1,682 Works

Data from: How does parental environment influence the potential for adaptation to global change?

Evatt Chirgwin, Dustin J. Marshall, Carla M. Sgró & Keyne Monro
Parental environments are regularly shown to alter the mean fitness of offspring, but their impacts on the genetic variation for fitness, which predicts adaptive capacity and is also measured on offspring, are unclear. Consequently, how parental environments mediate adaptation to environmental stressors, like those accompanying global change, is largely unknown. Here, using an ecologically-important marine tubeworm in a quantitative-genetic breeding design, we tested how parental exposure to projected ocean warming alters the mean survival, and...

Data from: Reproductive isolation in alpine gingers: how do co-existing Roscoea (R. purpurea and R. tumjensis) conserve species integrity?

Babu Ram Paudel, Martin Burd, Mani Shrestha, Adrian G. Dyer, Qingjun Li & Qing-Jun Li
Multiple barriers may contribute to reproductive isolation between closely related species. Understanding the relative strength of these barriers can illuminate the ecological factors that currently maintain species integrity and how these factors originally promoted speciation. Two Himalayan alpine gingers, Roscoea purpurea and R. tumjensis, occur sympatrically in central Nepal and have such similar morphology that it is not clear whether or how they maintain a distinct identity. Our quantitative measurements of the components of reproductive...

Data from: Plastic but not adaptive: habitat-driven differences in metabolic rate despite no differences in selection between habitats

Lukas Schuster, Craig White & Dustin Marshall
Metabolic plasticity in response to different environmental conditions is widespread across taxa. It is reasonable to expect that such plasticity should be adaptive, but only few studies have determined the adaptive significance of metabolic plasticity by formally estimating selection on metabolic rate under different environmental conditions. We used a model marine colonial invertebrate, Bugula neritina to examine selection on metabolic rate in a harsh and a benign environment in the field, then tested whether these...

Data from: Large birds travel farther in homogeneous environments

Marlee A. Tucker, Olga Alexandrou, , Keith L. Bildstein, Katrin Böhning-Gaese, Chloe Bracis, John N. Brzorad, Evan R. Buechley, David Cabot, Justin M. Calabrese, Carlos Carrapato, André Chiaradia, Lisa C. Davenport, Sarah C. Davidson, Mark Desholm, Christopher R. DeSorbo, Robert Domenech, Peter Enggist, William F. Fagan, Nina Farwig, Wolfgang Fiedler, Christen H. Fleming, Alastair Franke, John M. Fryxell, Clara García-Ripollés … & João Paulo Silva
Aim: Animal movement is an important determinant of individual survival, population dynamics, and ecosystem structure and function. Yet it is still unclear how local movements are related to resource availability and the spatial arrangement of resources. Using resident bird species and migratory bird species outside of the migratory period, we examined how the distribution of resources affect the movement patterns of both large terrestrial birds (e.g., raptors, bustards, hornbills) and waterbirds (e.g., cranes, storks, ducks,...

Data from: Early-life telomere length predicts lifespan and lifetime reproductive success in a wild bird

Justin R. Eastwood, Michelle L. Hall, Niki Teunissen, Sjouke A. Kingma, Nataly Hidalgo Aranzamendi, Marie Fan, Michael Roast, Simon Verhulst & Anne Peters
Poor conditions during early development can initiate trade-offs that favour current survival at the expense of somatic maintenance and subsequently, future reproduction. However, the mechanisms that link early and late life-history are largely unknown. Recently it has been suggested that telomeres, the nucleoprotein structures at the terminal end of chromosomes, could link early-life conditions to lifespan and fitness. In wild purple-crowned fairy-wrens, we combined measurements of nestling telomere length (TL) with detailed life-history data to...

Data from: Opsins in Onychophora (velvet worms) suggest a single origin and subsequent diversification of visual pigments in arthropods

Lars Hering, Miriam J. Henze, Martin Kohler, Almut Kelber, Christoph Bleidorn, Maren Leschke, Birgit Nickel, Matthias Meyer, Martin Kircher, Paul Sunnucks & Georg Mayer
Multiple visual pigments, prerequisites for color vision, are found in arthropods, but the evolutionary origin of their diversity remains obscure. In this study, we explore the opsin genes in five distantly related species of Onychophora, using deep transcriptome sequencing and screening approaches. Surprisingly, our data reveal the presence of only one opsin gene (onychopsin) in each onychophoran species, and our behavioral experiments indicate a maximum sensitivity of onychopsin to blue–green light. In our phylogenetic analyses,...

