75 Works

Evolution in interacting species alters predator life history traits, behavior and morphology in experimental microbial communities

Johannes Cairns, Felix Moerman, Emanuel Fronhofer, Florian Altermatt & Teppo Hiltunen
Predator-prey interactions are key for the dynamics of many ecosystems. An increasing body of evidence suggests that rapid evolution and co-evolution can alter these interactions, with important ecological implications, by acting on traits determining fitness, including reproduction, anti-predatory defense and foraging efficiency. However, most studies to date have focused only on evolution in the prey species, and the predator traits in (co-)evolving systems remain poorly understood. Here we investigated changes in predator traits after ~600...

Distal and proximal hypoxia response elements cooperate to regulate organ-specific erythropoietin gene expression

Roland Wenger, Ilaria M.C. Orlando, Véronique N. Lafleur, Federica Storti, Patrick Spielmann, Lisa Crowther, Sara Santambrogio, Johannes Schödel, David Hoogewijs & David R. Mole
While it is well-established that distal hypoxia response elements (HREs) regulate hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF) target genes such as erythropoietin (Epo), an interplay between multiple distal and proximal (promoter) HREs has not been described so far. Hepatic Epo expression is regulated by a HRE located downstream of the EPO gene, but this 3' HRE is dispensable for renal EPO gene expression. We previously identified a 5' HRE and could show that both HREs direct exogenous reporter...

Image stack, PLY-files and a NEX-file accompanying: A new symmoriiform from the Late Devonian of Morocco: novel jaw function in ancient sharks

Linda Frey, Michael I. Coates, Kristen Tietjen, Martin Rücklin & Christian Klug
We describe the small chondrichthyan Ferromirum oukherbouchi n.gen. et sp. from the Famennian (Late Devonian) of the Maïder region in Morocco. This chondrichthyan is exceptionally well preserved and displays not only mineralized soft tissues but also undeformed cartilages of the head, gills, and shoulder girdle. A reconstruction of the head using 3D-prints revealed a previously unknown kind of jaw articulation. Here, we make the original cropped image stack and PLY-files of the single cartilaginous elements...

Data from: The origin of the legumes is a complex paleopolyploid phylogenomic tangle closely associated with the Cretaceous-Paleogene (K-Pg) mass extinction event

Erik Koenen, Dario Ojeda, Freek Bakker, Jan Wieringa, Catherine Kidner, Olivier Hardy, Toby Pennington, Patrick Herendeen, Anne Bruneau & Colin Hughes
The consequences of the Cretaceous-Paleogene (K-Pg) boundary (KPB) mass extinction for the evolution of plant diversity remain poorly understood, even though evolutionary turnover of plant lineages at the KPB is central to understanding assembly of the Cenozoic biota. The apparent concentration of whole genome duplication (WGD) events around the KPB may have played a role in survival and subsequent diversification of plant lineages. To gain new insights into the origins of Cenozoic biodiversity, we examine...

Diversification in evolutionary arenas – assessment and synthesis

Nicolai M. Nürk, H. Peter Linder, Renske E. Onstein, Matthew J. Larcombe, Colin E. Hughes, Laura Piñeiro Fernández, Philipp M. Schlüter, Luis Valente, Carl Beierkuhnlein, Vanessa Cutts, Michael J. Donoghue, Erika J. Edwards, Richard Field, Suzette G.A. Flantua, Steven I. Higgins, Anke Jentsch, Sigrid Liede-Schumann & Michael D. Pirie
Understanding how and why rates of evolutionary diversification vary is a central issue in evolutionary biology, ecology and biogeography. The concept of adaptive radiation has attracted much interest, but is metaphorical and verbal in nature, making it difficult to quantitatively compare different evolutionary lineages or geographic regions. In addition, the causes of evolutionary stasis are relatively neglected. Here we review the central concepts in the evolutionary diversification literature and bring these together by proposing a...

