64 Works

Data from: Intransitive competition is common across five major taxonomic groups and is driven by productivity, competitive rank and functional traits.

Santiago Soliveres, Anika Lehmann, Steffen Boch, Florian Altermatt, Francesco Carrara, Thomas W. Crowther, Manuel Delgado-Baquerizo, Anne Kempel, Daniel S. Maynard, Matthias C. Rillig, Brajesh K. Singh, Pankaj Trivedi & Eric Allan
1. Competition can be fully hierarchical or intransitive, and this degree of hierarchy is driven by multiple factors, including environmental conditions, the functional traits of the species involved or the topology of competition networks. Studies simultaneously analyzing these drivers of competition hierarchy are rare. Additionally, organisms compete either directly or via interference competition for resources or space, within a local neighbourhood or across the habitat. Therefore, the drivers of competition could change accordingly and depend...

Data from: Daphnia invest in sexual reproduction when its relative costs are reduced

Nina Gerber, Hanna Kokko, Dieter Ebert & Isobel Booksmythe
The timing of sex in facultatively sexual organisms is critical to fitness, due to the differing demographic consequences of sexual vs. asexual reproduction. In addition to the costs of sex itself, an association of sex with the production of dormant life stages also influences the optimal use of sex, especially in environments where resting eggs are essential to survive unfavourable conditions. Here we document population dynamics and the occurrence of sexual reproduction in natural populations...

Data from: Resilience of seed production to a severe El Niño‐induced drought across functional groups and dispersal types

Michael J. O'Brien, Daniel Peréz-Aviles & Jennifer S. Powers
More frequent and severe El Niño Southern Oscillations (ENSO) are causing episodic periods of decreased rainfall. Although the effects of these ENSO-induced droughts on tree growth and mortality have been well studied, the impacts on other demographic rates such as reproduction are less well known. We use a four-year seed rain dataset encompassing the most severe ENSO-induced drought in more than 30 years to assess the resilience (i.e. resistance and recovery) of the seed composition...

Data from: Plant life history stage and nurse age change the development of ecological networks in an arid ecosystem

Gianalberto Losapio, Francisco I. Pugnaire, Michael J. O'Brien & Christian Schöb
Understanding how ecological networks are organised over the course of an organism’s lifetime is crucial for predicting the dynamics of interacting populations and communities across temporal scales. However, most studies so far considered only one life history stage at a time, such as adult, when studying networks of interacting species. Therefore, knowledge about how multiple life history stages affect the development and stability of plant–plant association networks is lacking. We measured the understory adult plant...

Data from: Reverse audience effects on helping in cooperatively breeding marmoset monkeys

Rahel K. Brügger, Theresa Kappeler-Schmalzriedt & Judith M. Burkart
Cooperatively breeding common marmosets show substantial variation in the amount of help they provide. Pay-to-stay and social prestige models of helping attribute this variation to audience effects, i.e. that individuals help more if group members can witness their interactions with immatures, whereas models of kin selection, group augmentation, or ones stressing the need to gain parenting experience do not predict any audience effects. We quantified the readiness of adult marmosets to share food in the...

Data from: Plant interactions shape pollination networks via nonadditive effects

Gianalberto Losapio, Miguel A. Fortuna, Jordi Bascompte, Bernhard Schmid, Richard Michalet, Rainer Neumeyer, Leopoldo Castro, Pierfilippo Cerretti, Christoph Germann, Jean-Paul Haenni, Seraina Klopfstein, Francisco Javier Ortiz-Sánchez, Adrian C. Pont, Pascal Rousse, Jürg Schmid, Daniele Sommaggio & Christian Schöb
Plants grow in communities where they interact with other plants and with other living organisms such as pollinators. On the one hand, studies of plant–plant interactions rarely consider how plants interact with other trophic levels such as pollinators. On the other, studies of plant–animal interactions rarely deal with interactions within trophic levels such as plant–plant competition and facilitation. Thus, to what degree plant interactions affect biodiversity and ecological networks across trophic levels is poorly understood....

Data from: Evaluating alternative explanations for an association of extinction risk and evolutionary uniqueness in multiple insular lineages.

