63 Works

Electrophysiological recordings showing allosteric modulation of LRRC8 channels by targeting their cytoplasmic domains with specific sybodies

Sonja Rutz, Dawid Deneka, Raimund Dutzler & Marta Sawicka
Members of the LRRC8 family form heteromeric assemblies, which function as volume-regulated anion channels. These modular proteins consist of a transmembrane pore and cytoplasmic leucine-rich repeat (LRR) domains. Despite their known molecular architecture, the mechanism of activation and the role of the LRR domains in this process has remained elusive. Here we have addressed this question by generating synthetic nanobodies, termed sybodies, which target the LRR domain of the obligatory subunit LRRC8A.We used these binders...

Bound within boundaries: How well do protected areas match movement corridors of their most mobile protected species?

David D. Hofmann, Dominik M. Behr, John W. McNutt, Arpat Ozgul & Gabriele Cozzi
Conserving and managing large portions of land to connect wildlife reserves is an increasingly used strategy to maintain and restore connectivity among wildlife populations. Boundaries of such conservation areas are often determined based on expert opinion and socio-political constraints, yet the extent to which they match species’ movement corridors is rarely examined. This is mainly due to a lack of data, particularly on wide-ranging movement behavior such as dispersal. Nevertheless, empirically assessing the adequacy of...

Mammalian intestinal allometry, phylogeny, trophic level and climate

María Duque-Correa, Daryl Codron, Carlo Meloro, Amanda McGrosky, Christiann Schiffmann, Mark Edwards & Marcus Clauss
An often-stated ecomorphological assumption that has the status of ‘textbook knowledge’ is that the dimensions of the digestive tract correlate with diet, where herbivores – consuming diets of lower digestibility – have longer intestinal tracts than faunivores – consuming diets of higher digestibility. However, statistical approaches have so far failed to demonstrate this link. Here, we collated data on the length of intestinal sections and body mass of 519 mammal species, and test for various...

Alternative reproductive tactic in male Drosophila prolongata

Jhoniel Perdigón Ferreira & Stefan Lüpold
Species with intense male-male competition for access to females often show alternative reproductive tactics (ARTs) where males of lower competitive ability adopt a sneaky behavior to gain access to mates. These ARTs are usually associated with intrasexual dimorphisms, in that males with distinct morphologies show different tactics. In some cases, however, males adopt different tactics without being dimorphic. Male Drosophila prolongata exhibit continuous variation in body size and shape, with enlarged forelegs that they use...

Accompanied versus unaccompanied walking for continuous oxygen saturation measurement during 6-min walk test in COPD: A randomised cross-over study

Thomas F. Riegler, Anja Frei, Sarah R. Haile & Thomas Radtke
Is there is a difference in the 6-Minute Walk Test (6MWT) distance when the assessor accompanies the patient to continuously measure oxygen saturation (SpO2) compared to the patient walking unaccompanied? We conducted a randomised cross-over study to evaluate the impact of the assessor walking with the patient during 6MWT (6MWTwith) versus patient walking alone (6MWTwithout). At the end of a pulmonary rehabilitation programme, each patient performed two 6MWTs in random order and separated by 30...

Recent activity in expanding populations and purifying selection have shaped transposable element landscapes across natural accessions of the Mediterranean grass Brachypodium distachyon

Christoph Stritt, Sean P Gordon, Thomas Wicker, John P Vogel & Anne C Roulin
Transposable element (TE) activity has emerged as a major cause of variation in genome size and structure among species. To what extent TEs contribute to genetic variation and divergence within species, however, is much less clear, mainly because population genomic data have so far only been available for the classical model organisms. In this study, we use the annual Mediterranean grass Brachypodium distachyon to investigate TE dynamics in natural populations. Using whole-genome sequencing data for...

Cooperation-based concept formation in male bottlenose dolphins

Stephanie King, Richard Connor, Michael Krützen & Simon Allen
In Shark Bay, Western Australia, male bottlenose dolphins form a complex nested alliance hierarchy. At the first level, pairs or trios of unrelated males cooperate to herd single females. Multiple first-order alliances cooperate in teams (second-order alliances) in the pursuit and defense of females, and multiple teams also work together (third-order alliances). Yet it remains unknown how dolphins classify these nested alliance relationships. We used 30 years of behavioural data combined with 40 contemporary sound...