Dust and grit matter: abrasives of different size lead to opposing dental microwear textures in experimentally fed sheep (Ovis aries)

Nicole Ackermans, Daniela E. Winkler, Thomas M. Kaiser, Marcus Clauss & Jean-Michel Hatt
External abrasives ingested along with the herbivore diet are considered main contributors to dental wear, though how different abrasive sizes and concentrations influence wear remains unclear. Dental microwear texture analysis (DMTA) is an established method for dietary reconstruction which describes a tooth’s surface topography on a micrometre scale. The method has yielded conflicting results as to the effect of external abrasives. In the present study, a feeding experiment was performed on sheep (Ovis aries), fed...

Data from: Plant trait response of tundra shrubs to permafrost and nutrient addition

Maitane Iturrate-Garcia & Gabriela Schaepman-Strub
Plants may alter their strategies, such as growth and resource acquisition, as a result of climate change, especially in areas like the Arctic. These changes might affect in turn ecosystem functions and vegetation-climate interactions. Plant traits reflect both strategies and plant trade-offs in response to environmental conditions. In combination with observational data, experiments mimicking future climate conditions and data involving multiple leaf and stem traits, can contribute to a better mechanistic understanding of feedbacks between...

The performance of permutations and exponential random graph models when analysing animal networks (R code and data)

Matthew Silk, Julian Evans & David Fisher
Social network analysis is a suite of approaches for exploring relational data. Two approaches commonly used to analyse animal social network data are permutation-based tests of significance and exponential random graph models. However, the performance of these approaches when analysing different types of network data has not been simultaneously evaluated. Here we test both approaches to determine their performance when analysing a range of biologically realistic simulated animal social networks. We examined the false positive...

The geography of speciation in dasyurid marsupials

Vicente García-Navas
Aim: To determine the effects of competition and divergence time on morphological dissimilarity and geographical range overlap between dasyurid species at both regional and local scales. Our hypothesis is that speciation in this group has been largely allopatric at regional scale, but involved morphological divergence at local scale through sympatric character displacement. Location: Australia, New Guinea and surrounding islands. Taxon: Dasyurid (Dasyuridae) marsupials, 67 species. Methods: Geographical range overlap was quantified using polygons representing the...

The sodium/proton exchanger NHA2 regulates blood pressure through a WNK4-NCC dependent pathway in the kidney

Daniel Fuster, Manuel Anderegg, Giuseppe Albano, Daniela Hanke, Christine Deisl, Dominik E. Uehlinger, Simone Brandt, Rajesh Bhardwaj & Matthias A. Hediger
NHA2 is sodium/hydrogen exchanger that was associated with arterial hypertension in humans, but the role of NHA2 in kidney function and blood pressure homeostasis is currently unknown. Here we show that NHA2 localizes almost exclusively to distal convoluted tubules in the kidney. NHA2 knock-out mice displayed reduced blood pressure, normocalcemic hypocalciuria and an attenuated response to the thiazide diuretic hydrochlorothiazide. Phosphorylation of the thiazide-sensitive sodium/chloride cotransporter NCC and its upstream activating kinase Ste20/SPS1-related proline/alaninerich kinase...

Social learning by mate-choice copying increases dispersal and reduces local adaptation

Manuel Sapage, Susana A. M. Varela & Hanna Kokko
1. In heterogeneous environments, dispersal may be hampered not only by direct costs, but also because immigrants may be locally maladapted. While maladaptation affects both sexes, this cost may be modulated in females if they express mate preferences that are either adaptive or maladaptive in the new local population. 2. Dispersal costs under local adaptation may be mitigated if it is possible to switch to expressing traits of locally adapted residents. In a sexual selection...

Intraspecific genetic variation and spectral data of a Fagus sylvatica population in a temperate forest

Ewa Agata Czyz
This dataset contain genetic variation and multi-annual conopy level spectral responses of 77 Fagus sylvatica individuals from Laegern temperate forest (47°28'N, 8°21'E) population.

