50 Works

Data from: A microsatellite-based linkage map for song sparrows (Melospiza melodia)

Pirmin Nietlisbach, Glauco Camenisch, Thomas Bucher, Jon Slate, Lukas F. Keller & Erik Postma
Although linkage maps are important tools in evolutionary biology, their availability for wild populations is limited. The population of song sparrows (Melospiza melodia) on Mandarte Island, Canada, is among the more intensively studied wild animal populations. Its long-term pedigree data, together with extensive genetic sampling, have allowed the study of a range of questions in evolutionary biology and ecology. However, the availability of genetic markers has been limited. We here describe 191 new microsatellite loci,...

Data from: Dopamine promotes motor cortex plasticity and motor skill learning via PLC activation

Mengia-Seraina Rioult-Pedotti, Ana Pekanivic, Clement Osei Atiemo, John Marshall, Andreas Rüdiger Luft & Ana Pekanovic
Dopaminergic neurons in the ventral tegmental area, the major midbrain nucleus projecting to the motor cortex, play a key role in motor skill learning and motor cortex synaptic plasticity. Dopamine D1 and D2 receptor antagonists exert parallel effects in the motor system: they impair motor skill learning and reduce long-term potentiation. Traditionally, D1 and D2 receptor modulate adenylyl cyclase activity and cyclic adenosine monophosphate accumulation in opposite directions via different G-proteins and bidirectionally modulate protein...

Data from: Colour polymorphism torn apart by opposing positive frequency-dependent selection, yet maintained in space

Swanne P. Gordon, Hanna Kokko, Bibiana Rojas, Ossi Nokelainen & Johanna Mappes
1. Polymorphic warning signals in aposematic species are enigmatic because predator learning and discrimination should select for the most common coloration, resulting in positive frequency-dependent survival selection. 2. Here, we investigated whether differential mating success could create sufficiently strong negative frequency-dependent selection for rare morphs to explain polymorphic (white and yellow) warning coloration in male wood tiger moths (Parasemia plantaginis). 3. We conducted an experiment in semi-natural conditions where we estimated mating success for both...

Data from: Competition in slow motion: the unusual case of benthic marine communities in the wake of the end-Permian mass extinction

Michael Hautmann, Borhan Bagherpour, Morgane Brosse, Asa Frisk, Richard Hofmann, Aymon Baud, Alexander Nützel, Nicolas Goudemand & Hugo Bucher
Changes of community structure in response to competition usually take place on timescales that are much too short to be visible in the geological record. Here we report the notable exception of a benthic marine community in the wake of the end-Permian mass extinction, which is associated with the microbial limestone facies of the earliest Triassic of South China. The newly reported fauna is well preserved and extraordinarily rich (30 benthic macroinvertebrate species, including the...

Data from: Investigating yellow dung fly body size evolution in the field: response to climate change?

Wolf U. Blanckenhorn
Uncovering genetic responses to selection in wild populations typically requires tracking individuals over generations and use of animal models. Our group monitored the body size of one Swiss Yellow Dung Fly (Scathophaga stercoraria; Diptera: Scathophagidae) field population over 15 years, including intermittent common garden rearing in the laboratory to assess body size with minimized environmental and maximized genetic variation. Contrary to expectations based on repeated heritability and phenotypic selection assessments over the years (reported elsewhere),...

Data from: Genetic diversity and distribution patterns of diploid and polyploid hybrid water frog populations (Pelophylax esculentus complex) across Europe

Alexandra Hoffmann, Jörg Plötner, Nicolas B. M. Pruvost, Ditte G. Christiansen, Sandra Röthlisberger, Peter Mikulíček, Lukáš Choleva, Dan Cogălniceanu, István Sas-Kovács, Dmitry Shabanov, Svyatoslav Morozov-Leonov & Heinz-Ulrich Reyer
Polyploidization is a rare yet sometimes successful way for animals to rapidly create geno- and phenotypes that may colonize new habitats and quickly adapt to environmental changes. In this study, we use water frogs of the Pelophylax esculentus complex, comprising two species (Pelophylax lessonae, genotype LL; Pelophylax ridibundus, RR) and various diploid (LR) and triploid (LLR, LRR) hybrid forms, summarized as P. esculentus, as a model for studying recent hybridization and polyploidization in the context...

