570 Works

Intraspecific mating system evolution and its effect on complex male secondary sexual traits: does male-male competition increase selection on size or shape?

Julian Baur, Jeannine Roy, Martin A. Schäfer, Nalini Puniamoorthy, Wolf U. Blanckenhorn & Patrick T. Rohner
Sexual selection is generally held responsible for the exceptional diversity in secondary sexual traits in animals. Mating system evolution is therefore expected to profoundly affect the covariation between secondary sexual traits and mating success. While there is such evidence at the interspecific level, data within species remain scarce. We here investigate sexual selection acting on the exaggerated male fore femur and the male wing in the common and widespread dung flies Sepsis punctum and S....

Estimating uncertainty in divergence times among three-spined stickleback clades using the multispecies coalescent

Bohao Fang, Juha Merilä, Michael Matschiner & Paolo Momigliano
Incomplete lineage sorting (ILS) can lead to biased divergence time estimates. To explore if and how ILS has influenced the results of a recent study of worldwide phylogeny of three-spined sticklebacks (Gasterosteus aculeatus), we estimated divergence times among major clades by applying both a concatenation approach and the multispecies coalescent (MSC) model to single-nucleotide polymorphisms. To further test the influence of different calibration strategies, we applied different calibrations to the root and to younger nodes...

Phylogeography, more than elevation, accounts for sex-chromosome differentiation in Swiss populations of the common frog (Rana temporaria)

Barret Phillips, Nicolas Rodrigues, Alexandra Jansen Van Rensburg & Nicolas Perrin
Sex chromosomes in vertebrates range from highly heteromorphic (as in most birds and mammals) to strictly homomorphic (as in many fishes, amphibians, and non-avian reptiles). Reasons for these contrasted evolutionary trajectories remain unclear, but species such as common frogs with polymorphism in the extent of sex-chromosome differentiation may potentially deliver important clues. By investigating 92 common-frog populations from a wide range of elevations throughout Switzerland, we show that sex-chromosome differentiation strongly correlates with alleles at...

Data from: The way wear goes – phytolith-based wear on the dentine-enamel system in guinea pigs (Cavia porcellus)

Louise F. Martin, Daniela Winkler, Thomas Tütken, Codron Daryl, Annelies De Cuyper, Jean-Michel Hatt & Marcus Clauss
The effect of phytoliths on tooth wear and function has been contested in studies of animal plant interactions. For herbivores whose occlusal chewing surface consists of enamel ridges in dentine tissue, the phytoliths might first erode the softer dentine, exposing the enamel ridges to different occlusal forces and thus leading to enamel wear. To test this hypothesis, we fed guinea pigs (Cavia porcellus; n=36 in 6 groups) for three weeks exclusively on dry or fresh...

Biomes as evolutionary arenas: convergence and conservatism in the trans-continental Succulent Biome

Jens Ringelberg, Niklaus Zimmermann, Andrea Weeks, Matt Lavin & Colin Hughes
Aim: Biomes are globally-distributed, structurally and functionally similar vegetation units, but there is debate about whether these similarities are superficial, and about how biomes are defined and mapped. We propose that combined assessment of evolutionary convergence of plant functional traits and phylogenetic biome conservatism provides a useful approach for characterising biomes. We focus on the little-known succulent biome, a trans-continentally distributed assemblage of succulent-rich, drought-deciduous, fire-free forest, thicket and scrub vegetation as a useful exemplar...

Plant responses to diversity-driven selection and associated rhizosphere microbial communities

Cameron Wagg, Terhi Hahl, Sofia Van Moorsel, Marc Schmid, Debra Zuppinger-Dingley & Bernhard Schmid
1. Plant diversity loss can alter plant interactions and rhizosphere microbial communities. These altered interactions in turn exert diversity-driven selection pressures to which plants may respond with phenotypic changes. Diverse plant communities may favour the survival and fitness of individuals with traits that avoid competition. Conversely monocultures may accumulate species-specific pests favouring greater investment in defence traits. Yet it is unknown how altered plant rhizosphere interactions influence the plant diversity-driven selection for altered plant phenotypes....

A global phylogenomic study of the Thelypteridaceae

Susan Fawcett, Alan Smith, Michael Sundue, Gordon Burleigh, Emily Sessa, Li-Yaung Kuo, Cheng-Wei Chen, Weston Testo, Michael Kessler & David Barrington
The generic classification of the Thelypteridaceae has been the subject of much controversy. Proposed taxonomic systems have varied from recognizing more than 1000 species in the family within the single genus Thelypteris, to systems favoring upwards of 30 genera. Insights on intrafamilial relationships have been gained from recent phylogenetic studies, especially for the Neotropics; however, in the most recent classification, 10 of 30 recognized genera are either non-monophyletic or untested. In the present study, we...

Wildflower strips enhance wild bee reproductive success

Dominik Ganser, Matthias Albrecht & Eva Knop
1. Intensification of agriculture has resulted in a simplification and fragmentation of agroecosystems. Yet, its impact on the reproductive success and population dynamics of wild bees, and how adverse effects can be mitigated, remains poorly understood. 2. We established populations of seven solitary bee species varying in body size in experimentally sown wild flower strips (WFS), existing semi-natural habitats (SNH; forest edges) and isolated sites lacking WFS and SNH in the local surrounding (350 m...

