18 Works

Data from: A new paleoecological look at the Dinwoody Formation (Lower Triassic, western U.S.): intrinsic versus extrinsic controls on ecosystem recovery after the end-Permian mass extinction

Richard Hofmann, Michael Hautmann & Hugo Bucher
The Dinwoody Formation of the Western U.S. represents an important archive of Early Triassic ecosystems in the immediate aftermath of the end-Permian mass extinction. We present a systematic description and a quantitative paleoecological analysis of its benthic faunas in order to reconstruct benthic associations and to explore the temporal and spatial variations of diversity, ecological structure and taxonomic composition throughout the earliest Triassic of the western U.S. A total of 15 bivalve species, two gastropod...

Data from: Land-use intensity and the effects of organic farming on biodiversity: a hierarchical meta-analysis

Sean L. Tuck, Camilla Winqvist, Flávia Mota, Johan Ahnström, Lindsay A. Turnbull & Janne Bengtsson
The benefits of organic farming to biodiversity in agricultural landscapes continue to be hotly debated, emphasising the importance of precisely quantifying the effect of organic vs. conventional farming. We conducted an updated hierarchical meta-analysis of studies that compared biodiversity under organic and conventional farming methods, measured as species richness. We calculated effect sizes for 184 observations garnered from 94 studies, and for each study we obtained three standardised measures reflecting land-use intensity. We investigated the...

Data from: Polymorphisms at the innate immune receptor TLR2 are associated with Borrelia infection in a wild rodent population

Barbara Tschirren, Martin Andersson, Kristin Scherman, Helena Westerdahl, Peer R. E. Mittl & Lars Raberg
The discovery of the key role of Toll-like receptors (TLRs) in initiating innate immune responses and modulating adaptive immunity has revolutionised our understanding of vertebrate defence against pathogens. Yet, despite their central role in pathogen recognition and defence initiation, there is little information on how variation in TLRs influences disease susceptibility in natural populations. Here we assessed the extent of naturally occurring polymorphisms at TLR2 in wild bank voles (Myodes glareolus) and tested for associations...

Data from: Pedigree error due to extra-pair reproduction substantially biases estimates of inbreeding depression

Jane M. Reid, Lukas F. Keller, Amy B. Marr, Pirmin Nietlisbach, Rebecca J. Sardell & Peter Arcese
Understanding the evolutionary dynamics of inbreeding and inbreeding depression requires unbiased estimation of inbreeding depression across diverse mating systems. However, studies estimating inbreeding depression often measure inbreeding with error, for example, based on pedigree data derived from observed parental behavior that ignore paternity error stemming from multiple mating. Such paternity error causes error in estimated coefficients of inbreeding (f) and reproductive success and could bias estimates of inbreeding depression. We used complete “apparent” pedigree data...

Data from: Yeast adapts to a changing stressful environment by evolving cross-protection and anticipatory gene regulation.

Riddhiman Dhar, Rudolf Sägesser, Christian Weikert & Andreas Wagner
Organisms can protect themselves against future environmental change. An example is cross-protection, where physiological adaptation against a present environmental stressor can protect an organism against a future stressor. Another is anticipation, where an organism uses information about its present environment to trigger gene expression and other physiological changes adaptive in future environments. "Predictive" abilities like this exist in organisms that have been exposed to periodic changes in environments. It is unknown how readily they can...

Data from: Causes of male sexual trait divergence in introduced populations of guppies

Anna K. Lindholm, Megan L. Head, Robert C. Brooks, Lee A. Rollins, Fiona C. Ingleby & Susanne R. K. Zajitschek
Males from different populations of the same species often differ in their sexually selected traits. Variation in sexually selected traits can be attributed to sexual selection if phenotypic divergence matches the direction of sexual selection gradients among populations. However, phenotypic divergence of sexually selected traits may also be influenced by other factors, such as natural selection and genetic constraints. Here, we document differences in male sexual traits among six introduced Australian populations of guppies and...

