59 Works

Data from: Why do floral perfumes become different? Region-specific selection on floral scent in a terrestrial orchid

Karin Gross, Mimi Sun & Florian P. Schiestl
Geographically structured phenotypic selection can lead to adaptive divergence. However, in flowering plants, such divergent selection has rarely been shown, and selection on floral signals is generally little understood. In this study, we measured phenotypic selection on display size, floral color, and floral scent in four lowland and four mountain populations of the nectar-rewarding terrestrial orchid Gymnadenia odoratissima in two years. We also quantified population differences in these traits and pollinator community composition. Our results...

Data from: Plastic and evolutionary responses to heat stress in a temperate dung fly: negative correlation between basal and induced heat tolerance?

Toomas Esperk, Anders Kjærsgaard, Richard J. Walters, David Berger, Wolf U. Blanckenhorn & A. Kjaersgaard
Extreme weather events such as heat waves are becoming more frequent and intense. Populations can cope with elevated heat stress by evolving higher basal heat tolerance (evolutionary response) and/ or stronger induced heat tolerance (plastic response). However, there is ongoing debate about whether basal and induced heat tolerance are negatively correlated and whether adaptive potential in heat tolerance is sufficient under ongoing climate warming. To evaluate the evolutionary potential of basal and induced heat tolerance,...

Data from: Inferring bounded evolution in phenotypic characters from phylogenetic comparative data

Florian C. Boucher & Vincent Démery
Our understanding of phenotypic evolution over macroevolutionary timescales largely relies on the use of stochastic models for the evolution of continuous traits over phylogenies. The two most widely used models, Brownian motion and the Ornstein–Uhlenbeck (OU) process, differ in that the latter includes constraints on the variance that a trait can attain in a clade. The OU model explicitly models adaptive evolution toward a trait optimum and has thus been widely used to demonstrate the...

Data from: Above and belowground responses of four tundra plant functional types to deep soil heating and surface soil fertilization

Peng Wang, Juul Limpens, Liesje Mommer, Jasper Van Ruijven, Ake L. Nauta, Frank Berendse, Gabriela Schaepman-Strub, Daan Blok, Trofim C. Maximov, Monique M. P. D. Heijmans & Monique M.P.D. Heijmans
1.Climate warming is faster in the Arctic than the global average. Nutrient availability in the tundra soil is expected to increase by climate warming through 1) accelerated nutrient mobilization in the surface soil layers, and 2) increased thawing depths during the growing season which increases accessibility of nutrients in the deeper soil layers. Both processes may initiate shifts in tundra vegetation composition. It is important to understand the effects of these two processes on tundra...

Data from: A trade-off between reproductive investment and maternal cerebellum size in a precocial bird

Christina Ebneter, Joel L. Pick & Barbara Tschirren
Natural selection favours increased investment in reproduction, yet considerable variation in parental investment is observed in natural populations. Life-history theory predicts that this variation is maintained by a trade-off between the benefits of increased reproductive investment and its associated costs for the parents. The nature of these costs of reproduction, however, remains poorly understood. The brain is an energetically highly expensive organ and increased reproductive investment may, therefore, negatively affect brain maintenance. Using artificial selection...

Data from: Artificial selection on male genitalia length alters female brain size

Severine D. Buechel, Isobel Booksmythe, Alexander Kotrschal, Michael D. Jennions, Kolm Niclas & Niclas Kolm
Male harassment is a classic example of how sexual conflict over mating leads to sex-specific behavioural adaptations. Females often suffer significant costs from males attempting forced copulations, and the sexes can be in an arms race over male coercion. Yet, despite recent recognition that divergent sex-specific interests in reproduction can affect brain evolution, sexual conflict has not been addressed in this context. Here, we investigate whether artificial selection on a correlate of male success at...

Data from: Novel opsin gene variation in large-bodied, diurnal lemurs

Rachel L. Jacobs, Tammie S. MacFie, Amanda N. Spriggs, Andrea L. Baden, Toni Lyn Morelli, Mitchell T. Irwin, Richard R. Lawler, Jennifer Pastorini, Mireya Mayor, Runhua Lei, Ryan Culligan, Melissa T. R. Hawkins, Peter M. Kappeler, Patricia C. Wright, Edward E. Louis, Nicholas I. Mundy & Brenda J. Bradley
Some primate populations include both trichromatic and dichromatic (red–green colour blind) individuals due to allelic variation at the X-linked opsin locus. This polymorphic trichromacy is well described in day-active New World monkeys. Less is known about colour vision in Malagasy lemurs, but, unlike New World monkeys, only some day-active lemurs are polymorphic, while others are dichromatic. The evolutionary pressures underlying these differences in lemurs are unknown, but aspects of species ecology, including variation in activity...