Data from: Life-history dimensions indicate non-random assembly processes in tropical island tree communities

Julian Schrader, Dylan Craven, Cornelia Sattler, Rodrigo Cámara-Leret, Soetjipto Moeljono & Holger Kreft
Community assembly processes on islands are often non-random. The mechanisms behind non-random assembly, however, are generally difficult to disentangle. Functional diversity in combination with a null model approach that accounts for differences in species richness among islands can be used to test for non-random assembly processes, but has been applied rarely to island communities. By linking functional diversity of trees on islands with a null model approach, we bridge this gap and test for the...

A tradeoff between robustness to environmental fluctuations and speed of evolution

Max Schmid, Maria Paniw, Maarten Postuma, Arpat Ozgul & Frédéric Guillaume
The ability of a species to cope with both long-term and short-term environmental fluctuations might vary with the species' life history. While some life-history characteristics promote large and stable population sizes despite interannual environmental fluctuations, other life-history strategies might allow to evolve quickly in response to long-term gradual changes. In a theoretical study, we show that there is a tradeoff between both properties. Life-history characteristics that promote fast rates of evolution come at the expense...

Alpine ibex simulation files

Deborah Leigh, Heidi Lischer, Frederic Guillaume, Christine Grossen & Torsten Gunther
Identifying local adaptation in bottlenecked species is essential for conservation management. Selection detection methods have an important role in species management plans, assessments of adaptive capacity, and looking for responses to climate change. Yet, the allele frequency changes exploited in selection detection methods are similar to those caused by the strong neutral genetic drift expected during a bottleneck. Consequently, it is often unclear what accuracy selection detection methods have across bottlenecked populations. In this study,...

Competition alters species' plastic and genetic response to environmental change

Lynn Govaert, Florian Altermatt & Luis Gilarranz
Species react to environmental change via plastic and evolutionary responses. While both of them determine species’ survival, most studies quantify these responses only individually. As species occur in communities, competing species may further influence their respective response to environmental change. Yet, how environmental change and competing species combined shape plastic and genetic responses to environmental change remains unclear. Quantifying how species interactions such as competition alter plastic and genetic responses of species to environmental change...

Online Appendix and Cetacean Datasets for: The Occurrence Birth-Death Process for combined-evidence analysis in macroevolution and epidemiology

Jérémy Andréoletti, Antoine Zwaans, Rachel Warnock, Gabriel Aguirre-Fernández, Joëlle Barido-Sottani, Ankit Gupta, Tanja Stadler & Marc Manceau
Phylodynamic models generally aim at jointly inferring phylogenetic relationships, model parameters, and more recently, the number of lineages through time, based on molecular sequence data. In the fields of epidemiology and macroevolution these models can be used to estimate, respectively, the past number of infected individuals (prevalence) or the past number of species (paleodiversity) through time. Recent years have seen the development of “total-evidence” analyses, which combine molecular and morphological data from extant and past...

Genomic signals of admixture and reinforcement between two closely related species of European sepsid flies

Martin Kapun, Athene Giesen, Wolf U Blanckenhorn, Martin A Schäfer, Kentaro K Shimizu, Rie Shimizu-Inatsugi, Bernhard Misof, Oliver Niehuis, Lars Podsiadlowski, Heidi E L Liescher & Simon Aeschbacher
Interspecific gene flow by hybridization may weaken species barriers and adaptive divergence, but can also initiate reinforcement of reproductive isolation through natural and sexual selection. However, the extent of interspecific gene flow and its consequences for the initiation and maintenance of species barriers in natural systems remain poorly understood. We first applied coalescence simulations and approximate Bayesian calculations based on microsatellite data to infer the yet unknown demographic history of the two closely related European...

Satellite data reveal differential responses of Swiss forests to unprecedented 2018 drought

Joan T. Sturm
The summer drought of 2018 caused major damages to forest ecosystems. In this dataset, various environmental variables (precipitation anomaly, temperature anomaly, climatic water balance anomaly, elevation, slope, aspect, exposition, potential direct incedent radiation, distance to the forest edge, tree type, and species heterogeneity) have been stratified into ten sections and the proportion of forest pixels with severe changes (equal or more than 10% either positive or negative) in the normalized difference water index (NDWI) of...

Siderophores drive invasion dynamics in bacterial communities through their dual role as public good versus public bad

Alexandre R. T. Figueiredo, Özhan Özkaya, Rolf Kuemmerli & Jos Kramer
Microbial invasions can compromise ecosystem services and spur dysbiosis and disease in hosts. Nevertheless, the mechanisms determining invasion outcomes often remain unclear. Here, we examine the role of iron-scavenging siderophores in driving invasions of Pseudomonas aeruginosa into resident communities of environmental pseudomonads. Siderophores can be “public goods” by delivering iron to individuals possessing matching receptors; but they can also be “public bads” by withholding iron from competitors lacking these receptors. Accordingly, siderophores should either promote...