Data from: The developmental plasticity and functional significance of an additional sperm storage compartment in female yellow dung flies

Martin A. Schäfer, David Berger, Ralf Jochmann, Wolf U. Blanckenhorn & Luc F. Bussière
1. The mechanistic basis for, and adaptive significance of variation in female sperm storage organs is important for a range of questions concerning sexual selection and speciation, as such variation influences the evolutionary trajectories of male fertilization related traits and may facilitate speciation through its effects on gamete recognition. 2. Female yellow dung flies (Scathophaga stercoraria) usually develop three sperm storage compartments, and this subdivision may be an adaptation for sorting sperm during post-copulatory choice....

Data from: Genetic constraints underlying human reproductive timing in a premodern Swiss village

Anja Bürkli & Erik Postma
The trade-off between reproductive investment in early versus late life is central to life-history theory. Despite abundant empirical evidence supporting different versions of this trade-off, the specific trade-off between age at first reproduction (AFR) and age at last reproduction (ALR) has received little attention, especially in long-lived species with a pronounced reproductive senescence such as humans. Using genealogical data for a 19th-century Swiss village, we (i) quantify natural selection acting on reproductive timing, (ii) estimate...

Data from: Selection, genome-wide fitness effects and evolutionary rates in the model legume Medicago truncatula

Timothy Paape, Thomas Bataillon, Peng Zhou, Tom J. Y. Kono, Roman Briskine, Nevin D. Young & Peter Tiffin
Sequence data for >20 000 annotated genes from 56 accessions of Medicago truncatula were used to identify potential targets of positive selection, the determinants of evolutionary rate variation and the relative importance of positive and purifying selection in shaping nucleotide diversity. Based upon patterns of intraspecific diversity and interspecific divergence, c. 50–75% of nonsynonymous polymorphisms are subject to strong purifying selection and 1% of the sampled genes harbour a signature of positive selection. Combining polymorphism...

Data from: Quantitative genetic divergence and standing genetic (co)variance in thermal reaction norms along latitude

David Berger, Erik Postma, Wolf Blanckenhorn, Richard John Walters & Wolf U. Blanckenhorn
Although the potential to adapt to warmer climate is constrained by genetic trade-offs, our understanding of how selection and mutation shape genetic (co)variances in thermal reaction norms is poor. Using 71 isofemale lines of the fly Sepsis punctum, originating from northern, central and southern European climates, we tested for divergence in juvenile development rate across latitude at five experimental temperatures. To investigate effects of evolutionary history in different climates on standing genetic variation in reaction...

Data from: Conflicting selection on the timing of germination in a natural population of Arabidopsis thaliana

Reiko Akiyama & Jon Agren
The timing of germination is a key life-history trait that may strongly influence plant fitness and that sets the stage for selection on traits expressed later in the life cycle. In seasonal environments, the period favourable for germination and the total length of the growing season are limited. The optimal timing of germination may therefore be governed by conflicting selection through survival and fecundity. We conducted a field experiment to examine the effects of timing...

Data from: Human cooperation based on punishment reputation

Miguel Dos Santos, Daniel J. Rankin & Claus Wedekind
The threat of punishment usually promotes cooperation. However, punishing itself is costly, rare in non-human animals, and humans who punish often finish with low payoffs in economic experiments. The evolution of punishment has therefore been unclear. Recent theoretical developments suggest that punishment has evolved in the context of reputation games. We tested this idea in a simple helping game with observers and with punishment and punishment reputation (experimentally controlling for other possible reputational effects). We...

Data from: Adaptation of Saccharomyces cerevisiae to saline stress through laboratory evolution.

R. Dhar, R. Sägesser, C. Weikert, J. Yuan & A. Wagner
Most laboratory evolution studies that characterize evolutionary adaptation genomically focus on genetically simple traits that can be altered by one or few mutations. Such traits are important, but they are few compared with complex, polygenic traits influenced by many genes. We know much less about complex traits, and about the changes that occur in the genome and in gene expression during their evolutionary adaptation. Salt stress tolerance is such a trait. It is especially attractive...

