only in females are a rare occurrence in nature. One explanation for this is that female ornaments are costly to produce and maintain and, therefore, females must trade-off resources related to reproduction to promote ornament expression. Here, we investigate whether a trade-off exists between female ornamentation and fecundity in the sex-role reversed, wide-bodied pipefish, Stigmatopora nigra. We measured two components of the disk-shaped, ventral-striped female ornament, body width and stripe thickness. After...

Data from: More than kin: subordinates foster strong bonds with relatives and potential mates in a social bird

Niki Teunissen, Sjouke Anne Kingma, Michelle L. Hall, Nataly Hidalgo Aranzamendi, Jan Komdeur & Anne Peters
Social interactions shape relationships between individuals in complex societies. Affiliative interactions are associated with benefits and strengthen social bonds, while aggressive interactions are costly and negatively affect social bonds. Individuals may attempt to reduce aggressive encounters through submissive displays directed at higher-ranking individuals. Thus, fine-scale patterns of affiliative, aggressive and submissive interactions may reflect costly and beneficial social relationships within groups, providing insight into the benefits of group living and the mechanisms of conflict resolution....

Data from: Plasticity for desiccation tolerance across Drosophila species is affected by phylogeny and climate in complex ways

Vanessa Kellermann, Ary A. Hoffmann, Johannes Overgaard, Volker Loeschcke & Carla M. Sgró
Comparative analyses of ectotherm susceptibility to climate change often focus on thermal extremes, yet responses to aridity may be equally important. Here we focus on plasticity in desiccation resistance, a key trait shaping distributions of Drosophila species and other small ectotherms. We examined the extent to which 32 Drosophila species, varying in their distribution, could increase their desiccation resistance via phenotypic plasticity involving hardening, linking these responses to environment, phylogeny and basal resistance. We found...

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