Data from: Individual-level trait diversity concepts and indices to comprehensively describe community change in multidimensional trait space

Simone Fontana, Owen L. Petchey & Francesco Pomati
Global environmental change can influence ecosystem processes directly or through changes in the trait composition of natural communities. Traits are individual-level features of organisms, and theory predicts that diversity in traits should relate to ecosystem processes. Validated indices that account for both intra- and interspecific trait variation in multidimensional trait space are lacking. In this article, we highlight how an individual-level perspective requires new concepts for trait diversity (TD) and we validate a set of...

Data from: Persistence of distinctive morphotypes in the native range of the CITES-listed Aldabra giant tortoise

Lindsay A. Turnbull, Arpat Ozgul, Wilna Accouche, Richard Baxter, Lindsay ChongSeng, Jock C. Currie, Naomi Doak, Dennis Hansen, Pierre M. Pistorius, Heather Richards, Janske Van De Crommenacker, Rainer Von Brandis, Frauke Fleischer-Dogley, Nancy Bunbury, Rich Baxter & Dennis M. Hansen
Understanding the extent of morphological variation in the wild population of Aldabra giant tortoises is important for conservation, as morphological variation in captive populations has been interpreted as evidence for lingering genes from extinct tortoise lineages. If true, this could impact reintroduction programmes in the region. The population of giant tortoises on Aldabra Atoll is subdivided and distributed around several islands. Although pronounced morphological variation was recorded in the late 1960s, it was thought to...

Data from: Effects of trophy hunting leftovers on the ranging behaviour of large carnivores: a case study on spotted hyenas

Gabriele Cozzi, Luca Börger, Pascale Hutter, Daniela Abegg, Celine Beran, John Weldon McNutt & Arpat Ozgul
Human-related food resources such as garbage dumps and feeding sites have been shown to significantly influence space use, breeding success and population dynamics in a variety of animal species. In contrast, relatively little is known on the effects of unpredictable sources of food, such as carcasses discarded by hunters, on carnivore species. We evaluated the effect of elephant carcasses, mainly deriving from trophy hunting, on the ranging and feeding behavior of spotted hyenas (Crocuta crocuta)...

Data from: Inferring species interactions in ecological communities: a comparison of methods at different levels of complexity

Francesco Carrara, Andrea Giometto, Mathew Seymour, Andrea Rinaldo & Florian Altermatt
1. Natural communities commonly contain many different species and functional groups, and multiple types of species interactions act simultaneously, such as competition, predation, commensalism or mutualism. However, experimental and theoretical investigations have generally been limited by focusing on one type of interaction at a time or by a lack of a common methodological and conceptual approach to measure species interactions. 2. We compared four methods to measure and express species interactions. These approaches are, with...

Data from: Out-of-sample predictions from plant–insect food webs: robustness to missing and erroneous trophic interaction records

Ian S. Pearse & Florian Altermatt
With increasing biotic introductions, there is a great need for predictive tools to anticipate which new trophic interactions will develop and which will not. Phylogenetic constraint of interactions in both native and novel food webs can make some novel interactions predictable. However, many food webs are sparsely sampled, or may include inaccurate interactions. In such cases, it is unclear whether modeling methods are still useful to anticipate novel interactions. We ran bootstrap simulations of host-use...

Data from: Experimental evidence for phonemic contrasts in a nonhuman vocal system

Sabrina Engesser, Jodie M. S. Crane, James L. Savage, Andrew F. Russell & Simon W. Townsend
The ability to generate new meaning by rearranging combinations of meaningless sounds is a fundamental component of language. Although animal vocalizations often comprise combinations of meaningless acoustic elements, evidence that rearranging such combinations generates functionally distinct meaning is lacking. Here, we provide evidence for this basic ability in calls of the chestnut-crowned babbler (Pomatostomus ruficeps), a highly cooperative bird of the Australian arid zone. Using acoustic analyses, natural observations, and a series of controlled playback...

Data from: Embryo oxygenation in pipefish brood pouches: novel insights

Ines Braga Goncalves, Ingrid Ahnesjö & Charlotta Kvarnemo
The pipefish brood pouch presents a unique mode of parental care that enables males to protect, osmoregulate, nourish and oxygenate the developing young. Using a very fine O2 probe, we assessed the extent to which males of the broad-nosed pipefish (Syngnathus typhle) oxygenate the developing embryos and are able to maintain pouch fluid O2 levels when brooding in normoxia (100% O2 saturation) and hypoxia (40% O2 saturation) for 24 days. In both treatments, pouch fluid...