Natural history, phenotypic spectrum, and discriminative features of multisystemic RFC1-disease

Andreas Traschütz, Andrea Cortese, Selina Reich, Natalia Dominik, Jennifer Faber, Heike Jacobi, Annette Hartmann, Dan Rujescu, Solveig Montaut, Andoni Echaniz-Laguna, Sevda Erer, Valerie Cornelia Schütz, Alexander Tarnutzer, Marc Sturm, Tobias Haack, Nadège Vaucamps-Diedhiou, Helene Puccio, Ludger Schöls, Thomas Klockgether, Bart P. Van De Warrenburg, Martin Paucar, Dagmar Timmann, Ralf-Dieter Hilgers, Jose Gazulla, Michael Strupp … & Matthis Synofzik
Objective: To delineate the full phenotypic spectrum, discriminative features, piloting longitudinal progression data, and sample size calculations of RFC1-repeat expansions, recently identified as causing cerebellar ataxia, neuropathy, vestibular areflexia syndrome (CANVAS). Methods: Multimodal RFC1 repeat screening (PCR, southern blot, whole-exome/genome (WES/WGS)-based approaches) combined with cross-sectional and longitudinal deep-phenotyping in (i) cross-European cohort A (70 families) with ≥2 features of CANVAS and/or ataxia-with-chronic-cough (ACC); and (ii) Turkish cohort B (105 families) with unselected late-onset ataxia. Results:...

Le redoublement du sujet en français parlé* Motivations rythmiques

Anke Grutschus & Sandra Schwab

Data from: Phenotypic responses to temperature in the ciliate Tetrahymena thermophila

Vanessa Weber De Melo, Robert Lowe, Paul J. Hurd & Owen L. Petchey
Understanding the effects of temperature on ecological and evolutionary processes is crucial for generating future climate adaptation scenarios. Using experimental evolution, we evolved the model ciliate Tetrahymena thermophila in an initially novel high temperature environment for more than 35 generations, closely monitoring population dynamics and morphological changes. We observed initially long lag phases in the high temperature environment that over about 26 generations reduced to no lag phase, a strong reduction in cell size and...

Positive and negative interactions jointly determine the structure of Müllerian mimetic communities

Thomas G. Aubier & Marianne Elias
Negative and positive ecological interactions have opposite effects on the structure of ecological communities, in particular in terms of ecological similarity among interacting species. In nature, species belonging to the same guild often interact in both negative and positive ways, yet the interplay between interactions of different kinds in intraguild community dynamics remains poorly understood. Müllerian mimetic communities are particularly suited for investigating this interplay because positive (mutualistic mimicry) and negative (competition for trophic resource...

Leaf size of woody dicots predicts ecosystem primary productivity

Yaoqi Li, Peter Reich, Bernhard Schmid, Nawal Shrestha, Xiao Feng, Tong Lyv, Brian Maitner, Xiaoting Xu, Yichao Li, Dongting Zou, Zheng-Hong Tan, Xiangyan Su, Zhiyao Tang, Qinghua Guo, Xiaojuan Feng, Brian Enquist & Zhiheng Wang
A key challenge in ecology is to understand the relationships between organismal traits and ecosystem processes. Here, with a novel dataset of leaf length and width for 10,480 woody dicots in China and 2,374 in North America, we show that the variation in community mean leaf size is highly correlated with the variation in climate and ecosystem primary productivity, independent of plant life form. These relationships likely reflect how natural selection modifies leaf size across...

Rotting Bodies: Sex, Gender, and Horror in Tōkaidō Yotsuya Kaidan

Sarah Rebecca Schmid
The success that the kabuki play Tōkaidō Yotsuya Kaidan enjoyed was not simply due to its spectacular stage tricks, but also because of the inescapably intimate (human) nature of the horror displayed on stage. Sexuality and gender in particular dominate the horror on stage. The central character Oiwa serves as a vehicle for gendered fears rooted in Edoperiod attitudes towards sexuality. Keywords: Kabuki, Theatre, Edo Period, Femininity, Ghosts

Perspektywy peryferyjnej historii i teorii kultury

Dorota Sajewska
Departing from the analysis of the relationship between the birth of the subject of race and the development of capitalism (Mbembe), Sajewska examines the status of blackness in semi-peripheral countries, such as Poland, whose participation in the history of colonial expansion is negligible, as is its influence on the shape and prosperity of capitalism. In her text she proposes to look at peripheral cultural practices as ways of producing and problematizing knowledge. She focuses her...

