42 Works

Satellite data reveal differential responses of Swiss forests to unprecedented 2018 drought

Joan T. Sturm
The summer drought of 2018 caused major damages to forest ecosystems. In this dataset, various environmental variables (precipitation anomaly, temperature anomaly, climatic water balance anomaly, elevation, slope, aspect, exposition, potential direct incedent radiation, distance to the forest edge, tree type, and species heterogeneity) have been stratified into ten sections and the proportion of forest pixels with severe changes (equal or more than 10% either positive or negative) in the normalized difference water index (NDWI) of...

Reproductive strategies affect telomere dynamics across the life course

Barbara Tschirren, Ana Ángela Romero-Haro, Jennifer Morger & Mark F. Haussmann
Because parental care has a heritable basis, the benefits of receiving increased parental provisioning early in life are genetically linked to the costs of providing increased parental provisioning at adulthood. Reproductive strategies thus result in distinct cost-benefit syndromes across the life course that may shape individual health and ageing trajectories. Here we used an artificial selection approach in Japanese quail (Coturnix japonica) to test how reproductive strategies affect telomere length, a biomarker of somatic state,...

A tradeoff between robustness to environmental fluctuations and speed of evolution

Max Schmid, Maria Paniw, Maarten Postuma, Arpat Ozgul & Frédéric Guillaume
The ability of a species to cope with both long-term and short-term environmental fluctuations might vary with the species' life history. While some life-history characteristics promote large and stable population sizes despite interannual environmental fluctuations, other life-history strategies might allow to evolve quickly in response to long-term gradual changes. In a theoretical study, we show that there is a tradeoff between both properties. Life-history characteristics that promote fast rates of evolution come at the expense...

A global phylogenomic study of the Thelypteridaceae

Susan Fawcett, Alan Smith, Michael Sundue, Gordon Burleigh, Emily Sessa, Li-Yaung Kuo, Cheng-Wei Chen, Weston Testo, Michael Kessler & David Barrington
The generic classification of the Thelypteridaceae has been the subject of much controversy. Proposed taxonomic systems have varied from recognizing more than 1000 species in the family within the single genus Thelypteris, to systems favoring upwards of 30 genera. Insights on intrafamilial relationships have been gained from recent phylogenetic studies, especially for the Neotropics; however, in the most recent classification, 10 of 30 recognized genera are either non-monophyletic or untested. In the present study, we...

Quantification of within patient Staphylococcus aureus phenotypic heterogeneity as a proxy for presence of persisters across clinical presentations

Julian Baer
Staphylococcus aureus was isolated from patients suffering cardiovascular, prosthetic joint or other infections and plated on Columbia sheep blood agar. Macroscopic time-lapse imaging was performed to quantify colony appearance-time and growth-rate. As a baseline reference, the same time-lapse imaging protocol was used after subculturing clinical isolates in tryptic soy broth until bacteria reached exponential growth phase.

Green-up selection by red deer in heterogeneous, human-dominated landscapes of Central Europe

Benjamin Sigrist, Claudio Signer, Sascha Wellig, Arpat Ozgul, Flurin Filli, Hannes Jenny, Dominik Thiel, Sven Wirthner & Roland Graf
The forage maturation hypothesis [FMH] assumes that herbivores cope with the trade-off between digestibility and biomass in forage by selecting vegetation at intermediate growth. The green wave hypothesis [GWH] extends the FMH to suggest how spatiotemporal heterogeneity in plant quality shapes migratory movements of herbivores. Growing empirical support for these hypotheses mainly comes from studies in vast landscapes with large-scale habitat heterogeneity. It is unclear, however, to what extent ungulates surf green waves in human-altered...

Bimodal activity of diurnal flower visitation at high elevation

Xin Xu, Zong-Xin Ren, Judith Trunschke, Jonas Kuppler, Yan-Hui Zhao, Eva Knop & Hong Wang
Successful pollination in animal-pollinated plants depends on the temporal overlap between flower presentation and pollinator foraging activity. Variation in the temporal dimension of plant-pollinator networks has been investigated intensely across flowering seasons. However, over the course of a day, the dynamics of plant-pollinator interactions may vary strongly due environmental fluctuations. It is usually assumed there is a unimodal, diurnal, activity pattern, while alternative multi-modal types of activity patterns are often neglected and deserve greater investigation....