Data from: The evolutionary puzzle of egg size, oxygenation and parental care in aquatic environments

Ines Braga Goncalves, Ingrid Ahnesjö & Charlotta Kvarnemo
Offspring fitness generally improves with increasing egg size. Yet, eggs of most aquatic organisms are small. A common but largely untested assumption is that larger embryos require more oxygen than they can acquire through diffusion via the egg surface, constraining egg size evolution. However, we found no detrimental effects of large egg size on embryo growth and survival under hypoxic conditions. We tested this in the broad-nosed pipefish, Syngnathus typhle, whose males provide extensive care...

Data from: Low but contrasting neutral genetic differentiation shaped by winter temperature in European great tits

Mélissa Lemoine, Kay Lucek, Charles Perrier, Verena Saladin, Frank Adriaensen, Emilio Barba, Eduardo J. Belda, Anne Charmantier, Mariusz Cichon, Eeva Tapio, Arnaud Gregoire, Camilla A. Hinde, Arild Johnsen, Jan Komdeur, Raivo Mand, Erik Matthysen, Ana Claudia Norte, Natalia Pitala, Ben C. Sheldon, Tore Slagsvold, Joost M. Tinbergen, Janos Torok, Richard Ubels, Kees Van Oers, Marcel E. Visser … & Tapio Eeva
Gene flow is usually thought to reduce genetic divergence and impede local adaptation by homogenising gene pools between populations. However, evidence for local adaptation and phenotypic differentiation in highly mobile species, experiencing high levels of gene flow, is emerging. Assessing population genetic structure at different spatial scales is thus a crucial step towards understanding mechanisms underlying intraspecific differentiation and diversification. Here, we studied the population genetic structure of a highly mobile species – the great...

Data from: Resprouter fraction in Cape Restionaceae assemblages varies with climate and soil type

Rafael O. Wüest, Glenn Litsios, Félix Forest, Christian Lexer, H. Peter Linder, Nicolas Salamin, Niklaus E. Zimmermann & Peter B. Pearman
While fire-induced changes in biodiversity are well documented, less is known about how fire impacts life-history variation and diversity of functional traits that represent distinct strategies for persistence in fire-driven ecosystems. One example is the dichotomy in which ‘resprouter’ species usually survive fires to produce new growth, while ‘reseeder’ species perish and re-establish from seed. Variable relative numbers of reseeder and resprouter species in local assemblages of Restionaceae (Poales) of the Cape Floristic Region (CFR),...

Data from: Beyond climate: convergence in fast evolving sclerophylls in Cape and Australian Rhamnaceae predates the mediterranean climate

Renske E. Onstein & H. Peter Linder
Morphological convergence in mediterranean-type ecosystems (MTEs) has long been interpreted as adaptation to climatic similarities among the five MTEs of the world. Here, we challenge this model using the globally distributed Rhamnaceae. We collected functional trait data (specific leaf area, leaf area, spinescence, leaf phenology, growth form and leaf margin type) and biome data to test for trait convergence in MTEs, for models of trait evolution and ancestral state reconstruction and for the effect of...

Data from: Phenotype-associated inbreeding biases estimates of inbreeding depression in a wild bird population

Philipp J. J. Becker, Johann Hegelbach, Lukas F. Keller & Erik Postma
Inbreeding depression is usually quantified by regressing individual phenotypic values on inbreeding coefficients, implicitly assuming there is no correlation between an individual's phenotype and the kinship coefficient to its mate. If such an association between parental phenotype and parental kinship exists, and if the trait of interest is heritable, estimates of inbreeding depression can be biased. Here we first derive the expected bias as a function of the covariance between mean parental breeding value and...

Data from: The role of fecundity and sexual selection in the evolution of size and sexual size dimorphism in New World and Old World voles (Rodentia: Arvicolinae)

Vicente García-Navas, Timothée Bonnet, Raúl Bonal & Erik Postma
Evolutionary ecologists dating back to Darwin (1871) have sought to understand why males are larger than females in some species, and why females are the larger sex in others. Although the former is widespread in mammals, rodents and other small mammals usually exhibit low levels of sexual size dimorphism (SSD). Here, we investigate patterns of sexual dimorphism in 34 vole species belonging to the subfamily Arvicolinae in a phylogenetic comparative framework. We address the potential...