Ben H. Warren, Oskar Hagen, Florian Gerber, Christophe Thebaud, Emmanuel Paradis & Elena Conti
Studies in insular environments have often documented a positive association of extinction risk and evolutionary uniqueness (i.e. how distant a species is from its closest living relative). However, the cause of this association is unclear. One explanation is that species threatened with extinction are evolutionarily unique because they are old, implying that extinction risk increases with time since speciation (age-dependent extinction). An alternative explanation is that such threatened species are last survivors of clades that...

Data from: Male monkeys use punishment and coercion to de-escalate costly intergroup fights

T. Jean M. Arseneau-Robar, Eliane Müller, Anouk L. Taucher, Carel P. Van Schaik, Redouan Bshary & Erik P. Willems
In numerous social species, males direct aggression towards female group members during intergroup fights, and this behaviour is commonly thought to function as mate guarding, even though males often target non-receptive females. In studying intergroup fights in a wild population of vervet monkeys, we found that male intragroup aggression was primarily directed towards individuals who had either just finished exhibiting, or were currently attempting to instigate intergroup aggression. Targeted females were less likely to instigate...

Data from: Assessing canalisation of intraspecific variation on a macroevolutionary scale: the case of crinoid arms through the Phanerozoic

Catalina Pimiento, Kit Lam Tang, Samuel Zamora, Christian Klug & Marcelo Ricardo Sánchez-Villagra
Pictures of Crinoid Specimens 1Pictures of species with names that start with the letters A-Ccrinoids_1.zipPictures of Crinoid Specimens 2Pictures of species with names that start with the letters D-Ocrinoids_2.zipPictures of Crinoid Specimens 3Pictures of species with names that start with the letter Pcrinoids_3.zipPictures of Crinoid Specimens 4Pictures of species with names that start with the letters S-Zcrinoids_4.zip

Data from: Structural and defensive roles of angiosperm leaf venation network reticulation across an Andes-Amazon elevation gradient

Benjamin Blonder, Norma Salinas, Lisa Patrick Bentley, Alexander Shenkin, Percy Orlando Chambi Porroa, Yolvi Valdez Tejeira, Tatiana Erika Boza Espinoza, Gregory R. Goldsmith, Lucas Enrico, Roberta Martin, Gregory P. Asner, Sandra Díaz, Brian J. Enquist & Yadvinder Malhi
1.The network of minor veins of angiosperm leaves may include loops (reticulation). Variation in network architecture has been hypothesized to have hydraulic and also structural and defensive functions. 2.We measured venation network trait space in eight dimensions for 136 biomass-dominant angiosperm tree species along a 3,300 m elevation gradient in southeastern Peru. We then examined the relative importance of multiple ecological, and evolutionary predictors of reticulation. 3.Variation in minor venation network reticulation was constrained to...

Data from: Sex-specific additive genetic variances and correlations for fitness in a song sparrow (Melospiza melodia) population subject to natural immigration and inbreeding

Matthew Ernest Wolak, Peter Arcese, Lukas F. Keller, Pirmin Nietlisbach & Jane M. Reid
Quantifying sex-specific additive genetic variance (VA) in fitness, and the cross-sex genetic correlation (rA), is prerequisite to predicting evolutionary dynamics and the magnitude of sexual conflict. Further, quantifying VA and rA in underlying fitness components, and genetic consequences of immigration and resulting gene flow, is required to identify mechanisms that maintain VA in fitness. However, these key parameters have rarely been estimated in wild populations experiencing natural environmental variation and immigration. We used comprehensive pedigree...

Data from: Ramalina sarahae (Ramalinaceae), a new species from the Channel Islands of California, U.S.A.

Kerry Knudsen, James C. Lendemer & Jana Kocourková
Ramalina sarahae is described as new to science and considered to be closely related to the widespread R. lacera. It has a cortex without chondroid strands but differs from R. lacera in having a densely caespitose thallus of thin branches with only pseudocyphellae. The species is considered to be naturally rare, occurring in a small area of San Miguel Island in southern California, and on San Nicolas Island. Currently eight species of Ramalina are known...