Data from: Pollinator adaptation and the evolution of floral nectar sugar composition

Stefan Abrahamczyk, Michael Kessler, Daniel Hanley, Dirk N. Karger, Matthias P. J. Müller, Anina C. Knauer, Felix Keller, Michael Schwerdtfeger & Aelys M. Humphreys
A longstanding debate concerns whether nectar sugar composition evolves as an adaptation to pollinator dietary requirements or whether it is ‘phylogenetically constrained’. Here we use a modeling approach to evaluate the hypothesis that nectar sucrose proportion (NSP) is an adaptation to pollinators. We analyze ~2,100 species of asterids, spanning several plant families and pollinator groups (PGs), and show that the hypothesis of adaptation cannot be rejected: NSP evolves toward two optimal values, high NSP for...

Data from: The value of biodiversity for the functioning of tropical forests: insurance effects during the first decade of the Sabah biodiversity experiment

Sean L. Tuck, Michael J. O'Brien, Christopher D. Philipson, Philippe Saner, Matteo Tanadini, Dzaeman Dzulkifli, H. Charles J. Godfray, Elia Godoong, Reuben Nilus, Robert C. Ong, Bernhard Schmid, Waidi Sinun, Jake L. Snaddon, Martijn Snoep, Hamzah Tangki, John Tay, Philip Ulok, Yap Sau Wai, Maja Weilenmann, Glen Reynolds & Andy Hector
One of the main environmental threats in the tropics is selective logging, which has degraded large areas of forest. In southeast Asia, enrichment planting with seedlings of the dominant group of dipterocarp tree species aims to accelerate restoration of forest structure and functioning. The role of tree diversity in forest restoration is still unclear, but the ‘insurance hypothesis’ predicts that in temporally and spatially varying environments planting mixtures may stabilize functioning owing to differences in...

Data from: Interactive effects of yolk testosterone and carotenoid on prenatal growth and offspring physiology in a precocial bird

Mathieu Giraudeau, Ann-Kathrin Ziegler, Joel L. Pick, Simon Ducatez, Cindy I. Canale & Barbara Tschirren
Conditions experienced by individuals during prenatal development can have long-term effects on their phenotype. Maternally transmitted resources are important mediators of such prenatal effects, but the potential interactive effects among them in shaping offspring phenotype have never been studied. Maternally derived testosterone is known to stimulate growth, but these benefits may be counterbalanced by an increase in the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS). Maternally transmitted carotenoids might have the capacity to scavenge ROS and...

Data from: Evolutionary radiations of Proteaceae are triggered by the interaction between traits and climates in open habitats

Renske E. Onstein, Gregory J. Jordan, Hervé Sauquet, Peter H. Weston, Yanis Bouchenak-Khelladi, Ian J. Wright, Raymond J. Carpenter & H. Peter Linder
Aim: Ecologically driven diversification can create spectacular diversity in both species numbers and form. However, the prediction that the match between intrinsic (e.g. functional trait) and extrinsic (e.g. climatic niche) variables may lead to evolutionary radiation has not been critically tested. Here, we test this hypothesis in the Southern Hemisphere plant family Proteaceae, which shows a spectacular diversity in open mediterranean shrublands in the Southwest Australian Floristic Region (SWAFR) and the Cape Floristic Region (CFR)....

Data from: Tooth occlusal morphology in the durophagous marine reptiles, Placodontia (Reptilia: Sauropterygia)

Stephanie B. Crofts, James M. Neenan, Torsten M. Scheyer & Adam P. Summers
Placodontia were a group of marine reptiles that lived in shallow nearshore environments during the Triassic. Based on tooth morphology it has been inferred that they were durophagous, but tooth morphology differs among species: placodontoid placodonts have teeth described as hemispherical, and the teeth of more highly nested taxa within the cyamodontoid placodonts have been described as flat. In contrast, the sister taxon to the placodonts, Palatodonta bleekeri, like many other marine reptiles, has tall...

