266 Works

Data from: Nutrient availability controls the impact of mammalian herbivores on soil carbon and nitrogen pools in grasslands

Judith Sitters, E.R. Jasper Wubs, Elisabeth S. Bakker, Thomas W. Crowther, Peter B. Adler, Sumanta Bagchi, Jonathan D. Bakker, Lori Biederman, Elizabeth T. Borer, Elsa E. Cleland, Nico Eisenhauer, Jennifer Firn, Laureano Gherardi, Nicole Hagenah, Yann Hautier, Sarah E. Hobbie, Johannes M.H. Knops, Andrew S. MacDougall, Rebecca L. McCulley, Joslin L. Moore, Brent Mortensen, Pablo L. Peri, Suzanne M. Prober, Charlotte Riggs, Anita C. Risch … &
Grasslands have been subject to considerable alteration due to human activities globally, including widespread changes in populations and composition of large mammalian herbivores and elevated supply of nutrients. Grassland soils remain important reservoirs of carbon (C) and nitrogen (N). Herbivores may affect both C and N pools and these changes likely interact with increases in soil nutrient availability. Given the scale of grassland soil fluxes, such changes can have striking consequences for atmospheric C concentrations...

A lack of genetically compatible mates constrains the spread of an invasive weed

Akane Uesugi, David J Baker, Nissanka De Silva, Kristin Nurkowski & Kathryn A Hodgins
Introduced populations often experience lag-times prior to invasion, but the mechanisms constraining rapid expansions of introduced populations are unclear. Solidago altissima is a North American native plant with highly invasive Japanese populations, and introduced Australian populations that are not invasive despite the climatic and ecological suitability of the region. By contrasting Australian with Japanese populations, we tested the hypothesis that Australian population growth is limited by a lack of long-distance dispersal via seeds due to...

Data from: Developmental nutrition modulates metabolic responses to projected climate change

Lesley Alton, Teresa Kutz, Candice Bywater, Julian Beaman, Pieter Arnold, Christen Mirth, Carla Sgro & Craig White
Current policy has the world on track to experience around 3°C of warming by 2100. The responses of organisms to our warming world will be mediated by changes in physiological processes, including metabolic rate. Metabolic rate represents the energetic cost of living, and is fundamental to understanding the energy required to sustain populations. Current evidence indicates that animals have a limited capacity to adapt to warmer environments by reducing their metabolic rate. Consequently, animals may...

Physiological costs and age constraints of a sexual ornament: an experimental study in a wild bird

Alexandra McQueen, Kaspar Delhey, Beatrice Szecsenyi, Ondi Crino, Michael Roast & Anne Peters
Sexual ornaments are often considered honest signals of quality because potential costs or constraints prevent their display by low-quality individuals. Testing for potential physiological costs of ornaments is difficult, as this requires experimentally forcing individuals to produce and display elaborate ornaments. We use this approach to test whether a sexually selected trait is physiologically costly to male superb fairy-wrens (Malurus cyaneus). Male fairy-wrens moult from brown to blue breeding plumage at different times of the...

Multilevel selection on offspring size and the maintenance of variation

Hayley Cameron, Darren Johnson, Keyne Monro & Dustin Marshall
Multilevel selection on offspring size occurs when offspring fitness depends on both absolute size (hard selection), and size relative to neighbours (soft selection). We examined multilevel selection on egg size at two biological scales: within clutches and among females, for an external fertilising tubeworm. We exposed clutches of eggs to two sperm environments (limiting and saturating) and measured their fertilisation success. We then modelled environmental (sperm) differences in hard and soft selection on individual eggs,...

The search for sexually antagonistic genes: practical insights from studies of local adaptation and statistical genomics

Filip Ruzicka, Ludovic Dutoit, Peter Czuppon, Crispin Y. Jordan, Xiang‐Yi Li, Colin Olito, Homa Papoli Yazdi, Tim Connallon, Erik Svensson & Anna Runemark
Sexually antagonistic (SA) genetic variation—in which alleles favored in one sex are disfavored in the other—is predicted to be common and has been documented in several animal and plant populations, yet we currently know little about its pervasiveness among species or its population genetic basis. Recent applications of genomics in studies of SA genetic variation have highlighted considerable methodological challenges to the identification and characterization of SA genes, raising questions about the feasibility of genomic...

