32 Works

Insights on the evolution of the Himalayas and Tibet from thermomechanical modelling: the role of long-term convergence

Ben S. Knight, Fabio A. Capitanio & Roberto F. Weinberg
Monash University, Australia

The collision of India and Eurasia has resulted in a broad range of structures, from the Himalayan chain to the Tibetan Plateau. The convergence history is characterised by velocities of > 10 cm/yr at collision to current velocities of ~5 cm/yr, of which ~2cm/yr are accommodated at the orogens' front. Our thermomechanical model simulates the collision of India and Eurasia to assess the role of the decrease in velocity, highlighting 4...

Data from: Plastic but not adaptive: habitat-driven differences in metabolic rate despite no differences in selection between habitats

Lukas Schuster, Craig White & Dustin Marshall
Metabolic plasticity in response to different environmental conditions is widespread across taxa. It is reasonable to expect that such plasticity should be adaptive, but only few studies have determined the adaptive significance of metabolic plasticity by formally estimating selection on metabolic rate under different environmental conditions. We used a model marine colonial invertebrate, Bugula neritina to examine selection on metabolic rate in a harsh and a benign environment in the field, then tested whether these...

Data from: Opsins in Onychophora (velvet worms) suggest a single origin and subsequent diversification of visual pigments in arthropods

Lars Hering, Miriam J. Henze, Martin Kohler, Almut Kelber, Christoph Bleidorn, Maren Leschke, Birgit Nickel, Matthias Meyer, Martin Kircher, Paul Sunnucks & Georg Mayer
Multiple visual pigments, prerequisites for color vision, are found in arthropods, but the evolutionary origin of their diversity remains obscure. In this study, we explore the opsin genes in five distantly related species of Onychophora, using deep transcriptome sequencing and screening approaches. Surprisingly, our data reveal the presence of only one opsin gene (onychopsin) in each onychophoran species, and our behavioral experiments indicate a maximum sensitivity of onychopsin to blue–green light. In our phylogenetic analyses,...

Condition-dependent sexual reproduction is driven by benefits, not costs of sex

Isobel Booksmythe, Jessica Lever, Sally Drapes & Matthew Hall
Facultative sexual organisms must allocate resources to both asexual and sexual reproduction. Optimal patterns of investment in sex depend on the relative costs and benefits of each reproductive mode, and may consequently be context- and condition-dependent. Two proposed explanations for the observed variation in investment in sex among facultative sexual lineages invoke alternative condition-dependent scenarios. Under the ‘fitness-associated sex’ hypothesis, sex is predicted when individuals are in poor condition or experience stressful environments. Under the...

Effects of embryo energy, egg size and larval food supply on the development of asteroid echinoderms

Stacy Trackenberg, Emily Richardson & Jonathan Allen
Organisms have limited resources available to invest in reproduction, causing a tradeoff between the number and size of offspring. One consequence of this tradeoff is the evolution of disparate egg sizes and, by extension, developmental modes. In particular, echinoid echinoderms (sea urchins and sand dollars) have been widely used to experimentally manipulate how changes in egg size affect development. Here we test the generality of the echinoid results by 1) using laser ablations of blastomeres...

Understanding Trend Inflation Through the Lens of the Goods and Services Sectors

Yunjong Eo, Luis Uzeda & Benjamin Wong
Monetary policy is largely concerned with managing the part of inflation that is persistent (or permanent), a quantity often referred to as trend inflation. For example, a casual reading of any monetary policy report from the Federal Reserve Board will make it clear that, in addition to total (or headline) inflation, the Federal Reserve also focuses on underlying (or core) measures of inflation that exclude more volatile components such as food and energy prices. This...

Natalizumab, fingolimod and dimethyl fumarate use and pregnancy-related relapse and disability in women with multiple sclerosis

Wei Yeh
Objective: To investigate pregnancy-related disease activity in a contemporary multiple sclerosis (MS) cohort. Methods: Using data from the MSBase Registry, we included pregnancies conceived after 31 Dec 2010 from women with relapsing-remitting MS or clinically isolated syndrome. Predictors of intrapartum relapse, and postpartum relapse and disability progression were determined by clustered logistic regression or Cox regression analyses. Results: We included 1998 pregnancies from 1619 women with MS. Preconception annualized relapse rate (ARR) was 0.29 (95%...