A liposome assay showing the absence of scrambling in TTYH proteins and a lipidomics analysis of TTYH2

Anastasiia Sukalskaia & Raimund Dutzler
The Tweety homologues (TTYHs) are members of a conserved family of eukaryotic membrane proteins that are abundant in the brain. The three human paralogs were assigned to function as anion channels that are either activated by Ca2+ or cell swelling. To uncover their unknown architecture and its relationship to function, we have determined the structures of human TTYH1–3 by cryo-electron microscopy. All structures display equivalent features of a dimeric membrane protein that contains five transmembrane...

Ecology drives the evolution of diverse social strategies in Pseudomonas aeruginosa

Alexandre Figueiredo, Andreas Wagner & Rolf Kümmerli
Bacteria often cooperate by secreting molecules that can be shared as public goods between cells. Because the production of public goods is subject to cheating by mutants that exploit the good without contributing to it, there has been great interest in elucidating the evolutionary forces that maintain cooperation. However, little is known on how bacterial cooperation evolves under conditions where cheating is unlikely of importance. Here we use experimental evolution to follow changes in the...

Different molecular changes underlie the same phenotypic transition: Origins and consequences of independent shifts to homostyly within species

Emiliano Mora Carrera
The repeated transition from outcrossing to selfing is a key topic in evolutionary biology. However, the molecular basis of such shifts has been rarely examined due to lack of knowledge of the genes controlling these transitions. A classic example of mating system transition is the repeated shift from heterostyly to homostyly. Occurring in 28 angiosperm families, heterostyly is characterized by the reciprocal position of male and female sexual organs in two (or three) distinct, usually...

High content genome-wide siRNA screen to investigate the coordination of cell size and RNA production

Micha Müller
Coordination of RNA abundance and transcription rates with cell size has been observed in diverse organisms and isogenic cell populations. However, how cells achieve such ‘size-scaling’ of transcription is unknown. Here we describe a genome-wide siRNA screen to find novel regulators of global RNA production in human cells. We quantify single-cell RNA production rates using metabolic pulse-labelling of RNA and subsequent high-content imaging. Our quantitative, single-cell measurements of DNA, nascent RNA, proliferating cell nuclear antigen...

African wild dog access to kills

Neil Jordan, Krystyna Golabek, Dominik Behr, Reena Walker, Laura Plimpton, Samantha Lostrom, Megan Claase, Leanne Van Der Weyde & J. Weldon McNutt
Patterns of food sharing in collectively hunting species are likely to influence social dynamics and evolution. Despite this, little is known about competition within social groups at carcasses and other food sources, making the social drivers and implications of food sharing difficult to assess. We quantified carcass access and feeding behavior in free-ranging African wild dogs, Lycaon pictus, at natural kill sites, confirming and quantifying previous descriptions of a youngest-feed-first system. Using data on feeding...

Data from: Family dynamics reveal that female house mice preferentially breed in their maternal community

Julian Evans, Anna Lindholm & Barbara König
Whether females breed in their natal group is an important factor in the evolution of extended families in animal sociality. Breeding in natal groups comes with costs and benefits, depending on group size and presence of older relatives, including mothers. Studying the consequences of breeding in the natal versus another group provides insight into the decisions and trade-offs governing the formation and structure of family groups. We investigated the family dynamics of a population of...

Siderophores drive invasion dynamics in bacterial communities through their dual role as public good versus public bad

Alexandre R. T. Figueiredo, Özhan Özkaya, Rolf Kuemmerli & Jos Kramer
Microbial invasions can compromise ecosystem services and spur dysbiosis and disease in hosts. Nevertheless, the mechanisms determining invasion outcomes often remain unclear. Here, we examine the role of iron-scavenging siderophores in driving invasions of Pseudomonas aeruginosa into resident communities of environmental pseudomonads. Siderophores can be “public goods” by delivering iron to individuals possessing matching receptors; but they can also be “public bads” by withholding iron from competitors lacking these receptors. Accordingly, siderophores should either promote...