Data from: An R package and online resource for macroevolutionary studies using the ray-finned fish tree of life

Jonathan Chang, Daniel L. Rabosky, Stephen A. Smith & Michael E. Alfaro
1. Comprehensive, time-scaled phylogenies provide a critical resource for many questions in ecology, evolution, and biodiversity. Methodological advances have increased the breadth of taxonomic coverage in phylogenetic data; however, accessing and reusing these data remain challenging. 2. We introduce the Fish Tree of Life website and associated R package fishtree to provide convenient access to sequences, phylogenies, fossil calibrations, and diversification rate estimates for the most diverse group of vertebrate organisms, the ray-finned fishes. The...

Condition-dependent sexual reproduction is driven by benefits, not costs of sex

Isobel Booksmythe, Jessica Lever, Sally Drapes & Matthew Hall
Facultative sexual organisms must allocate resources to both asexual and sexual reproduction. Optimal patterns of investment in sex depend on the relative costs and benefits of each reproductive mode, and may consequently be context- and condition-dependent. Two proposed explanations for the observed variation in investment in sex among facultative sexual lineages invoke alternative condition-dependent scenarios. Under the ‘fitness-associated sex’ hypothesis, sex is predicted when individuals are in poor condition or experience stressful environments. Under the...

β-arrestin-2 alleviates rheumatoid arthritis injury by suppressing NLRP3 inflammasome activation and NF- κB pathway in macrophages

Feng Cao, Cheng Huang, Jiwei Cheng & Zhaochun He
Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is a chronic inflammatory joint disorder that inflicts damage to the joints of the hands and wrist. The aim of this study was to investigate the protective effect of β-Arrestin-2 (βArr2) on RA in vivo and in vitro. The βArr2 adenovirus (βArr2-Ad) or the control (Con-Ad) was injected into the ankle joint cavity of collagen-induced arthritis (CIA) mice. According to the results, an improvement was shown in the symptoms and pathological injury...

β-arrestin-2 alleviates rheumatoid arthritis injury by suppressing NLRP3 inflammasome activation and NF- κB pathway in macrophages

Feng Cao, Cheng Huang, Jiwei Cheng & Zhaochun He
Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is a chronic inflammatory joint disorder that inflicts damage to the joints of the hands and wrist. The aim of this study was to investigate the protective effect of β-Arrestin-2 (βArr2) on RA in vivo and in vitro. The βArr2 adenovirus (βArr2-Ad) or the control (Con-Ad) was injected into the ankle joint cavity of collagen-induced arthritis (CIA) mice. According to the results, an improvement was shown in the symptoms and pathological injury...

Anti-tumour effects of red blood cell membrane-camouflaged black phosphorous quantum dots combined with chemotherapy and anti-inflammatory therapy

Xueyuan Huang, Bin Wu, Jian Li, Yinghui Shang, Wansong Chen, Xinmin Nie & Rong Gui
Conventional anti-tumour chemotherapy is facing the challenges of poor specificity, high toxicity and drug resistance. Tumour microenvironment (TME) plays a critical role in tumour development and drug resistance. To address this problem, we constructed a novel anti-tumour nanoparticle platform RBC@BPQDs-DOX/KIR, black phosphorus nanoparticle quantum dots (BPQDs) with one of the chemotherapeutics (doxorubicin, DOX) and an anti-inflammatory traditional Chinese medicine active component (Kirenol, KIR). Red blood cell membrane (RBCm) vesicles were used as the shell to...

The Reinforcement of Sludge-Recycling Enhanced Flocculation by the Acid Activation of Settled Sludge

Wei Wei, Lin Sheng, Haoyang Gong, Dong Zhou, Xinli Cai & Shuguang Zhu
Sludge-recycling enhanced flocculation (SEF) is an effective method for enhancing flocculation. In the conventional SEF process, the settled sludge is recirculated into the flocculation process without any further treatment. However, studies have shown that the efficacy of the SEF process could be improved by pre-treating the sludge. In this work, the acid activation of sludge was performed using a range of pH values (1.0 – 6.0) and charge states, with and without long-chain bridging. The...

