1,653 Works

Data from: Thermal physiology: a new dimension of the pace-of-life syndrome

Celine T. Goulet, Mike B. Thompson, Marcus Michelangeli, Bob B.M. Wong, David G. Chapple & Bob B. M. Wong
1) Current syndrome research focuses primarily on behavior with few incorporating components of physiology. One such syndrome is the Pace-of-Life Syndrome (POLS) which describes covariation between behaviour, metabolism immunity, hormonal response, and life history traits. Despite the strong effect temperature has on behavior, thermal physiology has yet to be considered within this syndrome framework. 2) We proposed the POLS to be extended to include a new dimension, the cold-hot axis. Under this premise, it is...

On different ways of being conscious: Modes of consciousness and the predictive mind. An interview with Jakob Hohwy.

Jakob Hohwy & Matthieu Koroma
Is consciousness an all-or-none or graded phenomenon? Much research has been devoted to investigate this question for contents of consciousness (e.g. ‘I see a red rose’), but far less for global states of consciousness (e.g. being awake or asleep). Philosopher and experimentalist Jabob Hohwy argues that global states of consciousness do not come in degrees or ‘levels’, but rather in modes, i.e., as different ways of being conscious. Capturing the diversity of conscious states requires...

Data from: Profile of and risk factors for post-stroke cognitive impairment in diverse ethno-regional groups

Jessica W Lo, John D Crawford, David W Desmond, Olivier Godefroy, Hanna Jokinen, Simin Mahinrad, Hee-Joon Bae, Sebastian Köhler, Elles Douven, Julie Staals, Christopher Chen, Xin Xu, Eddie J Chong, Rufus O Akinyemi, Rajesh N Kalaria, Adesola Ogunniyi, Mélanie Barbay, Martine Roussel, Byung-Chul Lee, Velandai K Srikanth, Christopher Moran, Nagaendran Kandiah, Russell J Chander, Behnam Sabayan, J. Wouter Jukema … & Perminder S Sachdev
OBJECTIVE: To address the variability in prevalence estimates and inconsistencies in potential risk factors for post-stroke cognitive impairment (PSCI) using a standardised approach and individual participant data (IPD) from international cohorts in the STROKOG consortium. METHODS: We harmonised data from thirteen studies based in eight countries. Neuropsychological test scores 2 to 6 months after stroke or TIA and appropriate normative data were used to calculate standardised cognitive domain scores. Domain-specific impairment was based on percentile...

Data from: Relatedness and age reduce aggressive male interactions over mating in domestic fowl

Charlotte Rosher, Anna Favati, Rebecca Dean & Hanne Lovlie
Altruistic behaviour represents a fundamental challenge in evolutionary biology. It is often best understood through kin selection, where favourable behaviour is directed towards relatives. Kin selection can take place when males cooperate to enhance the reproductive success of relatives. Here, we focus on reduced male–male competition over mating as a case of cooperation, by examining male tolerance of matings by related and unrelated competitors. A suitable model for exploring whether relatedness affects male–male interactions over...

Data from: Patterns of ecological diversification in thelodonts

Humberto G. Ferrón, Carlos Martínez-Pérez, Susan Turner, Esther Manzanares & Héctor Botella
Here we explore the spatial, temporal and phylogenetic patterns of ecological diversification for the entire clade of thelodonts, one of the earliest groups of vertebrates and longest lasting of the Palaeozoic agnathans in the fossil record. Parsimony and maximum-likelihood methods are used to reconstruct ancestral states of their geographical distributions, habitats and lifestyles. Our results support the concept that thelodonts originated during the Middle?–Late Ordovician probably in marine open waters of Laurasia, with a demersal...

Data from: Climate change leads to increasing population density and impacts of a key island invader

Greg T.W. McClelland, Res Altwegg, Rudi J. Van Aarde, Sam Ferreira, Alan E. Burger, Steven L. Chown & Gregory T. W. McClelland
The considerable threats of invasive rodents to island biodiversity are likely to be compounded by climate change. Forecasts for such interactions have been most pronounced for the Southern Ocean islands where ameliorating conditions are expected to decrease thermal and resource restrictions on rodents. Firm evidence for changing rodent populations in response to climate change, and demonstrations of associated impacts on the terrestrial environment, are nonetheless entirely absent for the region. Using data collected over three...