Double-tagging scores of seabirds reveals that light-level geolocator accuracy is limited by species idiosyncrasies and equatorial solar profiles

Luke Halpin, Jeremy Ross, Raül Ramos, Rowan Mott, Nicholas Carlile, Nick Golding, José Manuel Reyes-González, Teresa Militão, Fernanda De Felipe, Zuzana Zajková, Marta Cruz Flores, Sarah Saldanha, Virginia Morera-Pujol, Leia Navarro-Herrero, Laura Zango, Jacob Gonzalez-Solis & Rohan Clarke
Light-level geolocators are popular bio-logging tools, with advantageous sizes, longevity, and affordability. Biologists tracking seabirds often presume geolocator spatial accuracies between 186-202 km from previously-innovative, yet taxonomically, spatially, and computationally limited, studies. Using recently developed methods, we investigated whether assumed uncertainty norms held across a larger-scale, multispecies study. We field-tested geolocator spatial accuracy by synchronously deploying these with GPS loggers on scores of seabirds across five species and 11 Mediterranean Sea, East Atlantic and South...

Clinicians’ opinions on recommending aspirin to prevent colorectal cancer to Australians aged 50 to 70 years: A qualitative study

Shakira Milton, Jennifer McIntosh, Thivagar Yogaparan, Pavithran Alphonse, Sibel Saya, Napin Karnchanachari, Peter Nguyen, Phyllis Lau, Finlay Macrae & Jon Emery
Objectives Australian guidelines recommend all 50 to 70-year-olds without existing contraindications consider taking low-dose aspirin (100 mg – 300 mg per day) for at least 2.5 years to reduce their risk of developing colorectal cancer. We aimed to explore clinicians’, practices, knowledge, opinions, and barriers and facilitators to the implementation of these new guidelines. Methods Semi-structured interviews were conducted with clinicians to whom the new guidelines may be applicable (familial cancer clinic staff (geneticists, oncologists...

Behavioural responses of Lampropholis delicata across four groups sizes

Celine Goulet, Daniel Littlewood & David Chapple
Behaviour is a highly labile trait that can be rapidly modified to mitigate the effects of changing environmental conditions. Among the biotic and abiotic factors acting to prompt plastic responses, the social environment has been proposed as being one of the primary modulating forces on behaviour. Being part of a group has particular influence on the expression of risky behaviour in that added eyes and ears serve to decrease a group member’s vulnerability to predation...

Variability, heritability and condition-dependence of the multidimensional male colour phenotype in a passerine bird

Marie Fan, Michelle Hall, Michael Roast, Anne Peters & Kaspar Delhey
Elaborate ornamental traits are commonly assumed to be honest signals of individual quality, owing to the presumed costs involved in their production and/or maintenance. Such traits are often highly variable, possibly because of condition-dependence and/or high underlying genetic variation, and it has been suggested that their expression should be more sensitive to condition and/or more heritable than non-ornamental traits. Many bird species display colourful plumage with multiple distinct patches of different developmental origins, forming complex...

Data from: Metabolism drives demography in an experimental field test

Lukas Schuster, Hayley Cameron, Craig White & Dustin Marshall
Metabolism should drive demography by determining the rates of both biological work and resource demand. Long-standing ‘rules’ for how metabolism should covary with demography permeate biology, from predicting the impacts of climate change to managing fisheries. Evidence for these rules is almost exclusively indirect and in the form of among-species comparisons, while direct evidence is exceptionally rare. In a manipulative field experiment on a sessile marine invertebrate, we created experimental populations that varied systematically in...

Data from: Male reproductive adjustments to an introduced nest predator

Isaac Gravolin, Topi Lehtonen, Nicholas Deal, Ulrika Candolin & Bob Wong
Nest predation has a large impact on reproductive success in many taxa. Defending offspring from would-be predators can also be energetically and physiologically costly for parents. Thus, to maximize their reproductive payoffs, individuals should adjust their reproductive behaviors in relation to the presence of nest predators. However, effects of nest predator presence on parental behaviors across multiple reproductive contexts remain poorly understood, particularly in non-avian taxa. We ran a series of experiments to test how...

