Understanding the functional consequences of biodiversity loss is a major goal of ecology. Animal-mediated pollination is an essential ecosystem function and service provided to mankind. However, little is known how pollinator diversity could affect pollination services. Using a substitutive design, we experimentally manipulated functional group (FG) and species richness of pollinator communities to investigate their consequences on the reproductive success of an obligate out-crossing model plant species, Raphanus sativus. Both fruit and seed set increased...
Data from: Independent sources of condition dependency and multiple pathways determine a composite trait: lessons from carotenoid-based plumage colourationCristina Romero-Díaz, Heinz Richner, Fernando Granado-Lorencio, Barbara Tschirren, Patrick Fitze & C. Romero-Diaz
Many color ornaments are composite traits consisting of at least four components, which themselves may be more complex, determined by independent evolutionary pathways, and potentially being under different environmental control. To date, little evidence exists that several different components of color elaboration are condition-dependent and no direct evidence exists that different ornamental components are affected by different sources of variation. For example, in carotenoid-based plumage coloration, one of the best-known condition-dependent ornaments, color elaboration stems...
Data from: Differential investment in pre- versus post-copulatory sexual selection reinforces a cross-continental reversal of sexual size dimorphism in Sepsis punctum (Diptera: Sepsidae)Nalini Puniamoorthy, Wolf U. Blanckenhorn & Martin A. Schäfer
Theory predicts that males have a limited amount of resources to invest in reproduction, suggesting a trade-off between traits that enhance mate acquisition and those enhancing fertilization success. Here we investigate the relationship between pre- and post-copulatory investment by comparing the mating behavior and reproductive morphology of four European and five North American populations of the dung fly Sepsis punctum (Diptera) that display a reversal of sexual size dimorphism (SSD). We show that the geographic...
During the Devonian Nekton Revolution, ammonoids show a progressive coiling of their shell just like many other pelagic mollusk groups. These now extinct, externally shelled cephalopods derived from bactritoid cephalopods with a straight shell in the Early Devonian. During the Devonian, evolutionary trends toward tighter coiling and a size reduction occurred in ammonoid embryonic shells. In at least three lineages, descendants with a closed umbilicus evolved convergently from forms with an opening in the first...
Bananas (Musa spp.), including dessert and cooking types, are giant perennial monocotyledonous herbs of the order Zingiberales, a sister group to the well-studied Poales, which include cereals. Bananas are vital for food security in many tropical and subtropical countries and the most popular fruit in industrialized countries1. The Musa domestication process started some 7,000 years ago in Southeast Asia. It involved hybridizations between diverse species and subspecies, fostered by human migrations2, and selection of diploid...
Mollusks in general and ammonoids in particular are known to display a sometimes profound morphological intraspecific variability of their shell. Although this phenomenon is of greatest importance, it has rarely been investigated and quantified. It is especially crucial for taxonomy and incidentally for biodiversity analyses to account for it, because otherwise, the number of described species might exceed that of actual species within any group. Early ammonoids (Early Devonian, Paleozoic) typically suffer from this bias....
Data from: A new perspective on Punctelia subrudecta (Parmeliaceae) in North America: previously rejected morphological characters corroborate molecular phylogenetic evidence and provide insight into an old problemJames C. Lendemer & Brendan P. Hodkinson
In North America the names Punctelia subrudecta and P. perreticulata have variously been applied to corticolous sorediate Punctelia specimens with lecanoric acid and a pale lower surface. ITS1, 5.8S, and ITS2 sequence data were generated from a geographically and morphologically broad sampling from within these specimens, and a molecular phylogeny was inferred. A combined approach using morphology, geography, and phylogeny was used to circumscribe three distinct species in North America, one of which is described...
Data from: How random is social behaviour? Disentangling social complexity through the study of a wild house mouse populationNicolas Perony, Claudio J. Tessone, Barbara König & Frank Schweitzer
Out of all the complex phenomena displayed in the behaviour of animal groups, many are thought to be emergent properties of rather simple decisions at the individual level. Some of these phenomena may also be explained by random processes only. Here we investigate to what extent the interaction dynamics of a population of wild house mice (Mus domesticus) in their natural environment can be explained by a simple stochastic model. We first introduce the notion...
Data from: Extra-pair paternity and the variance in male fitness in song sparrows (Melospiza melodia)Christophe Lebigre, Peter Arcese, Rebecca J. Sardell, Lukas F. Keller & Jane M. Reid
The variance in fitness across population members can influence major evolutionary processes. In socially monogamous but genetically polygynandrous species, extra-pair paternity (EPP) is widely hypothesized to increase the variance in male fitness compared to that arising given the socially monogamous mating system. This hypothesis has not been definitively tested because comprehensive data describing males’ apparent (social) and realized (genetic) fitness have been lacking. We used 16 years of comprehensive social and genetic paternity data for...
According to theory, drift load in randomly mating populations is determined by past population size, because enhanced genetic drift in small populations causes accumulation and fixation of recessive deleterious mutations of small effect. In contrast, segregating load due to mutations of low frequency should decline in smaller populations, at least when mutations are highly recessive and strongly deleterious. Strong local selection generally reduces both types of load. We tested these predictions in 13 isolated, outcrossing...
Data from: A radical shift in the taxonomy of Lepraria s.l.: molecular and morphological studies shed new light on the evolution of asexuality and lichen growth form diversificationJames C. Lendemer & Brendan P. Hodkinson
A combination of molecular phylogenetic analyses of ITS and mtSSU sequences, morphological and chemical analyses were used to investigate the lineages nominally included in the sterile lichen genus Lepraria. A core group (Lepraria s. str.) was resolved as sister to Stereocaulon. Species producing the secondary compounds argopsin, pannarin and usnic acid were found to belong to other lineages of lichen-forming ascomycetes. Study of Leprocaulon revealed that all species, except the type, likely represent members of...
University of Zurich11
University of Évry Val d'Essonne1
University of Georgia1
University of Neuchâtel1
University of California, Berkeley1
Hospital Universitario Puerta de Hierro Majadahonda1
Humboldt University of Berlin1
French National Centre for Scientific Research1