49 Works

Data from: Drones count wildlife more accurately and precisely than humans

Jarrod C. Hodgson, Rowan Mott, Shane M. Baylis, Trung T. Pham, Simon Wotherspoon, Adam D. Kilpatrick, Ramesh Raja Segaran, Ian Reid, Aleks Terauds & Lian Pin Koh
Knowing how many individuals are in a wildlife population allows informed management decisions to be made. Ecologists are increasingly using technologies, such as remotely piloted aircraft (RPA; commonly known as “drones,” unmanned aerial systems or unmanned aerial vehicles), for wildlife monitoring applications. Although RPA are widely touted as a cost-effective way to collect high-quality wildlife population data, the validity of these claims is unclear. Using life-sized, replica seabird colonies containing a known number of fake...

Data from: GloPL, a global data base on pollen limitation of plant reproduction

Joanne. M. Bennett, Janette. A. Steets, Jean. H. Burns, Walter Durka, Jana. C. Vamosi, Gerardo Arceo-Gómez, Martin Burd, Laura. A. Burkle, Allan. G Ellis, Leandro Freitas, Junmin Li, James. G. Rodger, Marina Wolowski, Jing Xia, Tia-Lynn Ashman & Tiffany. M. Knight
Plant reproduction relies on transfer of pollen from anthers to stigmas, and the majority of flowering plants depend on biotic or abiotic agents for this transfer. A key metric for characterizing if pollen receipt is insufficient for reproduction is pollen limitation, which is assessed by pollen supplementation experiments. In a pollen supplementation experiment, fruit or seed production by flowers exposed to natural pollination is compared to that following hand pollination either by pollen supplementation (i.e....

Data from: Leaf nutrients, not specific leaf area, are consistent indicators of elevated nutrient inputs

Jennifer Firn, James M. McGree, Eric Harvey, Habacuc Flores-Moreno, Martin Schütz, Yvonne M. Buckley, Elizabeth T. Borer, Eric W. Seabloom, Kimberly J. La Pierre, Andrew M. MacDougall, Suzanne M. Prober, Carly J. Stevens, Lauren L. Sullivan, Erica Porter, Emma Ladouceur, Charlotte Allen, Karine H. Moromizato, John W. Morgan, W. Stanley Harpole, Yann Hautier, Nico Eisenhauer, Justin P. Wright, Peter B. Adler, Carlos Alberto Arnillas, Jonathan D. Bakker … & Anita C. Risch
Leaf traits are frequently measured in ecology to provide a ‘common currency’ for predicting how anthropogenic pressures impact ecosystem function. Here, we test whether leaf traits consistently respond to experimental treatments across 27 globally distributed grassland sites across 4 continents. We find that specific leaf area (leaf area per unit mass)—a commonly measured morphological trait inferring shifts between plant growth strategies—did not respond to up to four years of soil nutrient additions. Leaf nitrogen, phosphorus...

Data from: Antagonistic pleiotropy in species with separate sexes, and the maintenance of genetic variation in life-history traits and fitness

Felix Zajitschek & Tim Connallon
Antagonistic pleiotropy (AP) – where alleles of a gene increase some components of fitness at a cost to others – can generate balancing selection, and contribute to the maintenance of genetic variation in fitness traits, such as survival, fecundity, fertility, and mate competition. Previous theory suggests that AP is unlikely to maintain variation unless antagonistic selection is strong, or AP alleles exhibit pronounced differences in genetic dominance between the affected traits. We show that conditions...

Data from: Feeding ecology underlies the evolution of cichlid jaw mobility

Christopher M. Martinez, Matthew David McGee, Samuel Robert Borstein & Peter C. Wainwright
The fish feeding apparatus is among the most diverse functional systems in vertebrates. While morphological and mechanical variation of feeding systems are well studied, we know far less about the diversity of the motions that they produce. We explored patterns of feeding movements in African cichlids from Lakes Malawi and Tanganyika, asking whether the degree of kinesis is associated with dietary habits of species. We used geometric morphometrics to measure feeding kinesis as trajectories of...