What is “usual care” in the rehabilitation of upper limb sensory loss after stroke? Results from a national audit and knowledge translation study

Liana S. Cahill, Natasha A. Lannin, Tara Purvis, Dominique A. Cadilhac, Yvonne Mak-Yuen, Denise A. O’Connor & Leeanne M. Carey
To characterise the assessments and treatments that comprise “usual care” for stroke patients with somatosensory loss, and whether usual care has changed over time. Comparison of cross-sectional, observational data from (1) Stroke Foundation National Audit of Acute (2007–2019) and Rehabilitation (2010–2018) Stroke Services and (2) the SENSe Implement multi-site knowledge translation study with occupational therapists and physiotherapists (n = 115). Descriptive statistics, random effects logistic regression, and content analysis were used. Acute hospitals (n =...

Incomplete thermal ablation-induced up-regulation of transcription factor nuclear receptor subfamily 2, group F, member 6 (NR2F6) contributes to the rapid progression of residual liver tumor in hepatoblastoma

Jin-shu Pang, Dong-yue Wen, Rong-quan He, Gang Chen, Peng Lin, Jin-hong Li, Yu-jia Zhao, Lin-Yong Wu, Jun-Hong Chen, Yun He, Li-Ting Qin, Jia-bo Chen, Yong Li & Hong Yang
Hepatoblastoma is a kind of extreme malignancy frequently diagnosed in children. Although surgical resection is considered as the first-line treatment for hepatoblastoma, a relatively large population of patients have lost the preferred opportunity for surgery. Administration of locoregional ablation enables local tumor control but with the deficiency of insufficient ablation, residual tumor, and rapid progression. In this study, we integrated 219 hepatoblastoma and 121 non-cancer liver tissues to evaluate the expression of NR2F6, from which...

“It’s been a long hard road”: challenges faced in the first three years following traumatic brain injury

Marina G. Downing, Amelia J. Hicks, Sandy Braaf, Daniel B. Myles, Belinda J. Gabbe & Jennie Ponsford
There is limited qualitative research exploring challenges experienced following severe traumatic brain injury (TBI). We investigated challenges to recovery identified by individuals who sustained severe TBI three years earlier or their close others (COs), as well as suggestions for managing these challenges. Nine participants with TBI and 16 COs completed semi-structured interviews. Using reflexive thematic analysis, challenges were identified across several timeframes (i.e., at the injury, acute care, inpatient rehabilitation, outpatient rehabilitation, and at home/other...

Early Cretaceous mafic enclaves from the Jiaodong Peninsula of NNE China and what they reveal about lithospheric melts and granodiorite genesis: the Yashan example

Kadio Aka D. Koua, Huashan Sun, Huan Li, Zhanke Li, Hui Yang, Qingming Sun, Ohouo Rebecca Mondah & Koffi Alexis N’dri
Mafic microgranular enclaves (MMEs) are hosted by the Early Cretaceous granitic plutons from the Jiaodong Peninsula and are crucial for constraining the petrogenesis of these plutons and understanding the lithospheric evolution in the eastern North China Craton (NCC). This paper presents new geochronological, bulk-rock geochemistry, and Sr-Nd-Hf isotope data for Yashan granodiorite and its MMEs in an effort to build an integrated model of the geodynamic setting during the Early Cretaceous. Zircon U–Pb dating indicates...

Pain and mental health symptom patterns and treatment trajectories following road trauma: a registry-based cohort study

Sherry Huang, Joanna F. Dipnall, Belinda J. Gabbe & Melita J. Giummarra
This study aimed to characterise recovery from pain and mental health symptoms, and identify whether treatment use facilitates recovery. Victorian State Trauma Registry and Victorian Orthopaedic Trauma Outcomes Registry participants without neurotrauma who had transport injury claims with the Transport Accident Commission from 2007 to 2014 were included (n = 5908). Latent transition analysis of pain Numeric Rating Scale, SF-12, and EQ-5D-3L pain and mental health items from 6 to 12 months, and 12 to...