Data from: Profile of and risk factors for post-stroke cognitive impairment in diverse ethno-regional groups

Jessica W Lo, John D Crawford, David W Desmond, Olivier Godefroy, Hanna Jokinen, Simin Mahinrad, Hee-Joon Bae, Sebastian Köhler, Elles Douven, Julie Staals, Christopher Chen, Xin Xu, Eddie J Chong, Rufus O Akinyemi, Rajesh N Kalaria, Adesola Ogunniyi, Mélanie Barbay, Martine Roussel, Byung-Chul Lee, Velandai K Srikanth, Christopher Moran, Nagaendran Kandiah, Russell J Chander, Behnam Sabayan, J. Wouter Jukema … & Perminder S Sachdev
OBJECTIVE: To address the variability in prevalence estimates and inconsistencies in potential risk factors for post-stroke cognitive impairment (PSCI) using a standardised approach and individual participant data (IPD) from international cohorts in the STROKOG consortium. METHODS: We harmonised data from thirteen studies based in eight countries. Neuropsychological test scores 2 to 6 months after stroke or TIA and appropriate normative data were used to calculate standardised cognitive domain scores. Domain-specific impairment was based on percentile...

Data from: Estimating diversification rates on incompletely-sampled phylogenies: theoretical concerns and practical solutions

Jonathan Chang, Daniel L. Rabosky & Michael E. Alfaro
Molecular phylogenies are a key source of information about the tempo and mode of species diversification. However, most empirical phylogenies do not contain representatives of all species, such that diversification rates are typically estimated from incompletely sampled data. Most researchers recognize that incomplete sampling can lead to biased rate estimates, but the statistical properties of methods for accommodating incomplete sampling remain poorly known. In this point of view, we demonstrate theoretical concerns with the widespread...

Data from: A meta-analysis of the strength and nature of cytoplasmic genetic effects

Ralph Dobler, Björn Rogell, Françoise Budar & Damian K. Dowling
Genetic variation in cytoplasmic genomes (i.e. the mitochondrial genome in animals, and the combined mitochondrial and chloroplast genomes in plants) was traditionally assumed to accumulate under a neutral equilibrium model. This view has, however, come under increasing challenge from studies that have experimentally linked cytoplasmic genetic effects to the expression of life history phenotypes. Such results suggest that genetic variance located within the cytoplasm might be of evolutionary importance and potentially involved in shaping population...

Data from: SNP discovery in non-model organisms: strand-bias and base-substitution errors reduce conversion rates

Anders Gonçalves Da Silva, William Barendse, James W. Kijas, Wes C. Barris, Sean McWilliam, Rowan J. Bunch, Russell McCulloch, Blair Harrison, A. Rus Hoelzel, Phillip R. England & Russell McCullough
Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) have become the marker of choice for genetic studies in organisms of conservation, commercial or biological interest. Most SNP discovery projects in nonmodel organisms apply a strategy for identifying putative SNPs based on filtering rules that account for random sequencing errors. Here, we analyse data used to develop 4723 novel SNPs for the commercially important deep-sea fish, orange roughy (Hoplostethus atlanticus), to assess the impact of not accounting for systematic sequencing...

Data from: Maternal sexual interactions affect offspring survival and ageing

Damian K. Dowling, Belinda R. Williams & F. Garcia-Gonzalez
In many species, females exposed to increased sexual activity experience reductions in longevity. Here, in Drosophila melanogaster, we report an additional effect on females brought about by sexual interactions, an effect that spans generations. We subjected females to a sexual treatment consisting of different levels of sexual activity and then investigated patterns of mortality in their offspring. We found reduced probabilities of survival, increases in the rate of senescence and a pattern of reduced mean...

Data from: Evolutionary potential of multiple measures of upper thermal tolerance in Drosophila melanogaster

Sandra Hangartner & Ary A. Hoffmann
Thermal tolerance influences the distribution and abundance of many species, but the adaptive capacity of species to increase upper thermal tolerance is poorly understood. Given that patterns of heat tolerance can strongly depend on assay method, it is crucial to get a better understanding of genetic variances and correlations among different heat tolerance components. This study tests for correlated responses in different heat tolerance assays in Drosophila melanogaster lines selected for increased heat tolerance following...