Data from: The effect of pollen limitation on the evolution of mating system and seed size in hermaphroditic plants

Qiaoqiao Huang & Martin Burd
Pollen limitation, when inadequate pollen receipt results in a plant setting fewer seeds and fruits, can reduce plant reproductive success and promote the evolution of self-fertilization as a mechanism of reproductive assurance. However, the effect of pollen limitation on the joint evolution of mating system and seed size is not known. Using an evolutionarily stable strategy (ESS) resource allocation model, we show that where moderate pollen limitation and strong inbreeding depression select for complete outcrossing,...

Data from: Threat sensitive adjustment of aggression by males and females in a biparental cichlid

Will Sowersby, Topi K. Lehtonen, Bob B.M. Wong & Bob B M Wong
Defending offspring provides fitness benefits to parents, but is costly. To moderate costs, parents should adjust aggressive responses to the threat posed by different species entering their territory. However, few studies have experimentally tested behavioral adjustments in response to the threat posed by different types of intruders, particularly in the field, and in environments with an array of heterospecific intruders. Here, using a biparental cichlid, the poor man’s tropheus (Hypsophrys nematopus), we investigated whether males...

Data from: The role of geospatial hotspots in the spatial spread of tuberculosis in rural Ethiopia: a mathematical modelling

Debebe Shaweno, James M. Trauer, Justin T. Denholm & Emma S. McBryde
Geospatial tuberculosis hotspots are hubs of TB transmission both within and across community groups. We aimed to quantify the extent to which these hotspots account for the spatial spread of TB in a high-burden setting. We developed spatially coupled models to quantify the spread of TB from geographic hotspots to distant regions in rural Ethiopia. The population was divided into three ‘patches’ based on their proximity to transmission hotspots, namely hotspots, adjacent regions and remote...

Data from: Computer simulations show that Neanderthal facial morphology represents adaptation to cold and high energy demands, but not heavy biting

Stephen Wroe, William C.H. Parr, Justin A. Ledogar, Jason Bourke, Samuel P. Evans, Luca Fiorenza, Stefano Benazzi, Jean-Jacques Hublin, Chris Stringer, Ottmar Kullmer, Michael Curry, Todd C. Rae, Todd R. Yokley & William C. H. Parr
Three adaptive hypotheses have been forwarded to explain the distinctive Neanderthal face: 1) an improved ability to accommodate high anterior bite forces, 2) more effective conditioning of cold and/or dry air, and, 3) adaptation to facilitate greater ventilatory demands. We test these hypotheses using three-dimensional models of Neanderthals, modern humans, and a close outgroup (H. heidelbergensis), applying finite element analysis (FEA) and computational fluid dynamics (CFD). This is the most comprehensive application of either approach...

Data from: Avian predation intensity as a driver of clinal variation in colour morph frequency

Genevieve Matthews, Celine T. Goulet, Kaspar Delhey, Zak S. Atkins, Geoffrey M. While, Michael G. Gardner & David G. Chapple
1) Phenotypic variation provides the framework for natural selection to work upon, enabling adaptive evolution. One of the most discernible manifestations of phenotypic variability is colour variation. When this variation is discrete, genetically-based colour pattern morphs occur simultaneously within a population. 2) Why and how colour polymorphisms are maintained is an evolutionary puzzle. Several evolutionary drivers have been hypothesized as influencing clinal patterns of morph frequency, with spatial variation in climate and predation being considered...

Data from: Female ornamentation and the fecundity trade-off in a sex-role reversed pipefish

Kenyon B. Mobley, John R. Morrongiello, Matthew Warr, Dianne J. Bray, Bob B.M. Wong & Bob B. M. Wong
Sexual ornaments found only in females are a rare occurrence in nature. One explanation for this is that female ornaments are costly to produce and maintain and, therefore, females must trade-off resources related to reproduction to promote ornament expression. Here, we investigate whether a trade-off exists between female ornamentation and fecundity in the sex-role reversed, wide-bodied pipefish, Stigmatopora nigra. We measured two components of the disk-shaped, ventral-striped female ornament, body width and stripe thickness. After...

Data from: More than kin: subordinates foster strong bonds with relatives and potential mates in a social bird

Niki Teunissen, Sjouke Anne Kingma, Michelle L. Hall, Nataly Hidalgo Aranzamendi, Jan Komdeur & Anne Peters
Social interactions shape relationships between individuals in complex societies. Affiliative interactions are associated with benefits and strengthen social bonds, while aggressive interactions are costly and negatively affect social bonds. Individuals may attempt to reduce aggressive encounters through submissive displays directed at higher-ranking individuals. Thus, fine-scale patterns of affiliative, aggressive and submissive interactions may reflect costly and beneficial social relationships within groups, providing insight into the benefits of group living and the mechanisms of conflict resolution....