Data from: Pollution-tolerant invertebrates enhance greenhouse gas flux in urban wetlands

Andrew S. Mehring, Perran L.M. Cook, Victor Evrard, Stanley B. Grant, Lisa A. Levin & Perran L. M. Cook
One of the goals of urban ecology is to link community structure to ecosystem function in urban habitats. Pollution-tolerant wetland invertebrates have been shown to enhance greenhouse gas (GHG) flux in controlled laboratory experiments, suggesting that they may influence urban wetland roles as sources or sinks of GHG. However, it is unclear if their effects can be detected in highly variable conditions in a field setting. Here we use an extensive dataset on carbon dioxide...

Data from: Nutrient availability controls the impact of mammalian herbivores on soil carbon and nitrogen pools in grasslands

Judith Sitters, E.R. Jasper Wubs, Elisabeth S. Bakker, Thomas W. Crowther, Peter B. Adler, Sumanta Bagchi, Jonathan D. Bakker, Lori Biederman, Elizabeth T. Borer, Elsa E. Cleland, Nico Eisenhauer, Jennifer Firn, Laureano Gherardi, Nicole Hagenah, Yann Hautier, Sarah E. Hobbie, Johannes M.H. Knops, Andrew S. MacDougall, Rebecca L. McCulley, Joslin L. Moore, Brent Mortensen, Pablo L. Peri, Suzanne M. Prober, Charlotte Riggs, Anita C. Risch … &
Grasslands have been subject to considerable alteration due to human activities globally, including widespread changes in populations and composition of large mammalian herbivores and elevated supply of nutrients. Grassland soils remain important reservoirs of carbon (C) and nitrogen (N). Herbivores may affect both C and N pools and these changes likely interact with increases in soil nutrient availability. Given the scale of grassland soil fluxes, such changes can have striking consequences for atmospheric C concentrations...

Data from: Feedbacks between shallow groundwater dynamics and surface topography on runoff generation in flat fields

Willemijn M. Appels, Patrick W. Bogaart & Sjoerd E. A. T. M. Van Der Zee
In winter, saturation excess (SE) ponding is observed regularly in temperate lowland regions. Surface runoff dynamics are controlled by small topographical features that are unaccounted for in hydrological models. To better understand storage and routing effects of small scale topography and their interaction with shallow groundwater under SE conditions, we developed a model of reduced complexity to investigate SE runoff generation, emphasizing feedbacks between shallow groundwater dynamics and mesotopography. The dynamic specific yield affected unsaturated...

Data from: Reliability of single-use PEEP-valves attached to self-inflating bags during manual ventilation of neonates – an in vitro study

Julia Christine Hartung, Silke Wilitzki, Marta Thio-Lluch, Arjan B. Te Pas, Gerd Schmalisch & Charles Christoph Roehr
Introduction International resuscitation guidelines suggest to use positive end-expiratory pressure (PEEP) during manual ventilation of neonates. Aim of our study was to test the reliability of self-inflating bags (SIB) with single-use PEEP valves regarding PEEP delivery and the effect of different peak inflation pressures (PIP) and ventilation rates (VR) on the delivered PEEP. Methods Ten new single-use PEEP valves from 5 manufacturers were tested by ventilating an intubated 1kg neonatal manikin containing a lung model...

Data from: Eco-energetic consequences of evolutionary shifts in body size (after integrating the Corrigendum)

Martino Malerba, Craig R. White & Dustin J. Marshall
Size imposes physiological and ecological constraints upon all organisms. Theory abounds on how energy flux covaries with body size, yet causal links are often elusive. As a more direct way to assess the role of size, we used artificial selection to evolve the phytoplankton species Dunaliella tertiolecta towards smaller and larger body sizes. Within 100 generations (c. 1 year), we generated a fourfold difference in cell volume among selected lineages. Large-selected populations produced four times...

The search for sexually antagonistic genes: practical insights from studies of local adaptation and statistical genomics

Filip Ruzicka, Ludovic Dutoit, Peter Czuppon, Crispin Y. Jordan, Xiang‐Yi Li, Colin Olito, Homa Papoli Yazdi, Tim Connallon, Erik Svensson & Anna Runemark
Sexually antagonistic (SA) genetic variation—in which alleles favored in one sex are disfavored in the other—is predicted to be common and has been documented in several animal and plant populations, yet we currently know little about its pervasiveness among species or its population genetic basis. Recent applications of genomics in studies of SA genetic variation have highlighted considerable methodological challenges to the identification and characterization of SA genes, raising questions about the feasibility of genomic...