Data from: Assessing current genetic status of the Hainan gibbon using historical and demographic baselines: implications for conservation management of species of extreme rarity

Jessica V. Bryant, Dada Gottelli, Xinyuan Zeng, Xiaojiang Hong, Bosco P.L. Chan, John R. Fellowes, Ya-Ping Zhang, Jing Luo, Christopher Durrant, Thomas Geissmann, Helen J. Chatterjee & Samuel T. Turvey
Evidence-based conservation planning is crucial for informing management decisions for species of extreme rarity, but collection of robust data on genetic status or other parameters can be extremely challenging for such species. The Hainan gibbon, possibly the world's rarest mammal, consists of a single population of ~25 individuals restricted to one protected area on Hainan Island, China, and has persisted for over 30 years at exceptionally low population size. Analysis of genotypes at 11 microsatellite...

Data from: Validation of a fecal glucocorticoid assay to assess adrenocortical activity in meerkats using physiological and biological stimuli

Ines Braga Goncalves, Michael Heistermann, Peter Santema, Ben Dantzer, Jelena Mausbach, Andre Ganswindt & Marta B. Manser
In mammals, glucocorticoid (i.e. GC) levels have been associated with specific life-history stages and transitions, reproductive strategies, and a plethora of behaviors. Assessment of adrenocortical activity via measurement of glucocorticoid metabolites in feces (FGCM) has greatly facilitated data collection from wild animals, due to its non-invasive nature, and thus has become an established tool in behavioral ecology and conservation biology. The aim of our study was to validate a fecal glucocorticoid assay for assessing adrenocortical...

Data from: Local adaptation (mostly) remains local: reassessing environmental associations of climate-related candidate SNPs in Arabidopsis halleri

Christian Rellstab, Martin C. Fischer, Stefan Zoller, René Graf, Andrew Tedder, Kentaro K. Shimizu, Alex Widmer, Rolf Holderegger & Felix Gugerli
Numerous landscape genomic studies have identified single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and genes potentially involved in local adaptation. Rarely, it has been explicitly evaluated whether these environmental associations also hold true beyond the populations studied. We tested whether putatively adaptive SNPs in Arabidopsis halleri (Brassicaceae), characterized in a previous study investigating local adaptation to a highly heterogeneous environment, show the same environmental associations in an independent, geographically enlarged set of 18 populations. We analysed new SNP data...

Data from: Spatially cascading effect of perturbations in experimental meta-ecosystems

Eric Harvey, Isabelle Gounand, Pravin Ganesanandamoorthy & Florian Altermatt
Ecosystems are linked to neighbouring ecosystems not only by dispersal, but also by the movement of subsidy. Such subsidy couplings between ecosystems have important landscape-scale implications because perturbations in one ecosystem may affect community structure and functioning in neighbouring ecosystems via increased/decreased subsidies. Here, we combine a general theoretical approach based on harvesting theory and a two-patch protist meta-ecosystem experiment to test the effect of regional perturbations on local community dynamics. We first characterized the...

Data from: Differential neural processing during motor imagery of daily activities in chronic low back pain patients

Andrea Vrana, Sabina Hotz-Boendermaker, Philipp Stämpfli, Jürgen Hänggi, Erich Seifritz, B. Kim Humphreys & Michael L. Meier
Chronic low back pain (chronic LBP) is both debilitating for patients but also a major burden on the health care system. Previous studies reported various maladaptive structural and functional changes among chronic LBP patients on spine- and supraspinal levels including behavioral alterations. However, evidence for cortical reorganization in the sensorimotor system of chronic LBP patients is scarce. Motor Imagery (MI) is suitable for investigating the cortical sensorimotor network as it serves as a proxy for...

Data from: Sex differences and allee effects shape the dynamics of sex-structured invasions

Allison K. Shaw, Hanna Kokko & Michael G. Neubert
The rate at which a population grows and spreads can depend on individual behaviour and interactions with others. In many species with two sexes, males and females differ in key life history traits (e.g. growth, survival, dispersal), which can scale up to affect population rates of growth and spread. In sexually reproducing species, the mechanics of locating mates and reproducing successfully introduce further complications for predicting the invasion speed (spread rate), as both can change...

Data from: The genetic architecture of freezing tolerance varies across the range of Arabidopsis thaliana

Matthew W. Horton, Glenda Willems, Eriko Sasaki, Maarten Koornneef & Magnus Nordborg
The capacity to tolerate freezing temperatures limits the geographical distribution of many plants, including several species of agricultural importance. However, the genes involved in freezing tolerance remain largely unknown. Here, we describe the variation in constitutive freezing tolerance that occurs among worldwide accessions of Arabidopsis thaliana. We found that although plants from high latitudes tend to be more freezing tolerant than plants from low latitudes, the environmental factors that shape cold adaptation differ across the...