Data from: Development of SNP markers identifying European wildcats, domestic cats, and their admixed progeny

Beatrice Nussberger, Maja P. Greminger, Christine Grossen, Lukas F. Keller & Peter Wandeler
Introgression can be an important evolutionary force but it can also lead to species extinction and as such is a crucial issue for species conservation. However, introgression is difficult to detect, morphologically as well as genetically. Hybridization with domestic cats (Felis silvestris catus) is a major concern for the conservation of European wildcats (Felis silvestris silvestris). The available morphologic and genetic markers for the two Felis subspecies are not sufficient to reliably detect hybrids beyond...

Data from: Switching between apparently redundant iron-uptake mechanisms benefits bacteria in changeable environments

Zoé Dumas, Adin Ross-Gillespie & Rolf Kümmerli
Bacteria often possess multiple siderophore-based iron uptake systems for scavenging this vital resource from their environment. However, some siderophores seem redundant, because they have limited iron-binding efficiency and are seldom expressed under iron limitation. Here, we investigate the conundrum of why selection does not eliminate this apparent redundancy. We focus on Pseudomonas aeruginosa, a bacterium that can produce two siderophores—the highly efficient but metabolically expensive pyoverdine, and the inefficient but metabolically cheap pyochelin. We found...

Data from: Pollinator shifts between Ophrys sphegodes populations: might adaptation to different pollinators drive population divergence?

Hendrik Breitkopf, Philipp M. Schlüter, Shuqing Xu, Florian P. Schiestl, Salvatore Cozzolino & Giovanni Scopece
Local adaptation to different pollinators is considered one of the possible initial stages of ecological speciation as reproductive isolation is a by-product of the divergence in pollination systems. However, pollinator-mediated divergent selection will not necessarily result in complete reproductive isolation, because incipient speciation is often overcome by gene flow. We investigated the potential of pollinator shift in the sexually deceptive orchids Ophrys sphegodes and Ophrys exaltata and compared the levels of floral isolation vs. genetic...

Data from: Small and ugly? Phylogenetic analyses of the “selfing syndrome” reveal complex evolutionary fates of monomorphic primrose flowers

Jurriaan M. De Vos, Rafael O. Wüest & Elena Conti
One of the most common trends in plant evolution, loss of self-incompatibility and ensuing increases in selfing, is generally assumed to be associated with a suite of phenotypic changes, notably a reduction of floral size, termed the selfing syndrome. We investigate whether floral morphological traits indeed decrease in a deterministic fashion after losses of self-incompatibility, as traditionally expected, using a phylogeny of 124 primrose species containing nine independent transitions from heterostyly (heteromorphic incompatibility) to homostyly...

Data from: Recovery of benthic marine communities from the end-Permian mass extinction at the low-latitudes of Eastern Panthalassa

Richard Hofmann, Michael Hautmann, Arnaud Brayard, Alexander Nützel, Kevin Bylund, James Jenks, Emmanuelle Vennin, Nicolas Olivier & Hugo Bucher
Based on the quantitative community analysis using species-level identifications, we track the restoration of benthic ecosystems after the end-Permian mass extinction throughout the Lower Triassic of the western USA. New data on the palaeoecology of the Thaynes Group and Sinbad Formation are provided, which fill a gap between the recently studied palaeoecology of the Griesbachian–Dienerian Dinwoody Formation and the Spathian Virgin Formation. In the Sinbad Formation and Thaynes Group, 17 species (12 genera) of bivalves,...

Registration Year

  • 2013
    18

Resource Types

  • Dataset
    18

Affiliations

  • University of Zurich
    18
  • Uppsala University
    3
  • Swiss Federal Institute of Aquatic Science and Technology
    2
  • University of Exeter
    2
  • Swiss Institute of Bioinformatics
    1
  • University of Sussex
    1
  • Lund University
    1
  • University of Aberdeen
    1
  • University of Minnesota
    1
  • University of Lausanne
    1