Patch size distribution affects species invasion dynamics in dendritic networks

Holenstein Kathrin, Eric Harvey & Florian Altermatt
Biological invasions are globally affecting ecosystems, causing local species loss and altering ecosystem functioning. Understanding how such biological invasions occur and succeed is thus of high priority. Both local properties and the spatial network structure have been shown to be determinants of invasion success, and the identification of spatial invasion hubs directly promoting invasion dynamics is gaining attention. Spatial dynamics, however, could also indirectly alter invasion success by shaping pre- invasion local community structure: in...

Data from: Family dynamics reveal that female house mice preferentially breed in their maternal community

Julian Evans, Anna Lindholm & Barbara König
Whether females breed in their natal group is an important factor in the evolution of extended families in animal sociality. Breeding in natal groups comes with costs and benefits, depending on group size and presence of older relatives, including mothers. Studying the consequences of breeding in the natal versus another group provides insight into the decisions and trade-offs governing the formation and structure of family groups. We investigated the family dynamics of a population of...

High spatial resolution mapping identifies habitat characteristics of the invasive vine Antigonon leptopus on St. Eustatius (Lesser Antilles)

Elizabeth Haber, Maria Santos, Pedro Leitão, Marcel Schwieder, Pieter Ketner, Joris Ernst, Max Rietkerk, Martin Wassen & Maarten Eppinga
On the Caribbean island of St. Eustatius, Coralita (Antigonon leptopus) is an aggressive invasive vine posing major biodiversity conservation concerns. The generation of distribution maps can address these conservation concerns by helping to elucidate the drivers of invasion. We test the use of support vector machines to map the distribution of Coralita on St. Eustatius at high spatial resolution and use this map to identify potential landscape and geomorphological factors associated with Coralita presence. This...

Adaptation to elevation but limited local adaptation in an amphibian

Judith C. Bachmann & Josh Van Buskirk
We performed a reciprocal transplant experiment to estimate “parallel” adaptation to elevation and “unique” adaptation to local sites at the same elevation, using the frog Rana temporaria in the Swiss Alps. It is important to distinguish these two processes because they have different implications for population structure and ecological specialization. Larvae were reared from hatching to metamorphosis within enclosures installed in their pond of origin, in three foreign ponds at the same elevation, and in...

Data for: Immigration counter-acts local micro-evolution of a major fitness component: migration-selection balance in free-living song sparrows

Jane Reid, Peter Arcese, Pirmin Nietlisbach, Matthew Wolak, Stefanie Muff, Lisa Dickel & Lukas Keller
Ongoing adaptive evolution, and resulting ‘evolutionary rescue’ of declining populations, requires additive genetic variation in fitness. Such variation can be increased by gene flow resulting from immigration, potentially facilitating evolution. But, gene flow could in fact constrain rather than facilitate local adaptive evolution if immigrants have low additive genetic values for local fitness. Local migration-selection balance and micro-evolutionary stasis could then result. However, key quantitative genetic effects of natural immigration, comprising the degrees to which...

How biases in sperm storage relate to sperm use during oviposition in female yellow dung flies

Marco Demont, Paul Ward, Wolf Blanckenhorn, Stefan Lüpold, Oliver Martin & Luc Bussière
Precise mechanisms underlying sperm storage and utilization are largely unknown, and data directly linking stored sperm to paternity remain scarce. We used competitive microsatellite PCR to study the effects of female morphology, copula duration and oviposition on the proportion of stored sperm provided by the second of two copulating males (S2) in Scathophaga stercoraria (Diptera: Scathophagidae), the classic model for sperm competition studies. We genotyped all offspring from potentially mixed-paternity clutches to establish the relationship...

Bird communities in the Swiss Alps, 1999-2018, abundance data

Vicente García-Navas, Thomas Sattler, Hans Schmid & Arpat Ozgul
Aim: Mountains are biodiversity hotspots and are among the most sensitive eco- systems to ongoing global change being thus of conservation concern. Under this scenario, assessing how biological communities vary over time along elevational gra- dients and the relative effects of niche-based deterministic processes and stochastic events in structuring assemblages is essential. Here, we examined how the temporal trends of bird communities vary with elevation over a 20 year-period (1999–2018). We also tested for differences...

Date From: The myriad of complex demographic responses of terrestrial mammals to climate change and gaps of knowledge: A global analysis

Maria Paniw, Tamora James, C. Ruth Archer, Gesa Römer, Sam Levin, Aldo Compagnoni, Judy Che-Castaldo, Joanne Bennett, Andrew Mooney, Dylan Childs, Arpat Ozgul, Owen Jones, Jean Burns, Andrew Beckerman, Abir Patwari, Nora Sanchez-Gassen, Tiffany Knight & Roberto Salguero-Gómez
Approximately 25% of mammals are currently threatened with extinction, a risk that is amplified under climate change. Species persistence under climate change is determined by the combined effects of climatic factors on multiple demographic rates (survival, development, reproduction), and hence, population dynamics. Thus, to quantify which species and regions on Earth are most vulnerable to climate-driven extinction, a global understanding of how different demographic rates respond to climate is urgently needed. Here, we perform a...

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