Genomic signals of admixture and reinforcement between two closely related species of European sepsid flies

Martin Kapun, Athene Giesen, Wolf U Blanckenhorn, Martin A Schäfer, Kentaro K Shimizu, Rie Shimizu-Inatsugi, Bernhard Misof, Oliver Niehuis, Lars Podsiadlowski, Heidi E L Liescher & Simon Aeschbacher
Interspecific gene flow by hybridization may weaken species barriers and adaptive divergence, but can also initiate reinforcement of reproductive isolation through natural and sexual selection. However, the extent of interspecific gene flow and its consequences for the initiation and maintenance of species barriers in natural systems remain poorly understood. We first applied coalescence simulations and approximate Bayesian calculations based on microsatellite data to infer the yet unknown demographic history of the two closely related European...

Patch size distribution affects species invasion dynamics in dendritic networks

Holenstein Kathrin, Eric Harvey & Florian Altermatt
Biological invasions are globally affecting ecosystems, causing local species loss and altering ecosystem functioning. Understanding how such biological invasions occur and succeed is thus of high priority. Both local properties and the spatial network structure have been shown to be determinants of invasion success, and the identification of spatial invasion hubs directly promoting invasion dynamics is gaining attention. Spatial dynamics, however, could also indirectly alter invasion success by shaping pre- invasion local community structure: in...

Predicting intraspecific trait variation among California’s grasses

Brody Sandel, Claire Pavelka, Thomas Hayashi, Lachlan Charles, Jennifer Funk, Fletcher Halliday, Gaurav Kandlikar, Andrew Kleinhesslink, Nathan Kraft, Loralee Larios, Tesa Madsen-McQueen & Marko Spasojevic
1. Plant species can show considerable morphological and functional variation along environmental gradients. This intraspecific trait variation (ITV) can have important consequences for community assembly, biotic interactions, ecosystem functions and responses to global change. However, directly measuring ITV across many species and wide geographic areas is often infeasible. Thus, a method to predict spatial variation in a species’ functional traits could be valuable. 2. We measured specific leaf area (SLA), height and leaf area (LA)...

Alpine ibex simulation files

Deborah Leigh, Heidi Lischer, Frederic Guillaume, Christine Grossen & Torsten Gunther
Identifying local adaptation in bottlenecked species is essential for conservation management. Selection detection methods have an important role in species management plans, assessments of adaptive capacity, and looking for responses to climate change. Yet, the allele frequency changes exploited in selection detection methods are similar to those caused by the strong neutral genetic drift expected during a bottleneck. Consequently, it is often unclear what accuracy selection detection methods have across bottlenecked populations. In this study,...

High spatial resolution mapping identifies habitat characteristics of the invasive vine Antigonon leptopus on St. Eustatius (Lesser Antilles)

Elizabeth Haber, Maria Santos, Pedro Leitão, Marcel Schwieder, Pieter Ketner, Joris Ernst, Max Rietkerk, Martin Wassen & Maarten Eppinga
On the Caribbean island of St. Eustatius, Coralita (Antigonon leptopus) is an aggressive invasive vine posing major biodiversity conservation concerns. The generation of distribution maps can address these conservation concerns by helping to elucidate the drivers of invasion. We test the use of support vector machines to map the distribution of Coralita on St. Eustatius at high spatial resolution and use this map to identify potential landscape and geomorphological factors associated with Coralita presence. This...

Food discovery is associated with different reliance on social learning and lower cognitive flexibility across environments in a food caching bird

Virginia Heinen, Angela Pitera, Ben Sonnenberg, Lauren Benedict, Eli Bridge, Damien Farine & Vladimir Pravosudov
Social learning is a primary mechanism for information acquisition in social species. Despite many benefits, social learning may be disadvantageous when independent learning is more efficient. For example, searching independently may be more advantageous when food sources are ephemeral and unpredictable. Individual differences in cognitive abilities such as spatial memory, which affect an individual’s environmental predictability, can also be expected to influence social information use. We investigated how resident food-caching chickadees discovered multiple novel food...