Richness, not evenness, of invasive plant species promotes invasion success into native plant communities via selection effects

Xue Wang, Xue Wang, Jiang Wang, Bing Hu, Wei-Long Zheng, Meng Li, Zhi-Xiang Shen, Fei-Hai Yu, Bernhard Schmid & Mai-He Li
Native plant communities are often invaded by multiple alien species. It is still unclear how increasing diversity of alien invasive species suppresses the growth of native species and thus contributes to invasion success. In the subtropical monsoon region of Southeast China, we experimentally created a native plant community with 18 herbaceous species. One week later, we let it be invaded by either zero (controls without invasion), one, two, four or eight alien plant species, with...

Species interactions in three Lemnaceae species growing along a gradient of zinc pollution

Sofia Van Moorsel, Lorena Lanthemann & Sofia J. Moorsel
We tested whether the presence of a second species influenced the growth rate of the three duckweed species Lemna minor, Lemna gibba, and Lemna turionifera. We used four different Zn concentrations in a replicated microcosm experiment under sterile conditions, either growing the species in isolation or in a 2-species mixture. The cultures were kept in an incubator 20 °C with a light regime of 16/8h light/dark for 17 days. There is one data set with...

Roe deer microsatellite genotype data

Nina Vasiljevic
In the early 1800s, the European roe deer (Capreolus capreolus) was probably extirpated from Switzerland, due to overhunting and deforestation. After a federal law was enacted in 1875 to protect lactating females and young, and limiting the hunting season, the roe deer successfully recovered and recolonised Switzerland. In this study, we use mitochondrial DNA and nuclear DNA markers to investigate the recolonisation and assess contemporary genetic structure in relation to broad topographic features, in order...

Data from: The megaherbivore gap after the non-avian dinosaur extinctions modified trait evolution and diversification of tropical palms

Renske E. Onstein, W. Daniel Kissling & H. Peter Linder
The Cretaceous–Paleogene (K-Pg) extinction of the non-avian dinosaurs (66 Ma) led to a 25 million year gap of megaherbivores (>1000 kg) before the evolution of megaherbivorous mammals in the Late Eocene (40 Ma). The botanical consequences of this ‘Paleocene megaherbivore gap’ (PMHG) remain poorly explored. We hypothesize that the absence of megaherbivores should result in changes in the diversification and trait evolution of associated plant lineages. We used phylogenetic time- and trait-dependent diversification models with...

Parasites, niche modification and the host microbiome: A field survey of multiple parasites

Kayleigh R. O'Keeffe, Fletcher W. Halliday, Corbin D. Jones, Ignazio Carbone & Charles E. Mitchell
Parasites can affect and be affected by the host's microbiome, with consequences for host susceptibility, parasite transmission, and host and parasite fitness. Yet, two aspects of the relationship between parasite infection and host microbiota remain little understood: the nature of the relationship under field conditions, and how the relationship varies among parasites. To overcome these limitations, we performed a field survey of the within-leaf fungal community in a tall fescue population. We investigated how diversity...

Media transparency: Comparing how leading news media balance the need for transparency with professional ethics

Werner A. Meier & Josef Tappel

Soaring media ownership concentration: Comparing the effects of digitalisation on media pluralism and diversity

Josef Trappel & Werner A. Meier

Call combinations in chimpanzees: a social tool?

Maël Leroux, Bosco Chandia, Alexandra Bosshard, Klaus Zuberberbuehler & Simon Townsend
A growing body of evidence suggests the capacity for animals to combine calls into larger communicative structures is more common than previously assumed. Despite its cross-taxa prevalence, little is known regarding the evolutionary pressures driving such combinatorial abilities. One dominant hypothesis posits that social complexity and vocal complexity are linked, with changes in social structuring (e.g. group size) driving the emergence of ever-more complex vocal abilities, such as call sequencing. In this paper, we tested...

Phenotypic changes of beak dimensions in urban birds of Switzerland

Evelyn Hüppi & Geiger Madeleine
Humans’ large influence on the environment has constructed many new ecological niches, such as in urban areas. Phenotypic changes, including morphological ones related to human influence are known from a small number of bird species. The amount of change in a given time period, i.e., the rate of change, may vary. Rates of change (both evolutionary and through phenotypic plasticity) are reportedly rapid in human-influenced settings, although this is disputed. We present new data on...

The impact of seat-height on 1-minute sit to stand test performance in COPD: A randomised cross-over trial

Valerie Zumbrunnen, Thomas Riegler, Sarah Haile & Thomas Radtke
Study question: Is there a difference in the number of repetitions on the 1-minute sit to stand (1MSTS) test using an individually adapted seatheight to 90-degree knee flexion (1MSTSIND), compared with the commonly used standard chair seat-height of 46cm (1MSTSSTD), in people with COPD. Intervention: After a learning 1MSTS, all participants performed two 1MSTS tests in random order on consecutive days. Participants were blinded, as they did not receive detailed information on the testing protocols....