Data from: Lecanora caperatica (Lecanoraceae, lichenized ascomycetes) a new sorediate species widespread in eastern North America

Olivia A. Asher & James C. Lendemer
Lecanora caperatica is described based on collections from throughout temperate eastern North America. It is a crustose sorediate species in the L. subfusca group which has pulcaris-type apothecia, and produces atranorin and caperatic acid often with accessory roccellic/angardianic acid. The species is chemically similar to the European L. mugosphagneti which differs in ecology, thallus morphology and in having albella-type apothecia. The generic placement of L. caperatica, and its affinity to the L. subfusca group, are...

Data from: Hibernation constrains brain size evolution in mammals

Sandra Andrea Heldstab, Karin Isler & Carel P. Van Schaik
The expensive brain hypothesis predicts that the lowest stable level of steady energy input acts as a strong constraint on a species’ brain size, and thus that periodic troughs in net energy intake should select for reduced brain size relative to body mass. Here, we test this prediction for the extreme case of hibernation. Hibernators drastically reduce food intake for up to several months, and are therefore expected to have smaller relative brain sizes than...

Data from: Alteration of nitrous oxide emissions from floodplain soils by aggregate size, litter accumulation and plant–soil interactions

Martin Ley, Moritz F. Lehmann, Pascal A. Niklaus & Jörg Luster
Semi-terrestrial soils such as floodplain soils are considered potential hot spots of nitrous oxide (N2O) emissions. Microhabitats in the soil – such as within and outside of aggregates, in the detritusphere, and/or in the rhizosphere – are considered to promote and preserve specific redox conditions. Yet our understanding of the relative effects of such microhabitats and their interactions on N2O production and consumption in soils is still incomplete. Therefore, we assessed the effect of aggregate...

Data from: Caught in the web: spider web architecture affects prey specialization and spider–prey stoichiometric relationships

Lorraine Ludwig, Matthew A. Barbour, Jennifer Guevara, Leticia Avilés & Angélica L. González
1. Quantitative approaches to predator-prey interactions are central to understanding the structure of food webs and their dynamics. Different predatory strategies may influence the occurrence and strength of trophic interactions likely affecting the rates and magnitudes of energy and nutrient transfer between trophic levels, and the stoichiometry of predator-prey interactions. 2. Here, we used spider-prey interactions as a model system to investigate whether different spider web architectures—orb, tangle, and sheet-tangle—affect the composition and diet breadth...

Data from: Viability selection by invertebrate predators in the polyphenic scavenger fly Sepsis thoracica

Juan Pablo Busso & Wolf U. Blanckenhorn
Predation is a major factor influencing the fitness and life history of animals. Two key traits affecting prey survival are body size and coloration. Sepsis thoracica males display a sigmoid relationship between these two traits, defining a size threshold above which investment in melanin drastically drops, producing small melanic (black) or large amber morphs. In trying to understand the evolution of this rare dimorphism, we performed laboratory predation experiments to estimate the intensity of adult...

Data from: Interspecific competition alters leaf stoichiometry in 20 grassland species

Jordan Guiz, Anne Ebeling, Nico Eisenhauer, Nina Hacker, Lionel Hertzog, Yvonne Oelmann, Christiane Roscher, Cameron Wagg & Helmut Hillebrand
The extensive use of traits in ecological studies over the last few decades to predict community functions has revealed that plant traits are plastic and respond to various environmental factors. These plant traits are assumed to predict how plants compete and capture resources. Variation in stoichiometric ratios both within and across species reflects resource capture dynamics under competition. However, the impact of local plant diversity on species-specific stoichiometry remains poorly studied. Here, we analyze how...

Data from: Tree species richness increases ecosystem carbon storage in subtropical forests

Xiaojuan Liu, Stefan Trogisch, Jin-Sheng He, Pascal A. Niklaus, Helge Bruelheide, Zhiyao Tang, Alexandra Erfmeier, Michael Scherer-Lorenzen, Katherina A. Pietsch, Bo Yang, Peter Kühn, Thomas Scholten, Yuanyuan Huang, Chao Wang, Michael Staab, Katrin N. Leppert, Christian Wirth, Bernhard Schmid & Keping Ma
Forest ecosystems are an integral component of the global carbon cycle as they take up and release large amounts of C in short time (C flux) or accumulate it over longer time (C stock). However, there remains uncertainty about whether and in which direction C fluxes and in particular C stocks may differ between forests of high vs. low species richness. Based on a comprehensive dataset derived from field-based measurements, we tested the effect of...