How biases in sperm storage relate to sperm use during oviposition in female yellow dung flies

Marco Demont, Paul Ward, Wolf Blanckenhorn, Stefan Lüpold, Oliver Martin & Luc Bussière
Precise mechanisms underlying sperm storage and utilization are largely unknown, and data directly linking stored sperm to paternity remain scarce. We used competitive microsatellite PCR to study the effects of female morphology, copula duration and oviposition on the proportion of stored sperm provided by the second of two copulating males (S2) in Scathophaga stercoraria (Diptera: Scathophagidae), the classic model for sperm competition studies. We genotyped all offspring from potentially mixed-paternity clutches to establish the relationship...

Date From: The myriad of complex demographic responses of terrestrial mammals to climate change and gaps of knowledge: A global analysis

Maria Paniw, Tamora James, C. Ruth Archer, Gesa Römer, Sam Levin, Aldo Compagnoni, Judy Che-Castaldo, Joanne Bennett, Andrew Mooney, Dylan Childs, Arpat Ozgul, Owen Jones, Jean Burns, Andrew Beckerman, Abir Patwari, Nora Sanchez-Gassen, Tiffany Knight & Roberto Salguero-Gómez
Approximately 25% of mammals are currently threatened with extinction, a risk that is amplified under climate change. Species persistence under climate change is determined by the combined effects of climatic factors on multiple demographic rates (survival, development, reproduction), and hence, population dynamics. Thus, to quantify which species and regions on Earth are most vulnerable to climate-driven extinction, a global understanding of how different demographic rates respond to climate is urgently needed. Here, we perform a...

Competition alters species' plastic and genetic response to environmental change

Lynn Govaert, Florian Altermatt & Luis Gilarranz
Species react to environmental change via plastic and evolutionary responses. While both of them determine species’ survival, most studies quantify these responses only individually. As species occur in communities, competing species may further influence their respective response to environmental change. Yet, how environmental change and competing species combined shape plastic and genetic responses to environmental change remains unclear. Quantifying how species interactions such as competition alter plastic and genetic responses of species to environmental change...

Online Appendix and Cetacean Datasets for: The Occurrence Birth-Death Process for combined-evidence analysis in macroevolution and epidemiology

Jérémy Andréoletti, Antoine Zwaans, Rachel Warnock, Gabriel Aguirre-Fernández, Joëlle Barido-Sottani, Ankit Gupta, Tanja Stadler & Marc Manceau
Phylodynamic models generally aim at jointly inferring phylogenetic relationships, model parameters, and more recently, the number of lineages through time, based on molecular sequence data. In the fields of epidemiology and macroevolution these models can be used to estimate, respectively, the past number of infected individuals (prevalence) or the past number of species (paleodiversity) through time. Recent years have seen the development of “total-evidence” analyses, which combine molecular and morphological data from extant and past...

Live imaging of remyelination in the adult mouse corpus callosum

Sebastian Jessberger & Sara Bottes
Oligodendrocyte precursor cells (OPCs) retain the capacity to remyelinate axons in the corpus callosum (CC) upon demyelination. However, the dynamics of OPC activation, mode of cell division, migration, and differentiation on a single cell level remain poorly understood due to the lack of longitudinal observations of individual cells within the injured brain. After inducing focal demyelination with lysophosphatidylcholin (LPC) in the CC of adult mice, we used 2-photon microscopy to follow for up to 2...

Registration Year

  • 2021
    63

Resource Types

  • Dataset
    59
  • Image
    2
  • Book Chapter
    1
  • Text
    1

Affiliations

  • University of Zurich
    63
  • Swiss Federal Institute of Technology in Zurich
    6
  • University of Cambridge
    3
  • Leipzig University
    3
  • Swiss Federal Institute of Aquatic Science and Technology
    2
  • McGill University
    2
  • Swiss Ornithological Institute
    2
  • University of Helsinki
    2
  • Botswana Predator Conservation Trust
    2
  • State University of Campinas
    2