Quantification of within patient Staphylococcus aureus phenotypic heterogeneity as a proxy for presence of persisters across clinical presentations

Julian Baer
Staphylococcus aureus was isolated from patients suffering cardiovascular, prosthetic joint or other infections and plated on Columbia sheep blood agar. Macroscopic time-lapse imaging was performed to quantify colony appearance-time and growth-rate. As a baseline reference, the same time-lapse imaging protocol was used after subculturing clinical isolates in tryptic soy broth until bacteria reached exponential growth phase.

Disentangling direct and indirect drivers of farmland biodiversity at landscape scale

Eliane Meier, Gisela Lüscher & Eva Knop
To stop the ongoing decline of farmland biodiversity there are increasing claims for a paradigm shift in agriculture, namely from conserving and restoring farmland biodiversity at field scale (α-diversity) to doing it at landscape scale (γ-diversity). However, knowledge on factors driving farmland γ-diversity is currently limited. Here, we quantified farmland γ-diversity in 123 landscapes and analysed direct and indirect effects of abiotic and land-use factors shaping it using structural equation models. The direction and strength...

Comparing news media reach: Exploring effects of asymmetric news media consumption

Heinz Bonfadelli, Valgerður Jóhannsdóttir, Lars Nord & Hanne Vandenberghe

Data and scripts from: Long term analysis of social structure: evidence of age-based consistent associations in male Alpine ibex

Alice Brambilla, Achaz Von Hardenberg, Claudia Canedoli, Francesca Brivio, Cédric Sueur & Christina Stanely
The folder contains the data and scripts used to produce the manuscript: "Long term analysis of social structure: evidence of age-based consistent associations in Alpine ibex" by Alice Brambilla, Achaz von Hardenberg, Claudia Canedoli, Francesca Brivio, Cédric Sueur and Christina R Stanley.

Isotopic niche overlap between sympatric Australian snubfin and humpback dolphins

Guido J. Parra, Zachary Wojtkowiak, Katharina J. Peters & Daniele Cagnazzi
Ecological niche theory predicts the coexistence of closely related species is promoted by resource partitioning and leads to the use of different ecological niches. Australian snubfin (Orcaella heinsohni) and humpback (Sousa sahulensis) dolphins live in sympatry throughout most of their range in northern Australia. We compared stable isotope ratios of carbon (δ13C) and nitrogen (δ15N) in their skin to investigate resource partitioning between these ecologically similar species. Skin samples were collected from live Australian snubfin...

Fermur lengths of Drosophila melanogaster at different developmental temperatures and Wolbachia-infection types

Martin Kapun & Sina Lerch
To estimate the influence of developmental temperature and Wolbachia infections on body size in Drosophila melanogaster, we disected female flies and mounted left forelegs. Pictures were taken under a Leica DFC 490 microscope. Femur lengths, wich have proven to be a good proxy for bodysize, were measured in ImageJ. Our analyses revealed that temperature, but not Wolbachia infections strongly influenced female body size. See also the corresponing README.txt and the table "FullData.xlsx" within SupplementaryData.zip in...

Data from: Conjugative plasmid transfer is limited by prophages but can be overcome by high conjugation rates

Carolin Wendling, Lukas Schwyter, Daniel Gehrig & Claudia Igler
Antibiotic resistance spread via plasmids is a serious threat to successfully fight infections and makes understanding plasmid transfer in nature crucial to prevent the rise of antibiotic resistance. Studies addressing the dynamics of plasmid conjugation have yet neglected one omnipresent factor: prophages (viruses integrated into bacterial genomes), whose activation can kill host and surrounding bacterial cells. To investigate the impact of prophages on conjugation, we combined experiments and mathematical modelling. Using E. coli, prophage lambda...

Gruppenbildungen burgundischer Bischöfe im Hochmittelalter

Johannes Luther
1000 Worte Forschung: Dissertation (Geschichte des Mittelalters) mit dem Titel „Reformer und Vermittler. Bischöfliche Gruppenbildungen und Vernetzungen im burgundischen Raum, 1032–1156“, verteidigt im Juni 2021 an der Universität Zürich.

Registration Year

  • 2022
    42

Resource Types

  • Dataset
    33
  • Book Chapter
    4
  • Image
    4
  • Journal Article
    1

Affiliations

  • University of Zurich
    42
  • University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill
    2
  • University of Florida
    2
  • Chinese Academy of Sciences
    2
  • University of Salzburg
    2
  • Zurich University of Applied Sciences
    2
  • Southern Cross University
    1
  • Centre national de la recherche scientifique
    1
  • Estación Biológica de Doñana
    1
  • Binghamton University
    1