Data from: Cre-mediated, loxP independent sequential recombination of a tripartite transcriptional stop cassette allows for partial read-through transcription

Roland Wenger, Andreas M. Bapst, Sophie L. Dahl & Thomas Knöpfel
One of the widely used applications of the popular Cre-loxP method for targeted recombination is the permanent activation of marker genes, such as reporter genes or antibiotic resistance genes, by excision of a preceding transcriptional stop signal. The STOP cassette consists of three identical SV40-derived poly(A) signal repeats and is flanked by two loxP sites. We found that in addition to complete loxP-mediated recombination, limiting levels of the Cre recombinase also cause incomplete recombination of...

Data from: The ghost of disturbance past: long-term effects of pulse disturbances on community biomass and composition

Claire Jacquet
Current global change is associated with an increase in disturbance frequency and intensity, with the potential to trigger population collapses and to cause permanent transitions to new ecosystem states. However, our understanding of ecosystem responses to disturbances is still incomplete. Specifically, there is a mismatch between the diversity of disturbance regimes experienced by ecosystems and the one-dimensional description of disturbances used in most studies on ecological stability. To fill this gap, we conducted a full...

Data from: When to stay and when to leave? Proximate causes of dispersal in an endangered social carnivore

Dominik Behr, John McNutt, Arpat Ozgul & Gabriele Cozzi
1. Reliable estimates of birth, death, emigration, and immigration rates are fundamental to understanding and predicting the dynamics of wild populations and, consequently, inform appropriate management actions. However, when individuals disappear from a focal population, inference on their fate is often challenging. 2. Here we used 30 years of individual-based mark-recapture data from a population of free-ranging African wild dogs (Lycaon pictus) in Botswana and a suite of individual, social, and environmental predictors to investigate...

Data from: Genomic signatures of convergent adaptation to Alpine environments in three Brassicaceae species

Christian Rellstab, Stefan Zoller, Christian Sailer, Andrew Tedder, Felix Gugerli, Kentaro K. Shimizu, Rolf Holderegger, Alex Widmer & Martin C. Fischer
It has long been discussed to what extent related species develop similar genetic mechanisms to adapt to similar environments. Most studies documenting such convergence have either used different lineages within species or surveyed only a limited portion of the genome. Here, we investigated whether similar or different sets of orthologous genes were involved in genetic adaptation of natural populations of three related plant species to similar environmental gradients in the Alps. We used whole-genome pooled...

R script: Species coexist more easily if reinforcement is based on habitat preferences than on species recognition

Daisuke Kyogoku & Hanna Kokko
1. Maladaptive hybridization selects for prezygotic isolation, a process known as reinforcement. Reinforcement reduces gene flow and contributes to the final stage of speciation. Ecologically, however, coexistence of the incipient species is difficult if they initially use identical resources. 2. Habitat segregation offers an alternative to species discrimination as a way to reduce gene flow: production of unfit hybrids is reduced if mate encounters become rare due to differing habitat choice. Using a modelling approach,...

Dataset marmoset Snowdrift

Alejandro Sanchez Amaro, Judith Burkart & Federico Rossano
Social primates constantly face situations in which their preferences collide and they need to engineer strategies to overcome conflicts of interest. Studies with chimpanzees have found that they use competitive strategies to overcome social dilemmas, maximizing their own benefits while minimizing the loss of rewards. However, little is known about how other primates that rely more on cooperation would overcome similar dilemmas. We therefore presented male-female pairs of common marmosets (cooperative breeders) with two experiments...

Registration Year

  • 2020

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  • University of Zurich
  • Naturalis Biodiversity Center
  • Swiss Federal Institute of Technology in Zurich
  • University of Lisbon
  • Institut des Sciences de l'Evolution de Montpellier
  • University of Basel
  • University of British Columbia
  • Swiss Federal Institute for Forest, Snow and Landscape Research
  • University of Camerino
  • Helmholtz Centre for Environmental Research