Data and statistical code from: Population differences in the effect of context on personality in an invasive lizard

Jack A. Brand, Annalise C. Naimo, Marcus Michelangeli, Jake M. Martin, Andrew Sih, Bob B.M. Wong & David G. Chapple
Within populations, individuals often differ consistently in their average level of behavior (i.e. animal personality), as well as their response to environmental change (i.e. behavioral plasticity). Thus, changes in environmental conditions might be expected to mediate the structure of animal personality traits. However, it is currently not well understood how personality traits change in response to environmental conditions, and whether this effect is consistent across multiple populations within the same species. Accordingly, we investigated variation...

Raw data set of pigeon body mass measurements

Steven Portugal & Craig White
1. Animal-borne logging devices are now commonly used to record and monitor the movements, physiology and behaviours of free-living animals. It is imperative that the impacts these devices have on the animals themselves is minimised. 2. One important consideration is the interaction between the body mass of the animal, and the mass of the device. 3. Using captive homing pigeons, we demonstrate that birds lose the equivalent amount of body mass compared to that of...

Barriers to restoration: Pollution alters nurse effects for an ecosystem engineer

Hayley Cameron, Michael Amor & Alecia Bellgrove
Nurse plants modify the environment to facilitate the recruitment of propagules, and are potentially valuable tools for ecological restoration. Yet empirical tests, particularly in polluted environments, remain rare. The few studies that have examined nurse-effects in polluted environments report exclusively positive effects, but most tests have focused on pollution-tolerant species in metal contaminated environments. Biotic interactions are highly context-dependent, however, such that extrapolations to other suites of species and pollutant types appear premature. We examined...

Pervasive admixture and the spread of a large-lipped form in a cichlid fish radiation

Will Sowersby, José Cerca, Bob Wong, Topi Lehtonen, David Chapple, Mariana Leal-Cardin, Marta Barluenga & Mark Ravinet
Adaptive radiations have proven important for understanding the mechanisms and processes underlying biological diversity. The convergence of form and function, as well as admixture and adaptive introgression, are common in adaptive radiations. However, distinguishing between these two scenarios remains a challenge for evolutionary research. The Midas cichlid species complex (Amphilophus spp.) is a prime example of adaptive radiation, with phenotypic diversification occurring at various stages of genetic differentiation. One species, A. labiatus, has large fleshy...

Data from: Accelerated diversification explains the exceptional species richness of tropical characoid fishes

Bruno Melo, Brian Sidlauskas, Thomas Near, Fabio Roxo, Ava Ghezelayagh, Luz Ochoa, Melanie Stiassny, Jairo Arroyave, Jonathan Chang, Brant Faircloth, Daniel MacGuigan, Richard Harrington, Ricardo Benine, Michael Burns, Kendra Hoekzema, Natalia Sanches, Javier Maldonado-Ocampo, Ricardo Castro, Fausto Foresti, Michael Alfaro & Claudio Oliveira
The Neotropics harbor the most species-rich freshwater fish fauna on the planet, but the timing of that exceptional diversification remains unclear. Did the Neotropics accumulate species steadily throughout their long history, or attain their remarkable diversity recently? Biologists have long debated the relative support for these museum and cradle hypotheses, but few phylogenies of megadiverse tropical clades have included sufficient taxa to distinguish between them. We used 1288 ultraconserved element loci spanning 293 species, 211...

Why signal if you are not attractive? Courtship synchrony in a fiddler crab

Lauren Harrison, Gabriela Melo, Daniela Perez & Patricia Backwell
Synchronised male courtship signals are puzzling because males generally compete with each other for females. Male Austruca mjoebergi fiddler crabs wave in synchrony to attract females, but, all else being equal, females have a strong preference for ‘leader’ males that can produce waves before other males (‘followers’). So why do followers participate in synchrony? Here, we experimentally investigate three explanations for why followers might wave in synchrony: 1) followers obtain a small proportion of matings,...