Opposing community assembly patterns for dominant and non-dominant plant species in herbaceous ecosystems globally

Carlos Alberto Arnillas, Elizabeth Borer, Eric Seabloom, Juan Alberti, Selene Baez, Jonathon Bakker, Elizabeth Boughton, Yvonne Buckley, Miguel Bugalho, Ian Donohue, John Dwyer, Jennifer Firn, Riley Gridzak, Nicole Hagenah, Yann Hautier, Aveliina Helm, Anke Jentsch, , Kimberly Komatsu, Lauri Laanisto, Ramesh Laungani, Rebecca McCulley, Joslin Moore, John Morgan, Pablo Peri … & Marc Cadotte
Biotic and abiotic factors interact with dominant plants —the locally most frequent or with the largest coverage— and non-dominant plants differently, partially because dominant plants modify the environment where non-dominant plants grow. For instance, if dominant plants compete strongly, they will deplete most resources, forcing non-dominant plants into a narrower niche space. Conversely, if dominant plants are constrained by the environment, they might not exhaust available resources but instead may ameliorate environmental stressors that usually...

Long non-coding RNA PCAT1 drives clear cell renal cell carcinoma by upregulating YAP via sponging miR-656 and miR-539

Rui Wang, Bin Zheng, Hongyan Liu & Xiuxian Wan
Clear cell renal cell carcinoma (ccRCC) is the most common RCC subtype with high metastasis, poor prognosis and conventional chemotherapy resistance. Prostate cancer associated transcript 1 (PCAT1) is an important lncRNA that was reported to be involved in cell proliferation, migration and invasion of several types of cancer cells. However, its role in ccRCC is still undetermined. This study found that PCAT1 levels were elevated in ccRCC tumors as well as several ccRCC cells, and...

Environmental variation and biotic interactions limit adaptation at ecological margins: lessons from rainforest Drosophila and European butterflies

Eleanor K. O'Brien, Greg M. Walter & Jon Bridle
Models of local adaptation to spatially varying selection predict that maximum rates of evolution are determined by the interaction between increased adaptive potential owing to increased genetic variation, and the cost genetic variation brings by reducing population fitness. We discuss existing and new results from our laboratory assays and field transplants of rainforest Drosophila and UK butterflies along environmental gradients, which try to test these predictions in natural populations. Our data suggest that: (i) local...

Data for \"Correlation-induced magnetism in substrate-supported 2D metal-organic frameworks\"

Bernard Field, Agustin Schiffrin & Nikhil Medhekar
Data and scripts used to produce the figures and results in Field, B., Schiffrin, A. & Medhekar, N.V. "Correlation-induced magnetism in substraye-supported 2D metal-organic frameworks". npj Comput Mater 8, 227 (2022). Further details are contained in the README.txt file within the zip folder. The provided Python code is shared under a GNU GPL license (details within).

Bronze strigil

Centre for Ancient Cultures Museum
Strigils are tools, mainly in hammered bronze, that were essential to the care of the skin in Ancient Greece and Rome: they were used to scrape dirt and perspiration from the body after an application of perfumed olive oil. These skin care procedures are commonly represented on vases and grave steles, showing soldiers, athletes following the routine after bathing or exercising, equipped with a strigil, an aryballos (flask for perfumed oil) and a sponge. Some...

Mycenaean globular squat stirrup-jar

Centre for Ancient Cultures Museum

The stirrup jar, also known as a “false-neck amphora”, is one of the most common Mycenaean pottery forms, commonly found in tombs and used to contain liquids such as oil or wine; it was a popular vessel, mass produced and exported from Cyprus to South Italy. It takes its name from the presence of a pouring spout and a false neck at the centre of the terracotta vessel joined to the shoulders by handles...

Attic black-figure skyphos (attributed to the manner of the Haimon Painter)

Centre for Ancient Cultures Museum

Attic terracotta skyphos (storage jar for wine) with a stemmed base, a deep bowl and twin, upturned loop handles, all upon a concave base. The rim and lip are thin and left red. The exterior walls are decorated with black-figure technique on red background: the deep drinking cup is flanked by two Sphynxes with wings recurved facing each other and with rough details incised. Close to the handles, is a stylized flower. Black glaze...

Apulian Gnathia-ware Epichysis (Provincial, ‘Laurel Spray Group’)

Centre for Ancient Cultures Museum

Gnathian Epichysis for pouring perfumed oil and other expensive liquids. Named after the ancient city of Gnathia in Southern Italy (region of Apulia), Gnathian ware vessels were painted in a variety of colours and were characteristic of the late 4th century BCE pottery production in Southern Italy, although also extensively traded to the rest of the Mediterranean. The ovoid curved body leads to a tubular neck and a slender beaked spout joined to the...

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