Data from: Plasticity for desiccation tolerance across Drosophila species is affected by phylogeny and climate in complex ways

Vanessa Kellermann, Ary A. Hoffmann, Johannes Overgaard, Volker Loeschcke & Carla M. Sgró
Comparative analyses of ectotherm susceptibility to climate change often focus on thermal extremes, yet responses to aridity may be equally important. Here we focus on plasticity in desiccation resistance, a key trait shaping distributions of Drosophila species and other small ectotherms. We examined the extent to which 32 Drosophila species, varying in their distribution, could increase their desiccation resistance via phenotypic plasticity involving hardening, linking these responses to environment, phylogeny and basal resistance. We found...

Data from: Linking sex differences to the evolution of infectious disease life-histories

Matthew D. Hall & Nicole Mideo
Sex differences in the prevalence, course and severity of infection are widespread, yet the evolutionary consequences of these differences remain unclear. Understanding how male–female differences affect the trajectory of infectious disease requires connecting the contrasting dynamics that pathogens might experience within each sex, to the number of susceptible and infected individuals that are circulating in a population. In this study, we build on theory using genetic covariance functions to link the growth of a pathogen...

Data from: Claw morphometrics in monitor lizards: variable substrate and habitat use correlate to shape diversity within a predator guild

Domenic C. D'Amore, Simon Clulow, J. Sean Doody, David Rhind & Colin R. McHenry
Numerous studies investigate morphology in the context of habitat, and lizards have received particular attention. Substrate usage is often reflected in the morphology of characters associated with locomotion, and, as a result, claws have become well‐studied ecomorphological traits linking the two. The Kimberley predator guild of Western Australia consists of 10 sympatric varanid species. The purpose of this study was to quantify claw size and shape in the guild using geometric morphometrics, and determine whether...

Data from: Quantifying how constraints limit the diversity of viable routes to adaptation

Samuel Yeaman, Aleeza C. Gerstein, Kathryn A. Hodgins, Michael C. Whitlock & Sam Yeaman
Convergent adaptation can occur at the genome scale when independently evolving lineages use the same genes to respond to similar selection pressures. These patterns provide insights into the factors that facilitate or constrain the diversity of genetic responses that contribute to adaptive evolution. A first step in studying such factors is to quantify the observed amount of repeatability relative to expectations under a null hypothesis. Here, we formulate a novel metric to quantify the constraints...

Data from: Miniaturisation of biologgers is not alleviating the 5% rule

Steven J. Portugal & Craig R. White
1. The use of biologging technology has increased exponentially over the last decade, allowing us to study animal behaviour at a level of detail not previously possible. 2. It is clear from recent meta-analyses that the attachment of such devices can have negative effects on individual animals, particularly their behaviour and physiology. In recognition of this, a commonly applied rule is to ensure that devices borne by flying animals weigh less than 5% of their...

Data from: Cross-sex genetic correlations and the evolution of sex-specific local adaptation: insights from classical trait clines in Drosophila melanogaster

Clementine Lasne, Sandra B. Hangartner, Tim Connallon & Carla M. Sgro
Natural selection varies widely among locations of a species’ range, favouring population divergence and adaptation to local environmental conditions. Selection also differs between females and males, favouring the evolution of sexual dimorphism. Both forms of within-species evolutionary diversification are widely studied, though largely in isolation, and it remains unclear whether environmental variability typically generates similar or distinct patterns of selection on each sex. Studies of sex-specific local adaptation are also challenging because they must account...

Data from: Biochemical evolution in response to intensive harvesting in algae: evolution of quality and quantity

Dustin J. Marshall, Rebecca J. Lawton, Keyne Monro & Nicholas A. Paul
Evolutionary responses to indirect selection pressures imposed by intensive harvesting are increasingly common. While artificial selection has shown that biochemical components can show rapid and dramatic evolution, it remains unclear as to whether intensive harvesting can inadvertently induce changes in the biochemistry of harvested populations. For applications such as algal culture, many of the desirable bioproducts could evolve in response to harvesting, reducing cost-effectiveness, but experimental tests are lacking. We used an experimental evolution approach...