Data from: Characterizing both bacteria and fungi improves understanding of the Arabidopsis root microbiome

Joy Bergelson, Jana Mittelstrass & Matthew W. Horton
Roots provide plants mineral nutrients and stability in soil; while doing so, they come into contact with diverse soil microbes that affect plant health and productivity. Despite their ecological and agricultural relevance, the factors that shape the root microbiome remain poorly understood. We grew a worldwide panel of replicated Arabidopsis thaliana accessions outdoors and over winter to characterize their root-microbial communities. Although studies of the root microbiome tend to focus on bacteria, we found evidence...

Data from: Fluctuating selection and its (elusive) evolutionary consequences in a wild rodent population

Timothée Bonnet & Erik Postma
Temporal fluctuations in the strength and direction of selection are often proposed as a mechanism that slows down evolution, both over geological and contemporary time-scales. Both the prevalence of fluctuating selection and its relevance for evolutionary dynamics remain poorly understood however, especially on contemporary time scales: Unbiased empirical estimates of variation in selection are scarce, and the question of how much of the variation in selection translates into variation in genetic change has largely been...

Data from: The bacterium Pseudomonas aeruginosa senses and gradually responds to inter-specific competition for iron

Anne Leinweber, Michael Weigert & Rolf Kümmerli
Phenotypic plasticity in response to competition is a well-described phenomenon in higher organisms. Here, we show that also bacteria have the ability to sense the presence of competitors and mount fine-tuned responses to match prevailing levels of competition. In our experiments, we studied inter-specific competition for iron between the bacterium Pseudomonas aeruginosa (PA) and its competitor Burkholderia cenocepacia (BC). We focused on the ability of PA to phenotypically adjust the production of pyoverdine, an iron-scavenging...

Data from: Species divergence and maintenance of species cohesion of three closely related Primula species in the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau

Guangpeng Ren, Rubén G. Mateo, Antoine Guisan, Elena Conti & Nicolas Salamin
Aim: Understanding the relative roles of geography and ecology in driving speciation, population divergence and maintenance of species cohesion is of great interest to molecular ecology. Closely related species that are parapatrically distributed in mountainous areas provide an ideal model to evaluate these key issues, especially when genomic data are analyzed within a spatially and ecologically explicit context. Here we used three closely related species of Primula that occur in the Himalayas, the Hengduan Mountains...

Data from: High-density cultivation of microalgae continuously fed with unfiltered water from a recirculating aquaculture system

Sophia Egloff, Fridolin Tschudi, Zala Schmautz & Dominik Refardt
Water from recirculating aquaculture systems (RAS) has been shown to be a suitable growth medium for microalgae and their cultivation can, therefore, be used to reduce RAS emissions. However, while efficient wastewater treatment is possible, the nutrient content of RAS water limits attainable microalgae biomass densities to 1–2 g l−1 at best, which requires frequent harvesting of microalgae. We have taken advantage of the constant evaporation of water from an open thin-layer photobioreactor (200 l...

Data from: Geographic clines in wing morphology relate to colonization history in New World but not Old World populations of yellow dung flies

Martin A. Schaefer, David Berger, Patrick T. Rohner, Anders Kjaersgaard, Stephanie S. Bauerfeind, Frédéric Guillaume, Charles W. Fox, Wolf Blanckenhorn & Wolf U. Blanckenhorn
Geographic clines offer insights about putative targets and agents of natural selection as well as tempo and mode of adaptation. However, demographic processes can lead to clines that are indistinguishable from adaptive divergence. Using the widespread yellow dung fly Scathophaga stercoraria (Diptera: Scathophagidae), we examine quantitative genetic differentiation (QST) of wing shape across North America, Europe and Japan, and compare this differentiation with that of ten microsatellites (FST). Morphometric analyses of 28 populations reared at...

Registration Year

  • 2018

Resource Types

  • Dataset


  • University of Zurich
  • University of Basel
  • University of Oxford
  • Swiss Institute of Bioinformatics
  • Helmholtz Centre for Environmental Research
  • University of Minnesota
  • German Center for Integrative Biodiversity Research
  • University of Kentucky
  • Swiss Federal Institute for Forest, Snow and Landscape Research
  • Swiss Federal Institute of Technology in Zurich