HLA Class II specificity assessed by high-density peptide microarray interactions

Thomas Osterbye, Morten Nielsen, Nadine L. Dudek, Sri H. Ramarathinam, Anthony W. Purcell, Claus Schafer-Nielsen & Soren Buus
The ability to predict and/or identify MHC binding peptides is an essential component of T cell epitope discovery; something that ultimately should benefit the development of vaccines and immunotherapies. In particular, MHC class I (MHC-I) prediction tools have matured to a point where accurate selection of optimal peptide epitopes is possible for virtually all MHC-I allotypes; in comparison, current MHC class II (MHC-II) predictors are less mature. Since MHC-II restricted CD4+ T cells control and...

Data from: Severe childhood speech disorder: Gene discovery highlights transcriptional dysregulation

Michael Hildebrand, Victoria Jackson, Thomas Scerri, Olivia Van Reyk, Matthew Coleman, Ruth Braden, Samantha Turner, Kristin Rigbye, Amber Boys, Sarah Barton, Richard Webster, Michael Fahey, Kerryn Saunders, Bronwyn Parry-Fielder, Georgia Paxton, Michael Hayman, David Coman, Himanshu Goel, Anne Baxter, Alan Ma, Noni Davis, Sheena Reilly, Martin Delatycki, Frederique Liégeois, Alan Connelly … & Angela Morgan
Objective: Determining the genetic basis of speech disorders provides insight into the neurobiology of human communication. Despite intensive investigation over the past two decades, the etiology of most children with speech disorder remains unexplained. Here we searched for a genetic etiology in children with severe speech disorder, specifically childhood apraxia of speech (CAS). Methods: Precise phenotyping together with research genome or exome analysis were performed on children referred with a primary diagnosis of CAS, as...

Data from: Developmental nutrition modulates metabolic responses to projected climate change

Lesley Alton, Teresa Kutz, Candice Bywater, Julian Beaman, Pieter Arnold, Christen Mirth, Carla Sgro & Craig White
Current policy has the world on track to experience around 3°C of warming by 2100. The responses of organisms to our warming world will be mediated by changes in physiological processes, including metabolic rate. Metabolic rate represents the energetic cost of living, and is fundamental to understanding the energy required to sustain populations. Current evidence indicates that animals have a limited capacity to adapt to warmer environments by reducing their metabolic rate. Consequently, animals may...

Accurate serology for SARS-CoV-2 and common human coronaviruses using a multiplex approach

Sophie van Tol, Ramona Mögling, Wentao Li, Gert-Jan Godeke, Arno Swart, Barbara Bergmans, Afke Brandenburg, Kristin Kremer, Jean-Luc Murk, Josine van Beek, Bas Wintermans, Johan Reimerink, Berend-Jan Bosch & Chantal Reusken
Serology is a crucial part of the public health response to the ongoing SARS-CoV-2 pandemic. Here, we describe the development, validation and clinical evaluation of a protein micro-array as a quantitative multiplex immunoassay that can identify S and N-directed SARS-CoV-2 IgG antibodies with high specificity and sensitivity and distinguish them from all currently circulating human coronaviruses. The method specificity was 100% for SARS-CoV-2 S1 and 96% for N antigen based on extensive syndromic (n=230 cases)...

Multilevel selection on offspring size and the maintenance of variation

Hayley Cameron, Darren Johnson, Keyne Monro & Dustin Marshall
Multilevel selection on offspring size occurs when offspring fitness depends on both absolute size (hard selection), and size relative to neighbours (soft selection). We examined multilevel selection on egg size at two biological scales: within clutches and among females, for an external fertilising tubeworm. We exposed clutches of eggs to two sperm environments (limiting and saturating) and measured their fertilisation success. We then modelled environmental (sperm) differences in hard and soft selection on individual eggs,...

Providers Offering Mental Health Support to Community Sports Clubs – Victoria

Justen O'Connor, Ruth Jeanes, Christine Grové, Karen Lambert, Nadia Bevan & Hayley Truskewycz
Provides list of known providers of mental wellbeing support for community sporting clubs within the state of Victoria for the year 2020. The information found on this webpage was current at 2020. The business offerings of each provider may have changed since that time. Please visit the websites of each provider for the most up-to-date information about their products and services.

Data from: Biochemical evolution in response to intensive harvesting in algae: evolution of quality and quantity

Dustin J. Marshall, Rebecca J. Lawton, Keyne Monro & Nicholas A. Paul
Evolutionary responses to indirect selection pressures imposed by intensive harvesting are increasingly common. While artificial selection has shown that biochemical components can show rapid and dramatic evolution, it remains unclear as to whether intensive harvesting can inadvertently induce changes in the biochemistry of harvested populations. For applications such as algal culture, many of the desirable bioproducts could evolve in response to harvesting, reducing cost-effectiveness, but experimental tests are lacking. We used an experimental evolution approach...