Data from: The effects of life history and sexual selection on male and female plumage colouration

James Dale, Cody J. Dey, Kaspar Delhey, Bart Kempenaers & Mihai Valcu
Classical sexual selection theory provides a well-supported conceptual framework for understanding the evolution and signalling function of male ornaments. It predicts that males obtain greater fitness benefits than females through multiple mating because sperm are cheaper to produce than eggs. Sexual selection should therefore lead to the evolution of male-biased secondary sexual characters. However, females of many species are also highly ornamented. The view that this is due to a correlated genetic response to selection...

Data from: Spatial analysis of gene regulation reveals new insights into the molecular basis of upper thermal limits

Marina Telonis-Scott, Allanah S. Clemson, Travis K. Johnson, Carla M. Sgrò & Allannah S. Clemson
The cellular stress response has long been the primary model for studying the molecular basis of thermal adaptation, yet the link between gene expression, RNA metabolism and physiological responses to thermal stress remains largely unexplored. We address this by comparing the transcriptional and physiological responses of three geographically distinct populations of D. melanogaster from eastern Australia in response to, and recovery from, a severe heat stress with and without a pre-stress hardening treatment. We focus...

Data from: The contrasting phylodynamics of human influenza B viruses

Dhanasekaran Vijaykrishna, Edward C. Holmes, Udayan Joseph, Mathieu Fourment, Yvonne C. F. Su, Rebecca Halpin, Raphael T. C. Lee, Yi-Mo Deng, Vithiagaran Gunalan, Xudong Lin, Tim Stockwell, Nadia B. Fedorova, Bin Zhou, Natalie Spirason, Denise K. Kühnert, Veronika Bošková, Tanja Stadler, Anna-Maria Costa, Dominic E. Dwyer, Q. Sue Huang, Lance C. Jennings, William Rawlinson, Sheena G. Sullivan, Aeron C. Hurt, Sebastian Maurer-Stroh … & Raphael TC Lee
A complex interplay of viral, host and ecological factors shape the spatio-temporal incidence and evolution of human influenza viruses. Although considerable attention has been paid to influenza A viruses, a lack of equivalent data means that an integrated evolutionary and epidemiological framework has until now not been available for influenza B viruses, despite their significant disease burden. Through the analysis of over 900 full genomes from an epidemiological collection of more than 26,000 strains from...

Data from: Visual modelling suggests a weak relationship between the evolution of ultraviolet vision and plumage colouration in birds

Olle Lind & Kaspar Delhey
Birds have sophisticated colour vision mediated by four cones types that cover a wide visual spectrum including ultraviolet (UV) wavelengths. Many birds have modest UV-sensitivity provided by violet-sensitive (VS) cones with sensitivity maxima between 400-425 nm. However, some birds have evolved higher UV-sensitivity and a larger visual spectrum given by UV-sensitive (UVS) cones maximally sensitive at 360-370 nm. The reasons for VS-UVS transitions and their relationship to visual ecology remain unclear. It has been hypothesized...

Data from: Indirect effects of habitat disturbance on invasion: nutritious litter from a grazing resistant plant favors alien over native Collembola

Hans Petter Leinaas, Jan Bengtsson, Charlene Janion-Scheepers & Steven L. Chown
Biological invasions are major threats to biodiversity, with impacts that may be compounded by other forms of environmental change. Observations of high density of the invasive springtail (Collembola), Hypogastrura manubrialis in heavily grazed renosterveld vegetation in the Western Cape, South Africa, raised the question of whether the invasion was favored by changes in plant litter quality associated with habitat disturbance in this vegetation type. To examine the likely mechanisms underlying the high abundance of H....

Data from: Evolutionary implications of mitochondrial genetic variation: Mitochondrial genetic effects on OXPHOS respiration and mitochondrial quantity change with age and sex in fruit flies

Jonci N. Wolff, Nicolas Pichaud, Maria F. Camus, Geneviève Côté, Pierre U. Blier & Damian K. Dowling
The ancient acquisition of the mitochondrion into the ancestor of modern-day eukaryotes is thought to have been pivotal in facilitating the evolution of complex life. Mitochondria retain their own diminutive genome, with mitochondrial genes encoding core subunits involved in oxidative phosphorylation. Traditionally, it was assumed that there was little scope for genetic variation to accumulate and be maintained within the mitochondrial genome. However, in the past decade, mitochondrial genetic variation has been routinely tied to...