Data from: Using targeted enrichment of nuclear genes to increase phylogenetic resolution in the neotropical rain forest genus Inga (Leguminosae: Mimosoideae)

James A. Nicholls, R. Toby Pennington, Erik J. Koenen, Colin E. Hughes, Jack Hearn, Lynsey Bunnefeld, Kyle G. Dexter, Graham N. Stone, Catherine A. Kidner & Erik J. M. Koenen
Evolutionary radiations are prominent and pervasive across many plant lineages in diverse geographical and ecological settings; in neotropical rainforests there is growing evidence suggesting that a significant fraction of species richness is the result of recent radiations. Understanding the evolutionary trajectories and mechanisms underlying these radiations demands much greater phylogenetic resolution than is currently available for these groups. The neotropical tree genus Inga (Leguminosae) is a good example, with ~300 extant species and a crown...

Data from: Determinants of parasitoid communities of willow-galling sawflies: habitat overrides physiology, host plant, and space

Tommi Nyman, Sanna A. Leppänen, Gergely Várkonyi, Mark R. Shaw, Reijo Koivisto, Trond Elling Barstad, Veli Vikberg & Heikki Roininen
Studies on the determinants of plant–herbivore and herbivore–parasitoid associations provide important insights into the origin and maintenance of global and local species richness. If parasitoids are specialists on herbivore niches rather than on herbivore taxa, then alternating escape of herbivores into novel niches and delayed resource tracking by parasitoids could fuel diversification at both trophic levels. We used DNA barcoding to identify parasitoids that attack larvae of seven Pontania sawfly species that induce leaf galls...

Data from: Keeping cool: enhanced optical reflection and heat dissipation in silver ants

Norman Nan Shi, Cheng-Chia Tsai, Fernando Camino, Gary D. Bernard, Nanfang Yu & Rüdiger Wehner
Saharan silver ants, Cataglyphis bombycina, forage under extreme temperature conditions in the African desert. We show that the ants’ conspicuous silvery appearance is created by a dense array of triangular hairs with two thermoregulatory effects. They enhance not only the reflectivity of the ant’s body surface in the visible and near-infrared range of the spectrum, where solar radiation culminates, but also the emissivity of the ant in the mid-infrared. The latter effect enables the animals...

Data from: Revision of the genus Anasibirites Mojsisovics (Ammonoidea): an iconic and cosmopolitan taxon of the late Smithian (Early Triassic) extinction

Romain Jattiot, Hugo Bucher, Arnaud Brayard, Claude Monnet, James F. Jenks & Michael Hautmann
The family Prionitidae Hyatt represents a major component of ammonoid faunas during the Smithian (Early Triassic), and the genus Anasibirites Mojsisovics is the most emblematic taxon of this family. Its stratigraphical range is restricted to the beginning of the late Smithian (Wasatchites distractus Zone). The genus is also characterized by an unusual cosmopolitan distribution, thus contrasting with most earlier Smithian ammonoid distributions that were typically restricted by latitude. Because the late Smithian witnessed an extinction...

Data from: On the complexity of triggering evolutionary radiations

Yanis Bouchenak-Khelladi, Renske E. Onstein, Yaowu Xing, Orlando Schwery & H. Peter Linder
Recent developments in phylogenetic methods have made it possible to reconstruct evolutionary radiations from extant taxa, but identifying the triggers of radiations is still problematic. Here, we propose a conceptual framework to explore the role of variables that may impact radiations. We classify the variables into extrinsic conditions vs intrinsic traits, whether they provide background conditions, trigger the radiation, or modulate the radiation. We used three clades representing angiosperm phylogenetic and structural diversity (Ericaceae, Fagales...

Data from: Sperm number trumps sperm size in mammalian ejaculate evolution

Stefan Lüpold & John L. Fitzpatrick
Postcopulatory sexual selection is widely accepted to underlie the extraordinary diversification of sperm morphology. However, why does it favour longer sperm in some taxa but shorter in others? Two recent hypotheses addressing this discrepancy offered contradictory explanations. Under the sperm dilution hypothesis, selection via sperm density in the female reproductive tract favours more but smaller sperm in large, but the reverse in small, species. Conversely, the metabolic constraint hypothesis maintains that ejaculates respond positively to...

Registration Year

  • 2015

Resource Types

  • Dataset


  • University of Zurich
  • Uppsala University
  • Estación Biológica de Doñana
  • University of Cambridge
  • University of Fribourg
  • University of Sheffield
  • University of Washington
  • Swiss Federal Institute of Aquatic Science and Technology
  • University of Gothenburg
  • French National Institute for Agricultural Research