Arthropod predation of vertebrates structures trophic dynamics in island ecosystems

Luke Halpin, Daniel Terrington, Holly Jones, Rowan Mott, Wei Wen Wong, David Dow, Nicholas Carlile & Rohan Clarke
Arthropod predation of vertebrates structures trophic dynamics in island ecosystems On isolated islands, large arthropods can play an important functional role in ecosystem dynamics. On the Norfolk Islands group, South Pacific, we monitored the diet and foraging activity of an endemic chilopod, the Phillip Island centipede (Cormocephalus coynei), and used a stable isotope mixing model to estimate dietary proportions. Phillip Island centipede diet is represented by vertebrate animals (48%) and invertebrates (52%), with 30.5% consisting...

Temperature-mediated variation in selection on offspring size: a multi-cohort field study

Dustin Marshall
Offspring size is a key life history trait that often covaries negatively with temperature. Most studies focus on how temperature alters selection on offspring size during early life history stages such as embryos or larvae. The degree to which temperature alters the relationship between offspring size and post-metamorphic performance remains unclear as field studies across multiple temperature regimes are rare. I deployed over 6000 individuals of known offspring size, into the field across 28 cohorts...

An All-time Classic. Weber’s \"Protestant Ethic\"

Sascha O. Becker
Clearly, the quality of a truly path-breaking work – like Weber’s legacy – is that it makes others, and literally thousands of others, think and develop new ideas. Weber asked the right questions. Whether one agrees with his answers or not, he paved the way for many fields of research that became distinct disciplines.

Effects of high and low-efficacy therapy in secondary progressive multiple sclerosis

Izanne Roos, Emmanuelle Leray, Romain Casey, Dana Horakova, Eva Havrdova, Guillermo Izquierdo, Sara Eichau, Francesco Patti, Gilles Edan, Marc Debouverie, Jean Pelletier, Serkan Ozakbas, Maria Pia Amato, Pierre Clavelou, Pierre Grammond, Cavit Boz, Katherine Buzzard, Olga Skibina, Jonathan Ciron, Oliver Gerlach, Francois Grand'Maison, Jeannette Lechner-Scott, Charles Malpas, Helmut Butzkueven, Sandra Vukusic … & Tomas Kalincik
Objective: To compare the clinical effectiveness of high- and low-efficacy treatments in patients with recently active and inactive secondary progressive multiple sclerosis (SPMS) after accounting for therapeutic lag. Methods: Patients treated with high- (natalizumab, alemtuzumab, mitoxantrone, ocrelizumab, rituximab, cladribine, fingolimod) or low-efficacy (interferon β, glatiramer acetate, teriflunomide) therapies after SPMS onset were selected from MSBase and OFSEP, two large observational cohorts. Therapeutic lag was estimated for each patient based on their demographic and clinical characteristics....

Chronic insomnia and bed partner actigraphy data

Maia Angelova, Shitanshu Kusmakar, Chandan Karmakar, Ye Zhu, Sergiy Shelyag, Sean Drummond & Jason Ellis
The files contain seven nights of continuous actigraphy measurements of 40 subjects with chronic insomnia and their 40 bed partners. Wrist actigraphy was used, collected for one week using Respironics Actiwatch Spectrum Pro and Actiware software (Respironics, Bend, OR, USA), with movement counts were sampled in 60-second epochs. All recruited subjects wore the devices at all times during day and night. All subjects were free to move and were not prohibited from doing any activities...

Parasitism and host dispersal plasticity in an aquatic model system

Giacomo Zilio, Louise Nørgaard, Giovanni Petrucci, Nathalie Zeballos, Claire Gougat-Barbera, Emanuel Fronhofer & Oliver Kaltz
Dispersal is a central determinant of spatial dynamics in communities and ecosystems, and various ecological factors can shape the evolution of constitutive and plastic dispersal behaviours. One important driver of dispersal plasticity is the biotic environment. Parasites, for example, influence the internal condition of infected hosts and define external patch quality. Thus state-dependent dispersal may be determined by infection status and context-dependent dispersal by the abundance of infected hosts in the population. A prerequisite for...

Registration Year

  • 2021
    32

Resource Types

  • Dataset
    28
  • Text
    4

Affiliations

  • Monash University
    32
  • University of Melbourne
    5
  • Deakin University
    4
  • Department of Planning and Environment
    2
  • Sao Paulo State University
    1
  • Dokuz Eylül University
    1
  • University of Newcastle Australia
    1
  • Natural History Museum of Los Angeles County
    1
  • University of Queensland
    1
  • Oregon State University
    1