Fatal and non-fatal events within 14 days after early, intensive mobilization post stroke

Julie Bernhardt, Karen Borschmann, Janice Collier, Amanda Thrift, Peter Langhorne, Sandy Middleton, Richard Lindley, Helen Dewey, Philip Bath, Catherine Said, Leonid Churilov, Fiona Ellery, Christopher Bladin, Christopher Reid, Judith Frayne, Velandai Srikanth, Stephen Read & Geoffrey Donnan
Objective: We examined fatal and non-fatal Serious Adverse Events (SAEs) at 14 days within AVERT. Method: A prospective, parallel group, assessor blinded, randomized international clinical trial comparing very early intensive mobilization training (VEM) with usual care (UC); with follow up to 3 months. Included: Patients with ischaemic and haemorrhagic stroke within 24 hours of onset and physiological parameters within set limits. Treatment with thrombolytics allowed. Excluded: Patients with severe premorbid disability and/or comorbidities. Interventions continued...

Prolonged shedding of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 in patients with COVID-19

Qian Li, Xiao-Shuang Zheng, Xu-Rui Shen, Hao-Rui Si, Xi Wang, Qi Wang, Bei Li, Wei Zhang, Yan Zhu, Ren-Di Jiang, Kai Zhao, Hui Wang, Zheng-Li Shi, Hui-Lan Zhang, Rong-Hui Du & Peng Zhou
Following acute infection, individuals COVID-19 may still shed SARS-CoV-2 RNA. However, limited information is available regarding the active shedding period or whether infectious virus is also shed. Here, we monitored the clinical characteristics and virological features of 38 patients with COVID-19 (long-term carriers) who recovered from the acute disease, but still shed viral RNA for over 3 months. The median carrying history of the long-term carriers was 92 days after the first admission, and the...

Prolonged shedding of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 in patients with COVID-19

Qian Li, Xiao-Shuang Zheng, Xu-Rui Shen, Hao-Rui Si, Xi Wang, Qi Wang, Bei Li, Wei Zhang, Yan Zhu, Ren-Di Jiang, Kai Zhao, Hui Wang, Zheng-Li Shi, Hui-Lan Zhang, Rong-Hui Du & Peng Zhou
Following acute infection, individuals COVID-19 may still shed SARS-CoV-2 RNA. However, limited information is available regarding the active shedding period or whether infectious virus is also shed. Here, we monitored the clinical characteristics and virological features of 38 patients with COVID-19 (long-term carriers) who recovered from the acute disease, but still shed viral RNA for over 3 months. The median carrying history of the long-term carriers was 92 days after the first admission, and the...

Data from: Mitochondrial genetic effects on reproductive success: signatures of positive intrasexual, but negative intersexual pleiotropy

M. Florencia Camus & Damian K. Dowling
Theory predicts that maternal inheritance of mitochondria will facilitate the accumulation of mtDNA mutations that are male biased, or even sexually antagonistic, in effect. While there are many reported cases of mtDNA mutations conferring cytoplasmic male sterility in plants, historically it was assumed such mutations would not persist in the streamlined mitochondrial genomes of bilaterian metazoans. Intriguingly, recent cases of mitochondrial variants exerting male-biases in effect have come to light in bilaterians. These cases aside,...

Insights on the evolution of the Himalayas and Tibet from thermomechanical modelling: the role of long-term convergence

Ben S. Knight, Fabio A. Capitanio & Roberto F. Weinberg
Monash University, Australia

The collision of India and Eurasia has resulted in a broad range of structures, from the Himalayan chain to the Tibetan Plateau. The convergence history is characterised by velocities of > 10 cm/yr at collision to current velocities of ~5 cm/yr, of which ~2cm/yr are accommodated at the orogens' front. Our thermomechanical model simulates the collision of India and Eurasia to assess the role of the decrease in velocity, highlighting 4...

Physiological costs and age constraints of a sexual ornament: an experimental study in a wild bird

Alexandra McQueen, Kaspar Delhey, Beatrice Szecsenyi, Ondi Crino, Michael Roast & Anne Peters
Sexual ornaments are often considered honest signals of quality because potential costs or constraints prevent their display by low-quality individuals. Testing for potential physiological costs of ornaments is difficult, as this requires experimentally forcing individuals to produce and display elaborate ornaments. We use this approach to test whether a sexually selected trait is physiologically costly to male superb fairy-wrens (Malurus cyaneus). Male fairy-wrens moult from brown to blue breeding plumage at different times of the...

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