Data from: Early-life telomere length predicts lifespan and lifetime reproductive success in a wild bird

Justin R. Eastwood, Michelle L. Hall, Niki Teunissen, Sjouke A. Kingma, Nataly Hidalgo Aranzamendi, Marie Fan, Michael Roast, Simon Verhulst & Anne Peters
Poor conditions during early development can initiate trade-offs that favour current survival at the expense of somatic maintenance and subsequently, future reproduction. However, the mechanisms that link early and late life-history are largely unknown. Recently it has been suggested that telomeres, the nucleoprotein structures at the terminal end of chromosomes, could link early-life conditions to lifespan and fitness. In wild purple-crowned fairy-wrens, we combined measurements of nestling telomere length (TL) with detailed life-history data to...

Data from: Reproductive isolation in alpine gingers: how do co-existing Roscoea (R. purpurea and R. tumjensis) conserve species integrity?

Babu Ram Paudel, Martin Burd, Mani Shrestha, Adrian G. Dyer, Qingjun Li & Qing-Jun Li
Multiple barriers may contribute to reproductive isolation between closely related species. Understanding the relative strength of these barriers can illuminate the ecological factors that currently maintain species integrity and how these factors originally promoted speciation. Two Himalayan alpine gingers, Roscoea purpurea and R. tumjensis, occur sympatrically in central Nepal and have such similar morphology that it is not clear whether or how they maintain a distinct identity. Our quantitative measurements of the components of reproductive...

Data from: Large birds travel farther in homogeneous environments

Marlee A. Tucker, Olga Alexandrou, , Keith L. Bildstein, Katrin Böhning-Gaese, Chloe Bracis, John N. Brzorad, Evan R. Buechley, David Cabot, Justin M. Calabrese, Carlos Carrapato, André Chiaradia, Lisa C. Davenport, Sarah C. Davidson, Mark Desholm, Christopher R. DeSorbo, Robert Domenech, Peter Enggist, William F. Fagan, Nina Farwig, Wolfgang Fiedler, Christen H. Fleming, Alastair Franke, John M. Fryxell, Clara García-Ripollés … & João Paulo Silva
Aim: Animal movement is an important determinant of individual survival, population dynamics, and ecosystem structure and function. Yet it is still unclear how local movements are related to resource availability and the spatial arrangement of resources. Using resident bird species and migratory bird species outside of the migratory period, we examined how the distribution of resources affect the movement patterns of both large terrestrial birds (e.g., raptors, bustards, hornbills) and waterbirds (e.g., cranes, storks, ducks,...

Data from: Mitochondrial genetic effects on reproductive success: signatures of positive intrasexual, but negative intersexual pleiotropy

M. Florencia Camus & Damian K. Dowling
Theory predicts that maternal inheritance of mitochondria will facilitate the accumulation of mtDNA mutations that are male biased, or even sexually antagonistic, in effect. While there are many reported cases of mtDNA mutations conferring cytoplasmic male sterility in plants, historically it was assumed such mutations would not persist in the streamlined mitochondrial genomes of bilaterian metazoans. Intriguingly, recent cases of mitochondrial variants exerting male-biases in effect have come to light in bilaterians. These cases aside,...

Data from: How does parental environment influence the potential for adaptation to global change?

Evatt Chirgwin, Dustin J. Marshall, Carla M. Sgró & Keyne Monro
Parental environments are regularly shown to alter the mean fitness of offspring, but their impacts on the genetic variation for fitness, which predicts adaptive capacity and is also measured on offspring, are unclear. Consequently, how parental environments mediate adaptation to environmental stressors, like those accompanying global change, is largely unknown. Here, using an ecologically-important marine tubeworm in a quantitative-genetic breeding design, we tested how parental exposure to projected ocean warming alters the mean survival, and...

Registration Year

  • 2018

Resource Types

  • Dataset


  • Monash University
  • University of Melbourne
  • Max Planck Institute for Ornithology
  • University of Washington
  • University of Groningen
  • University of Minnesota
  • University of Guelph
  • La Trobe University
  • University of Adelaide
  • University of Newcastle Australia