Data from: The influence of recent social experience and physical environment on courtship and male aggression

Topi K. Lehtonen, P. Andreas Svensson & Bob B. M. Wong
Background: Social and environmental factors can profoundly impact an individual’s investment of resources into different components of reproduction. Such allocation trade-offs are expected to be amplified under challenging environmental conditions. To test these predictions, we used a desert-dwelling fish, the desert goby, Chlamydogobius eremius, to experimentally investigate the effects of prior social experience (with either a male or a female) on male investment in courtship and aggression under physiologically benign and challenging conditions (i.e., low...

Data from: Nitrogen loads influence trophic organization of estuarine fish assemblages

Fiona Y. Warry, Paul Reich, Perran L. M. Cook, Ralph Mac Nally, James R. Thomson & Ryan J. Woodland
Nutrient (N and P) loading may affect functioning in aquatic ecosystems by restructuring producer assemblages with flow-on effects to consumers. Trophic niche occupancy and trophic organization of consumers are key components of ecosystem function that have been increasingly investigated using quantitative isotopic niche indices. These indices are based on the premise that the isotopic values of consumer tissues indicate their assimilated diet. Typically, isotopic niche indices are calculated using only consumer isotope data, which limit...

Data from: The effect of colour-producing mechanisms on plumage sexual dichromatism in passerines and parrots

Kaspar Delhey & Anne Peters
Sexual dichromatism (SD) often reflects intense sexual selection on males. It has been hypothesized that sexual selection should favour the elaboration of those male colours that honestly signal quality and that such colours should therefore show higher SD. Costliness of colours is expected to vary according to their production mechanism (pigment type, feather microstructure and combinations thereof). Carotenoid-based colours, due to their dietary origin and competing functions of carotenoid pigments, are the best documented costly...

Data from: Pollution-tolerant invertebrates enhance greenhouse gas flux in urban wetlands

Andrew S. Mehring, Perran L.M. Cook, Victor Evrard, Stanley B. Grant, Lisa A. Levin & Perran L. M. Cook
One of the goals of urban ecology is to link community structure to ecosystem function in urban habitats. Pollution-tolerant wetland invertebrates have been shown to enhance greenhouse gas (GHG) flux in controlled laboratory experiments, suggesting that they may influence urban wetland roles as sources or sinks of GHG. However, it is unclear if their effects can be detected in highly variable conditions in a field setting. Here we use an extensive dataset on carbon dioxide...

Data from: Skin sloughing in susceptible and resistant amphibians regulates infection with a fungal pathogen

Michel E. B. Ohmer, Rebecca L. Cramp, Catherine J. M. Russo, Craig R. White & Craig E. Franklin
The fungal pathogen Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis (Bd) has been implicated in amphibian population declines globally. Given that Bd infection is limited to the skin in post-metamorphic amphibians, routine skin sloughing may regulate infection. Skin sloughing has been shown to reduce the number of cultivatable microbes on amphibian skin, and Bd infection increases skin sloughing rates at high loads. However, it is unclear whether species specific differences in skin sloughing patterns could regulate Bd population growth on...

Data from: Thermal physiology: a new dimension of the pace-of-life syndrome

Celine T. Goulet, Mike B. Thompson, Marcus Michelangeli, Bob B.M. Wong, David G. Chapple & Bob B. M. Wong
1) Current syndrome research focuses primarily on behavior with few incorporating components of physiology. One such syndrome is the Pace-of-Life Syndrome (POLS) which describes covariation between behaviour, metabolism immunity, hormonal response, and life history traits. Despite the strong effect temperature has on behavior, thermal physiology has yet to be considered within this syndrome framework. 2) We proposed the POLS to be extended to include a new dimension, the cold-hot axis. Under this premise, it is...

Data from: Reliability of single-use PEEP-valves attached to self-inflating bags during manual ventilation of neonates – an in vitro study

Julia Christine Hartung, Silke Wilitzki, Marta Thio-Lluch, Arjan B. Te Pas, Gerd Schmalisch & Charles Christoph Roehr
Introduction International resuscitation guidelines suggest to use positive end-expiratory pressure (PEEP) during manual ventilation of neonates. Aim of our study was to test the reliability of self-inflating bags (SIB) with single-use PEEP valves regarding PEEP delivery and the effect of different peak inflation pressures (PIP) and ventilation rates (VR) on the delivered PEEP. Methods Ten new single-use PEEP valves from 5 manufacturers were tested by ventilating an intubated 1kg neonatal manikin containing a lung model...

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