Data from: The copulatory plug delays ejaculation by rival males and affects sperm competition outcome in house mice

Andreas Sutter & Anna K. Lindholm
Females of many species mate with multiple males (polyandry), resulting in male–male competition extending to post-copulation (sperm competition). Males adapt to such post-copulatory sexual selection by altering features of their ejaculate that increase its competitiveness and/or by decreasing the risk of sperm competition through female manipulation or interference with rival male behaviour. At ejaculation, males of many species deposit copulatory plugs, which are commonly interpreted as a male adaptation to post-copulatory competition and are thought...

Data from: In search of genetic constraints limiting the evolution of egg size: Direct and correlated responses to artificial selection on a prenatal maternal effector

Joel Pick, Pascale Hutter & Barbara Tschirren
Maternal effects are an important force in nature, but the evolutionary dynamics of the traits that cause them are not well understood. Egg size is known to be a key mediator of prenatal maternal effects with an established genetic basis. Contrary to theoretical expectations for fitness-related traits, there is a large amount of additive genetic variation in egg size observed in natural populations. One possible mechanism for the maintenance of this variation is through genetic...

Data from: Paternal-specific S-allele transmission in sweet cherry (Prunus avium L.): the potential for sexual selection

Afif Hedhly, Ana Wünsch, Önder Kartal, María Herrero & José Ignacio Hormaza
Homomorphic self-incompatibility is a well-studied example of a physiological process that is thought to increase population diversity and reduce the expression of inbreeding depression. Whereas theoretical models predict the presence of a large number of S-haplotypes with equal frequencies at equilibrium, unequal allele frequencies have been repeatedly reported and attributed to sampling effects, population structure, demographic perturbation, sheltered deleterious mutations or selection pressure on linked genes. However, it is unclear to what extent unequal segregations...

Data from: Reduced flight-to-light behaviour of moth populations exposed to long-term urban light pollution

Florian Altermatt & Dieter Ebert
The globally increasing light pollution is a well-recognized threat to ecosystems, with negative effects on human, animal and plant wellbeing. The most well-known and widely documented consequence of light pollution is the generally fatal attraction of nocturnal insects to artificial light sources. However, the evolutionary consequences are unknown. Here we report that moth populations from urban areas with high, globally relevant levels of light pollution over several decades show a significantly reduced flight-to-light behaviour compared...

Data from: Miocene flooding events of western Amazonia

Carlos Jaramillo, Ingrid Romero, Carlos D'Apolito, German Bayona, Edward Duarte, Stephen Louwye, Jaime Escobar, Javier Luque, Jorge D. Carrillo-Briceño, Vladimir Zapata, Andrés Mora, Stefan Schouten, Michael Zavada, Guy Harrington, John Ortiz & Frank P. Wesselingh
There is a considerable controversy about whether western Amazonia was ever covered by marine waters during the Miocene [23 to 5 Ma (million years ago)]. We investigated the possible occurrence of Miocene marine incursions in the Llanos and Amazonas/Solimões basins, using sedimentological and palynological data from two sediment cores taken in eastern Colombia and northwestern Brazil together with seismic information. We observed two distinct marine intervals in the Llanos Basin, an early Miocene that lasted...

Data from: The strength of the association between heterozygosity and probability of interannual local recruitment increases with environmental harshness in blue tits

Esperanza S. Ferrer, Vicente García-Navas, Juan José Sanz & Joaquín Ortego
The extent of inbreeding depression and the magnitude of heterozygosity–fitness correlations (HFC) have been suggested to depend on the environmental context in which they are assayed, but little evidence is available for wild populations. We combine extensive molecular and capture–mark–recapture data from a blue tit (Cyanistes caeruleus) population to (1) analyze the relationship between heterozygosity and probability of interannual adult local recruitment and (2) test whether environmental stress imposed by physiologically suboptimal temperatures and rainfall...

Registration Year

  • 2016
    59

Resource Types

  • Dataset
    59

Affiliations

  • University of Zurich
    59
  • University of Oxford
    6
  • Swiss Federal Institute of Aquatic Science and Technology
    5
  • Australian National University
    4
  • University of Toronto
    3
  • University of Exeter
    3
  • University of Washington
    2
  • University of Cambridge
    2
  • University of Aberdeen
    2
  • State University of New York
    2